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Please make sure you run ./ first.

General commands

Inspect stream

To see some details:

./s/mediainfo /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4

To see full details:

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4
# I don't know why Details is not on man page

To see only the frame, slice types:

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 | grep slice_type


From mp4 to ts:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4  /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.ts

From mp4 to ts explicitly telling to copy audio and video codec:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:a copy -c:v copy  /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.ts


From h264 to vp9:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libvpx-vp9 -c:a libvorbis /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_vp9.webm

From h264 to h265:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx265 /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h265.mp4

From h264 to h264 with I-frame at each second (for a 30FPS video):

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second.mp4

Count how many I-slice (keyframes) were inserted:

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second.mp4 | grep "slice_type I" | wc -l

Split and merge smoothly

To work with smaller videos you can split the whole video into segments and you can also merge then after.

# spliting into several likely 2s segments
./s/ffmpeg -fflags +genpts -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -map 0 -c copy -f segment -segment_format mp4 -segment_time 2 -segment_list video.ffcat -reset_timestamps 1 -v error chunk-%03d.mp4

# joining them 
./s/ffmpeg -y -v error -i video.ffcat -map 0 -c copy output.mp4

1 I-Frames per second vs 0.5 I-Frames per second

From h264 to h264 with I-frame at each second (for a 30FPS video):

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_one_second.mp4

From h264 to h264 with I-frame at each two seconds (for a 30FPS video):

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=60:min-keyint=60:no-scenecut=1 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_two_seconds.mp4

1 I-frame and the rest P-Frames

Generates a video with a single I frame and the rest are P frames.

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=300:min-keyint=300:no-scenecut=1:bframes=0 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_single_I_rest_P.mp4

You can check if that's true:

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_single_I_rest_P.mp4 | grep "slice_type I" | wc -l

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_single_I_rest_P.mp4 | grep "slice_type P" | wc -l

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_single_I_rest_P.mp4 | grep "slice_type B" | wc -l

No B-frames at all

Generates a video with 0 B-frames.

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1:bframes=0 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_zero_b_frames.mp4

Check if that's right and also compare the size.

./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_zero_b_frames.mp4 | grep "slice_type B" | wc -l

ls -lah v/


Generates h264 using CAVLC (faster, less cpu intensive, less compression):

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1:no-cabac=1 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second_CAVLC.mp4

Generates h264 using CABAC ("slower", more cpu intensive, more compression):

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1:coder=1 -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second_CABAC.mp4


CBR from 1928 kbps to 964 kbps:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -b:v 964K -minrate 964K -maxrate 964K -bufsize 2000K  /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_transrating_964.mp4

Constrained VBR or ABR from 1928 kbps to max=3856 kbps ,min=964 kbps:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -minrate 964K -maxrate 3856K -bufsize 2000K  /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_transrating_964_3856.mp4


From 1080p to 480p:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -vf scale=480:-1 /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_transsizing_480.mp4


Extracting audio from container:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -vn -c:a copy /files/v/small_bunny_audio.aac


Joining audio with video:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_audio.aac -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_muxed.mp4

Generates YUV histogram

It generates a video with color histogram as an overlay.

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -vf "split=2[a][b],[b]histogram,format=yuv420p[hh],[a][hh]overlay" /files/v/small_bunny_yuv_histogram.mp4

Generate debug video

It generates a video with macro blocks debug over the video. Please refer to to understand the meaning of each block color.

./s/ffmpeg -debug vis_mb_type -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_vis_mb.mp4

It generates a video with motion vector over the video.

./s/ffmpeg -flags2 +export_mvs -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -vf codecview=mv=pf+bf+bb /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_vis_mv.mp4

Generate images from video

Get images from 1s video:

./s/ffmpeg -y -i /files/v/bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -ss 00:01:24 -t 00:00:01  /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_%3d.jpg

Generate video from images

# from one image
./s/ffmpeg -loop 1 -i /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_001.jpg -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -t 10 /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_frame_001.mp4

# from multiple images (repeating 10s)
./s/ffmpeg -loop 1 -i /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_%03d.jpg -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p -t 10 /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_from_images.mp4

Generate a single frame video

It generates a single frame video which is great for learning and analysis.

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/minimal.png -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/minimal_yuv420.mp4

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/minimal.png  /files/v/minimal_yuv444.mp4

# we can inspect h264 bitstream
./s/mediainfo --Details /files/v/minimal_yuv420.mp4  | less

Generate a simple video

It generates a video from a sequence of images.

# 2 simple images with white background
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/solid_background_ball_%d.png -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/solid_background_ball_yuv420.mp4

# 4 simple images with background
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/smw_background_ball_%d.png -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/smw_background_ball_yuv420.mp4

# 4 white images as a video (great to test predicitons)

for i in {1..4}; do cp i/solid_background.png i/solid_background_$i.png; done
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/solid_background_%d.png -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/solid_background_yuv420.mp4

Generate a single frame h264 bitstream

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/i/minimal.png -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/minimal_yuv420.h264

# you can check the raw h264 bit stream
hexdump  v/minimal_yuv420.h264

Audio sampling

From original to 8kHz:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -ar 8000 /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_8khz.mp4

Audio bit depth

From original to 8 bits:

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -sample_fmt:0:1 u8p /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_8bits.mp4 -y

Technically speaking, bit depth is only meaningful when applied to pure PCM devices. Non-PCM formats, such as lossy compression systems like MP3, have bit depths that are not defined in the same sense as PCM. In lossy audio compression, where bits are allocated to other types of information, the bits actually allocated to individual samples are allowed to fluctuate within the constraints imposed by the allocation algorithm.

Adaptive bitrate streaming

HLS streaming:

A VOD stream with 1s chunk size

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second.mp4 -c:a copy -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 -hls_playlist_type vod -hls_time 1 /files/v/playlist_keyframe_each_second.m3u8

Playlists for 720p(2628kbs), 480p(480p1128kbs) and 240p(264kbs) streams

./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/small_bunny_1080p_30fps_h264_keyframe_each_second.mp4 \
             -c:a copy -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 \
             -b:v 2500k -s 1280x720 -profile:v high -hls_time 1 -hls_playlist_type vod /files/v/720p2628kbs.m3u8 \
             -c:a copy -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 \
             -b:v 1000k -s 854x480 -profile:v high -hls_time 1 -hls_playlist_type vod /files/v/480p1128kbs.m3u8 \
             -c:a copy -c:v libx264 -x264-params keyint=30:min-keyint=30:no-scenecut=1 \
             -b:v 200k -s 426x240 -profile:v high -hls_time 1 -hls_playlist_type vod /files/v/240p264kbs.m3u8

The variant playlist

cat <<EOF > v/variant.m3u8

Video quality perception

You can learn more about vmaf and general video quality perception.

# generating a 2 seconds example video
./s/ffmpeg -y -i /files/v/bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -ss 00:01:24 -t 00:00:02  /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4

# generate a transcoded video (600kbps vp9)
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v libvpx-vp9 -b:v 600K -c:a libvorbis /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_vp9.webm

# extract the yuv (yuv420p) color space from them
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps.mp4 -c:v rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps.yuv
./s/ffmpeg -i /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_vp9.webm -c:v rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_vp9.yuv

# run vmaf original h264 vs transcoded vp9
./s/vmaf run_vmaf yuv420p 1080 720 /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps.yuv /files/v/smallest_bunny_1080p_30fps_vp9.yuv --out-fmt json

FFMpeg as a library

There are some documentations, examples and tutorials:

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