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#!/usr/bin/python
# encoding: utf-8
#
# Copyright 2017 Greg Neagle.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
#
# Thanks to Tim Sutton for ideas, suggestions, and sample code.
#
'''installinstallmacos.py
A tool to download the parts for an Install macOS app from Apple's
softwareupdate servers and install a functioning Install macOS app onto an
empty disk image'''
import argparse
import gzip
import os
import plistlib
import subprocess
import sys
import urlparse
import xattr
from xml.dom import minidom
from xml.parsers.expat import ExpatError
DEFAULT_SUCATALOGS = {
'17': 'https://swscan.apple.com/content/catalogs/others/'
'index-10.13-10.12-10.11-10.10-10.9'
'-mountainlion-lion-snowleopard-leopard.merged-1.sucatalog',
'18': 'https://swscan.apple.com/content/catalogs/others/'
'index-10.14-10.13-10.12-10.11-10.10-10.9'
'-mountainlion-lion-snowleopard-leopard.merged-1.sucatalog',
}
SEED_CATALOGS_PLIST = (
'/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Seeding.framework/Versions/Current/'
'Resources/SeedCatalogs.plist'
)
def get_seeding_program(sucatalog_url):
'''Returns a seeding program name based on the sucatalog_url'''
try:
seed_catalogs = plistlib.readPlist(SEED_CATALOGS_PLIST)
for key, value in seed_catalogs.items():
if sucatalog_url == value:
return key
return ''
except (OSError, ExpatError, AttributeError, KeyError):
return ''
def get_seed_catalog(seedname='DeveloperSeed'):
'''Returns the developer seed sucatalog'''
try:
seed_catalogs = plistlib.readPlist(SEED_CATALOGS_PLIST)
return seed_catalogs.get(seedname)
except (OSError, ExpatError, AttributeError, KeyError):
return ''
def get_seeding_programs():
'''Returns the list of seeding program names'''
try:
seed_catalogs = plistlib.readPlist(SEED_CATALOGS_PLIST)
return seed_catalogs.keys()
except (OSError, ExpatError, AttributeError, KeyError):
return ''
def get_default_catalog():
'''Returns the default softwareupdate catalog for the current OS'''
darwin_major = os.uname()[2].split('.')[0]
return DEFAULT_SUCATALOGS.get(darwin_major)
def make_sparse_image(volume_name, output_path):
'''Make a sparse disk image we can install a product to'''
cmd = ['/usr/bin/hdiutil', 'create', '-size', '8g', '-fs', 'HFS+',
'-volname', volume_name, '-type', 'SPARSE', '-plist', output_path]
try:
output = subprocess.check_output(cmd)
except subprocess.CalledProcessError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, err
exit(-1)
try:
return plistlib.readPlistFromString(output)[0]
except IndexError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Unexpected output from hdiutil: %s' % output
exit(-1)
except ExpatError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Malformed output from hdiutil: %s' % output
print >> sys.stderr, err
exit(-1)
def make_compressed_dmg(app_path, diskimagepath):
"""Returns path to newly-created compressed r/o disk image containing
Install macOS.app"""
print ('Making read-only compressed disk image containing %s...'
% os.path.basename(app_path))
cmd = ['/usr/bin/hdiutil', 'create', '-fs', 'HFS+',
'-srcfolder', app_path, diskimagepath]
try:
subprocess.check_call(cmd)
except subprocess.CalledProcessError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, err
else:
print 'Disk image created at: %s' % diskimagepath
def mountdmg(dmgpath):
"""
Attempts to mount the dmg at dmgpath and returns first mountpoint
"""
mountpoints = []
dmgname = os.path.basename(dmgpath)
cmd = ['/usr/bin/hdiutil', 'attach', dmgpath,
'-mountRandom', '/tmp', '-nobrowse', '-plist',
'-owners', 'on']
proc = subprocess.Popen(cmd, bufsize=-1,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
(pliststr, err) = proc.communicate()
if proc.returncode:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Error: "%s" while mounting %s.' % (err, dmgname)
return None
if pliststr:
plist = plistlib.readPlistFromString(pliststr)
for entity in plist['system-entities']:
if 'mount-point' in entity:
mountpoints.append(entity['mount-point'])
return mountpoints[0]
def unmountdmg(mountpoint):
"""
Unmounts the dmg at mountpoint
"""
proc = subprocess.Popen(['/usr/bin/hdiutil', 'detach', mountpoint],
bufsize=-1, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
(dummy_output, err) = proc.communicate()
if proc.returncode:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Polite unmount failed: %s' % err
print >> sys.stderr, 'Attempting to force unmount %s' % mountpoint
# try forcing the unmount
retcode = subprocess.call(['/usr/bin/hdiutil', 'detach', mountpoint,
'-force'])
if retcode:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Failed to unmount %s' % mountpoint
def install_product(dist_path, target_vol):
'''Install a product to a target volume.
