A Functional and Performance Test Framework for Distributed Systems
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.


Zopkio - A Functional and Performance Test Framework for Distributed Systems

https://travis-ci.org/linkedin/Zopkio.svg?branch=master https://coveralls.io/repos/linkedin/Zopkio/badge.svg?branch=master&service=github

Zopkio is a test framework built to support at scale performance and functional testing.


Zopkio is distributed via pip

To install::
(sudo) pip install zopkio

If you want to work with the latest code:

git clone git@github.com:linkedin/zopkio.git
cd zopkio

Once you have downloaded the code you can run the zopkio unit tests:

python setup.py test

Or you can install zopkio and run the sample test:

(sudo) python setup.py install
zopkio examples/server_client/server_client.py

N.B the example code assumes you can ssh into your own box using your ssh keys so if your are having issues with the tests failing check your authorized_keys.

In the past there have been issues installing one of our dependencies (Naarad) if you encounter errors installing naarad see https://github.com/linkedin/naarad/wiki/Installation

Basic usage

Use the zopkio main script:

zopkio testfile

Zopkio takes several optional arguments:

--test-only [TEST_LIST [TEST_LIST ...]]
                      run only the named tests to help debug broken tests
--machine-list [MACHINE_LIST [MACHINE_LIST ...]]
                      mapping of logical host names to physical names
                      allowing the same test suite to run on different
                      hardware, each argument is a pair of logical name and
                      physical name separated by a =
--config-overrides [CONFIG_OVERRIDES [CONFIG_OVERRIDES ...]]
                      config overrides at execution time, each argument is a
                      config with its value separated by a =. This has the
                      highest priority of all configs
-d OUTPUT_DIR, --output-dir OUTPUT_DIR
                      Specify the output directory for logs and test results.
                      By default, Zopkio will write to the current directory.
--log-level LOG_LEVEL
                    Log level (default INFO)
--console-log-level CONSOLE_LEVEL
                      Console Log level (default ERROR)
--nopassword          Disable password prompt
--user USER           user to run the test as (defaults to current user)

Testing with Zopkio

Zopkio provides the ability to write tests that combine performance and functional testing across a distributed service or services. Writing tests using Zopkio should be nearly as simple as writing tests in xUnit or Nose etc. A test suite will consist of a single file specifying four required pieces:

  1. A deployment file
  2. One or more test files
  3. A dynamic configuration file
  4. A config directory

For simplicity in the first iteratation this is assumed to be json or a python file with a dictionary called test.


The deployment file should be pointed to by an entry in the dictionary called deployment_code. Deplyoment is one of the key features of Zopkio. Developers can write test in which they bring up arbtrary sets of services on multiple machines and then within the tests exercise a considerable degree of control over these machines. The deployment section of code will be similar to deployment in other test frameworks but because of the increased complexity and the expectation of reuse across multiple test suites, it can be broken into its own file.

A deployment file can contain four functions:

  1. setup_suite
  2. setup
  3. teardown
  4. teardown_suite

As in other test frameworks, setup_suite will run before any of tests, setup will run before each test, teardown will run if setup ran successfully regardless of the test status, and teardown_suite will run if setup_suite ran successfully regardless of any other conditions. The main distinction in the case of this framework will be in the extended libraries to support deployment.

In many cases the main task of the deployment code is creating a Deployer. This can be done using the SSHDeployer provided by the framework or through custom code. For more information about deployers see the APIs. The runtime module provides a helpful set_deployer(service_name) and get_deployer(service_name). In addition to allowing the deployers to be easily shared across functions and modules, using these functions will allow the framework to automatically handle certain tasks such as copying logs from the remote hosts. Once the deployer is created it can be used in both the setup and teardown functions to start and stop the services.

Since the setup and teardown functions run before and after each test a typical use is to restore the state of the system between tests to prevent tests from leaking bugs into other tests. If the setup or teardown fails we will skip the test and mark it as a failure. In an effort to avoid wasting time with a corrupted stack there is a configuration max_failures_per_suite_before_abort which can be set to determine how many times the frameworke will skip tests before autmatically skipping the remaining tests in that suite.

In addition the entire suite is rerun parameterized by the configurations (See configs) there is a second config max_suite_failures_before_abort which behaves similarly.