Returns a boolean to indicate success or failure.'''
cmd = ['/usr/sbin/installer', '-pkg', dist_path, '-target', target_vol]
try:
subprocess.check_call(cmd)
return True
except subprocess.CalledProcessError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, err
return False
class ReplicationError(Exception):
'''A custom error when replication fails'''
pass
def replicate_url(full_url,
root_dir='/tmp',
show_progress=False,
ignore_cache=False,
attempt_resume=False):
'''Downloads a URL and stores it in the same relative path on our
filesystem. Returns a path to the replicated file.'''
path = urlparse.urlsplit(full_url)[2]
relative_url = path.lstrip('/')
relative_url = os.path.normpath(relative_url)
local_file_path = os.path.join(root_dir, relative_url)
if show_progress:
options = '-fL'
else:
options = '-sfL'
curl_cmd = ['/usr/bin/curl', options, '--create-dirs',
'-o', local_file_path]
if not ignore_cache and os.path.exists(local_file_path):
curl_cmd.extend(['-z', local_file_path])
if attempt_resume:
curl_cmd.extend(['-C', '-'])
curl_cmd.append(full_url)
print "Downloading %s..." % full_url
try:
subprocess.check_call(curl_cmd)
except subprocess.CalledProcessError, err:
raise ReplicationError(err)
return local_file_path
def parse_server_metadata(filename):
'''Parses a softwareupdate server metadata file, looking for information
of interest.
Returns a dictionary containing title, version, and description.'''
title = ''
vers = ''
try:
md_plist = plistlib.readPlist(filename)
except (OSError, IOError, ExpatError), err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Error reading %s: %s' % (filename, err)
return {}
vers = md_plist.get('CFBundleShortVersionString', '')
localization = md_plist.get('localization', {})
preferred_localization = (localization.get('English') or
localization.get('en'))
if preferred_localization:
title = preferred_localization.get('title', '')
metadata = {}
metadata['title'] = title
metadata['version'] = vers
return metadata
def get_server_metadata(catalog, product_key, workdir, ignore_cache=False):
'''Replicate ServerMetaData'''
try:
url = catalog['Products'][product_key]['ServerMetadataURL']
try:
smd_path = replicate_url(
url, root_dir=workdir, ignore_cache=ignore_cache)
return smd_path
except ReplicationError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Could not replicate %s: %s' % (url, err))
return None
except KeyError:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Malformed catalog.'
return None
def parse_dist(filename):
'''Parses a softwareupdate dist file, returning a dict of info of
interest'''
dist_info = {}
try:
dom = minidom.parse(filename)
except ExpatError:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Invalid XML in %s' % filename
return dist_info
except IOError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Error reading %s: %s' % (filename, err)
return dist_info
auxinfos = dom.getElementsByTagName('auxinfo')
if not auxinfos:
return dist_info
auxinfo = auxinfos[0]
key = None
value = None
children = auxinfo.childNodes
# handle the possibility that keys from auxinfo may be nested
# within a 'dict' element
dict_nodes = [n for n in auxinfo.childNodes
if n.nodeType == n.ELEMENT_NODE and
n.tagName == 'dict']
if dict_nodes:
children = dict_nodes[0].childNodes
for node in children:
if node.nodeType == node.ELEMENT_NODE and node.tagName == 'key':
key = node.firstChild.wholeText
if node.nodeType == node.ELEMENT_NODE and node.tagName == 'string':
value = node.firstChild.wholeText
if key and value:
dist_info[key] = value
key = None
value = None
return dist_info
def download_and_parse_sucatalog(sucatalog, workdir, ignore_cache=False):
'''Downloads and returns a parsed softwareupdate catalog'''
try:
localcatalogpath = replicate_url(
sucatalog, root_dir=workdir, ignore_cache=ignore_cache)
except ReplicationError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Could not replicate %s: %s' % (sucatalog, err)
exit(-1)
if os.path.splitext(localcatalogpath)[1] == '.gz':
with gzip.open(localcatalogpath) as the_file:
content = the_file.read()
try:
catalog = plistlib.readPlistFromString(content)
return catalog
except ExpatError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Error reading %s: %s' % (localcatalogpath, err))
exit(-1)
else:
try:
catalog = plistlib.readPlist(localcatalogpath)
return catalog
except (OSError, IOError, ExpatError), err:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Error reading %s: %s' % (localcatalogpath, err))
exit(-1)
def find_mac_os_installers(catalog):
'''Return a list of product identifiers for what appear to be macOS
installers'''
mac_os_installer_products = []
if 'Products' in catalog:
product_keys = list(catalog['Products'].keys())
for product_key in product_keys:
product = catalog['Products'][product_key]
try:
if product['ExtendedMetaInfo'][
'InstallAssistantPackageIdentifiers'][
'OSInstall'] == 'com.apple.mpkg.OSInstall':
mac_os_installer_products.append(product_key)
except KeyError:
continue
return mac_os_installer_products
def os_installer_product_info(catalog, workdir, ignore_cache=False):
'''Returns a dict of info about products that look like macOS installers'''
product_info = {}
installer_products = find_mac_os_installers(catalog)
for product_key in installer_products:
product_info[product_key] = {}
filename = get_server_metadata(catalog, product_key, workdir)
product_info[product_key] = parse_server_metadata(filename)
product = catalog['Products'][product_key]
product_info[product_key]['PostDate'] = product['PostDate']
distributions = product['Distributions']
dist_url = distributions.get('English') or distributions.get('en')
try:
dist_path = replicate_url(
dist_url, root_dir=workdir, ignore_cache=ignore_cache)
except ReplicationError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Could not replicate %s: %s' % (dist_url, err)
dist_info = parse_dist(dist_path)
product_info[product_key]['DistributionPath'] = dist_path
product_info[product_key].update(dist_info)
return product_info
def replicate_product(catalog, product_id, workdir, ignore_cache=False):
'''Downloads all the packages for a product'''
product = catalog['Products'][product_id]
for package in product.get('Packages', []):
# TO-DO: Check 'Size' attribute and make sure
# we have enough space on the target
# filesystem before attempting to download
if 'URL' in package:
try:
replicate_url(
package['URL'], root_dir=workdir,
show_progress=True, ignore_cache=ignore_cache,
attempt_resume=(not ignore_cache))
except ReplicationError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Could not replicate %s: %s' % (package['URL'], err))
exit(-1)
if 'MetadataURL' in package:
try:
replicate_url(package['MetadataURL'], root_dir=workdir,
ignore_cache=ignore_cache)
except ReplicationError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Could not replicate %s: %s'
% (package['MetadataURL'], err))
exit(-1)
def find_installer_app(mountpoint):
'''Returns the path to the Install macOS app on the mountpoint'''
applications_dir = os.path.join(mountpoint, 'Applications')
for item in os.listdir(applications_dir):
if item.endswith('.app'):
return os.path.join(applications_dir, item)
return None
def main():
'''Do the main thing here'''
if os.getuid() != 0:
sys.exit('This command requires root (to install packages), so please '
'run again with sudo or as root.')