Test Files

Test files are specified by an entry in the test dictionary called test_code, which should point to a list of test files. For each test file, the framework will execute any function with test in the name (no matter the case) and track if the function executes successfully. In addition if there is a function test_foo and a function validate_foo, after all cleanup and log collection is done, if test_foo executed successfully then validate_foo will be executed and tested for successful execution if it fails, the original test will fail and the logs from the post execution will be displayed. Test can be run in either a parallel mode or a serial mode. By default tests are run serially without any specified order. However each test file may specify an attribute test_phase. A test_phase of -1 is equivalent to serial testing. Otherwise all tests with the same test_phase will be run in parallel together. Phases proceed in ascending order.

Dynamic Configuration File

The dynamic configuration component may be specified as either dynamic_configuration_code or perf_code. This module contains a number of configurations that can be used during the running of the tests to provide inputs for the test runner. The required elements are a function to return Naarad configs, and functions to return the locations of the logs to fetch from the remote hosts. There are also several configs which can be placed either in this module as attributes or in the Master config file. The main focus of this module is support for Naarad. The output of the load generation can be any format supported by Naarad including JMeter and CSV. The performacnce file can also contain rules for Naarad to use to pass/fail the general performance of a run (beyond rules specific to individual tests). To get the most from Naarad, a Naarad config file can be provided (see https://github.com/linkedin/naarad/blob/master/README.md section Usage). In order to have Naarad support the module should provide a function naarad_config(). There are also two functons machine_logs() and naarad_logs() that should return dictionaries from unique_ids to the list of logs to collect. Machine logs are the set of logs that should not be processed by naarad.


Being able to test with different configurations is extremely important. The framework distinguishes between three types of configs:

  1. master config
  2. test configs
  3. application configs

Master configs are properties which affect the way zopkio operates. Current properties that are supported include:

  • max_suite_failures_before_abort
  • max_failures_per_suite_before_abort

Test configs are properties which affect how the tests are run. They are specific to the tests test writer and accessible from runtime.get_config(config_name) which will return the stored value or the empty string if no property with that name is present. These are the properties that can be overrode by the config-overrides command line flag. some of the test configs that zopkio recognizes are:

  • loop_all_tests
  • show_all_iterations
  • verify_after_each_test

'loop_all_tests' repeats the entire test suite for that config for the specified number of times 'show_all_iterations' shows the result in test page for each iteration of the test. 'verify_after_each_test' forces the validation before moving onto the next test

Application configs are properties which affect how the remote services are configured. There is not currently an official way to copy these configs to remote hosts separately from the code, although there are several utilities to support it .

In order to allow the same tests to run over multiple configurations, the framework interprets configs accoriding to the following rules. All configs are grouped under a single folder. If this folder contains at least one subfolder, then the config files at the top level are considered defaults and for each subfolder of the top folder, the entire test suite will be run using the configs within that folder (plus the defaults and config overrides). This is the case in which max_suite_failures_before_abort will be considered. Otherwise the suite will be run once with the top level config files and overrides.

Example Tests

  1. command : zopkio examples/server_client/server_client.py
  • Runs bunch of tests with multiple clients and servers deployed
  1. command : zopkio examples/server_client/single_server_multipleiter_inorder.py --nopassword
  • The individual tests have the TEST_PHASE set to be 1,2,3 respectively. This enforces order.
  • To run multiple iterations set loop_all_tests to be <value> in config.json file
  • To validate each run of the test before moving to next one set verify_after_each_test in configs
  • To show the pass/fail for each iteration set show_all_iterations to be true in configs
  • sample settings to get mulitple runs for this test
  1. "show_all_iterations":true,
  2. "verify_after_each_test":true,
  3. "loop_all_tests":2,
  1. command : zopkio examples/server_client/server_client_multiple_iteration.py
  • The base_tests_multiple_iteration.py module has TEST_ITER parameter set to 2.
  • This repeats all the tests twice but does not enfore any ordering
  1. command : zopkio examples/server_client/client_resilience.py
  • This is an example of the test recipe feature of zopkio. See test_recipes.py for recipe and test_resilience.py for example used here
  • This tests the kill_recovery recipe to which you pass the deployer, process list, optional restart func, recovery func and timeout
  • Zopkio will kill a random process of the deployer and verifies if the system can recover correctly based on recovery function before the timeout value