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('--seedprogram', default='',
help='Which Seed Program catalog to use. Valid values '
'are %s.' % ', '.join(get_seeding_programs()))
parser.add_argument('--catalogurl', default='',
help='Software Update catalog URL. This option '
'overrides any seedprogram option.')
parser.add_argument('--workdir', metavar='path_to_working_dir',
default='.',
help='Path to working directory on a volume with over '
'10G of available space. Defaults to current working '
'directory.')
parser.add_argument('--compress', action='store_true',
help='Output a read-only compressed disk image with '
'the Install macOS app at the root. This is now the '
'default. Use --raw to get a read-write sparse image '
'with the app in the Applications directory.')
parser.add_argument('--raw', action='store_true',
help='Output a read-write sparse image '
'with the app in the Applications directory. Requires '
'less available disk space and is faster.')
parser.add_argument('--ignore-cache', action='store_true',
help='Ignore any previously cached files.')
args = parser.parse_args()
if args.catalogurl:
su_catalog_url = args.catalogurl
elif args.seedprogram:
su_catalog_url = get_seed_catalog(args.seedprogram)
if not su_catalog_url:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Could not find a catalog url for seed program %s'
% args.seedprogram)
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Valid seeding programs are: %s'
% ', '.join(get_seeding_programs()))
exit(-1)
else:
su_catalog_url = get_default_catalog()
if not su_catalog_url:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'Could not find a default catalog url for this OS version.')
exit(-1)
# download sucatalog and look for products that are for macOS installers
catalog = download_and_parse_sucatalog(
su_catalog_url, args.workdir, ignore_cache=args.ignore_cache)
product_info = os_installer_product_info(
catalog, args.workdir, ignore_cache=args.ignore_cache)
if not product_info:
print >> sys.stderr, (
'No macOS installer products found in the sucatalog.')
exit(-1)
# display a menu of choices (some seed catalogs have multiple installers)
print '%2s %12s %10s %8s %11s %s' % ('#', 'ProductID', 'Version',
'Build', 'Post Date', 'Title')
for index, product_id in enumerate(product_info):
print '%2s %12s %10s %8s %11s %s' % (
index + 1,
product_id,
product_info[product_id]['version'],
product_info[product_id]['BUILD'],
product_info[product_id]['PostDate'].strftime('%Y-%m-%d'),
product_info[product_id]['title']
)
answer = raw_input(
'\nChoose a product to download (1-%s): ' % len(product_info))
try:
index = int(answer) - 1
if index < 0:
raise ValueError
product_id = product_info.keys()[index]
except (ValueError, IndexError):
print 'Exiting.'
exit(0)
# download all the packages for the selected product
replicate_product(
catalog, product_id, args.workdir, ignore_cache=args.ignore_cache)
# generate a name for the sparseimage
volname = ('Install_macOS_%s-%s'
% (product_info[product_id]['version'],
product_info[product_id]['BUILD']))
sparse_diskimage_path = os.path.join(args.workdir, volname + '.sparseimage')
if os.path.exists(sparse_diskimage_path):
os.unlink(sparse_diskimage_path)
# make an empty sparseimage and mount it
print 'Making empty sparseimage...'
sparse_diskimage_path = make_sparse_image(volname, sparse_diskimage_path)
mountpoint = mountdmg(sparse_diskimage_path)
if mountpoint:
# install the product to the mounted sparseimage volume
success = install_product(
product_info[product_id]['DistributionPath'],
mountpoint)
if not success:
print >> sys.stderr, 'Product installation failed.'
unmountdmg(mountpoint)
exit(-1)
# add the seeding program xattr to the app if applicable
seeding_program = get_seeding_program(args.catalogurl)
if seeding_program:
installer_app = find_installer_app(mountpoint)
if installer_app:
xattr.setxattr(installer_app, 'SeedProgram', seeding_program)
print 'Product downloaded and installed to %s' % sparse_diskimage_path
if args.raw:
unmountdmg(mountpoint)
else:
# if --raw option not given, create a r/o compressed diskimage
# containing the Install macOS app
compressed_diskimagepath = os.path.join(
args.workdir, volname + '.dmg')
if os.path.exists(compressed_diskimagepath):
os.unlink(compressed_diskimagepath)
app_path = find_installer_app(mountpoint)
if app_path:
make_compressed_dmg(app_path, compressed_diskimagepath)
# unmount sparseimage
unmountdmg(mountpoint)
# delete sparseimage since we don't need it any longer
os.unlink(sparse_diskimage_path)
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()