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  • Feature Name: fields_in_traits
  • Start Date: 2016-03-10
  • RFC PR: (leave this empty)
  • Rust Issue: (leave this empty)


The primary change proposed here is to allow fields within traits and then permit access to those fields within generic functions and from trait objects:

  • trait Trait { field: usize }
  • Implementing type can "direct" this field to any lvalue within itself
  • All fields within a trait or its supertraits must be mapped to disjoint locations

Fields serve as a better alternative to accessor functions in traits. They are more compatible with Rust's safety checks than accessors, but also more efficient when using trait objects.

Many of the ideas here were originally proposed in RFC 250 in some form. As such, they represent an important "piece of the puzzle" towards solving the "virtual struct" problem.


The change proposed here is to allow field declarations within traits. These fields are mapped to lvalues within the implementing type. This change can be put to many uses:

  1. Mix-ins that combine behavioral changes along with a certain amount of stage and storage.
  2. Alleviating some of the problems that accompany accessors.
  3. More efficient trait objects that permit direct field access.
  4. Modeling class hierachies; along with specialization, this RFC forms an important step towards a solution to the "virtual struct" problem. (The Future Directions section at the end of this RFC elaborates on this point.)

Before we dive into the proposal proper, it's worth exploring why the existing solution for field access in traits (accessor fns) is not good enough.

Granting access to fields in traits: accessors are not enough

If you wish to have a trait that exposes access to a field today, the only way to do is via methods. For example, one could define a trait with two accessors:

struct Point { x: f64, y: 64 }

trait GuiNode {
    fn location(&self) -> Point;
    fn set_location(&mut self, p: Point);

Accessors have a number of disadvantages. Of course there is the obvious one: they are tedious to define and to use. Writing node.location().x and node.set_location(p) is simply less nice than node.location.x and node.location = p. This has led many languages to adopt syntactic sugar by which the latter can be automatically translated to the former. However, there are other disadvantages that are more specific to Rust:

  1. Accessors interact poorly with the borrow checker.
  2. Accessors have poor performance for trait objects.

Accessors interact poorly with the borrow checker

Consider the accessor pair location and set_location above. Whenever I call location, I get back a freshly owned copy of the Point. This is fine for a type like Point, but it could be quite expensive for fields whose types are not so cheaply cloneable. For example, imagine that each GuiNode also has a field children of type Vec<Box<GuiNode>>. We probably don't want accessors like these:

trait GuiNode {
    // Probably *NOT* what you want:
    fn children(&self) -> Vec<Children>;
    fn set_children(&mut self, children: Vec<Children>);

    // (Just as before)
    fn location(&self) -> Point;
    fn set_location(&mut self, p: Point);

In particular, if I have defined my children accessors like those, I have no choice but to implement them with deep clones:

impl GuiNode for Layer {
    // Cheap for `Copy` types:
    fn location(&self) -> Point {
    fn set_location(&mut self, p: Point) {
        self.location = p;

    // Not so cheap for types like `Vec`:
    fn children(&self) -> Vec<Children> {
    fn set_children(&mut self, children: Vec<Children>) {
        self.children = children;

Deeply cloning fields every time you want to access them is clearly too expensive to do in general (though it may be fine in some instances).

You might think that that it would be better to define the accessors to return references to the vector, rather than cloning the vector itself:

trait GuiNode {
    // Returning references is better, but still (as we will see) not great:
    fn children(&self) -> &Vec<Children>;
    fn children_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Vec<Children>;

    // (Just as before)
    fn location(&self) -> Point;
    fn set_location(&mut self, p: Point);

Indeed, this does solve the deep-cloning problem, but now we have another problem. Returning references like this interacts somewhat poorly with the borrow checker rules. In particular, if I call (say) children(), this will effectively "freeze" the GuiNode for the lifetime of the returned reference. In other words, while I am reading the children array, I can't be doing mutating anything else with the GuiNode. So, if I wanted to walk the list of children and update the location as I did so, I would wind up with a borrow checking error:

fn tile<G:GuiNode>(node: &mut G) {
    for c in node.children() {
        ... node.set_location() ...  // ERROR

This is unfortunate, since if I was using an actual struct with real fields, code like that would be perfectly fine:

fn tile(node: &mut Layer) {
    for c in node.children {
        ... node.location = x; ...  // OK!

The reason that the borrow checker accepts the code when written with actual fields but not when written with accessors is that it knows precisely what reading and writing a field does: it mutates the memory of the field and that's it. An accessor, in contrast, could do anything. That is, even though set_location sounds like it just updates the location field, the borrow checker can't be sure that it doesn't go off and modify the children array too. For example, maybe there is some GUI node that always keeps its childrens at the same relative location:

impl GuiNode for RelocatingLayer {
    fn set_location(&mut self, p: Point) {
        let relative = p - self.location;
        self.location = p;

        // Adjust locations of children:
        for child in &mut self.children {
            let new_position = child.position() + relative;

A method like that would mean that our generic function was unsafe, because we now have both a & and &mut reference to the same children array!

Accessors have poor performance for trait objects

Another downside of accessors is that you are forced to write method calls where what you really want is field accesses. In generic code using bounds, those calls will be statically dispatched, and hence one can expect inlining. However, when using trait objects, inlining is typically not possible, which means calls like child.set_position(x) will be significantly more expensive than a field assignment like child.position = x.

This reveals one area where Rust lacks expressiveness compared to C++ or Java. A traditional class hierarchy allows you to insert fields (public or otherwise) at any point. These fields can be accessed with equal efficiency even if you don't know the exact runtime type of the object. In Rust, in contrast, you can only access fields if you have a concrete struct type; whenever you have a trait object, you can only use methods.

The tradeoff: flexibility vs performance and safety

There is a tradeoff here. Rust traits, like Java interfaces, were originally designed for maximum abstraction in mind. On that axis, accessors are clearly superior, since they allow a "field access" like position() or set_position() to require arbitrary computation or have arbitrary side effects. However, it is precisely that flexibility which leads to the two downsides cited above:

  1. The borrow checker must be more conservative because it does not, and cannot, know what that two accessors like children() and set_position() affect disjoint sets of fields.1
  2. The code generated must use a virtual call because it does not, and cannot, know how any particular object plans to implement set_children().

In a truly generic trait intended for implementation by arbitrary other types, this tradeoff for maximum flexibility is probably still a good idea. However, there are many cases where the flexibility to make accessors do arbitrary things (as opposed to simply access fields) is really not needed. Examples include traits that are local to a project (as opposed to public interfaces) as well as attempts to model class-like hierarchies. It seems best to leave this decision in the hands of the trait designer.

Detailed design

Fields in traits

We extend traits with an optional "field block", which has the same structure as the contents of a struct (that is, a comma-separated list of fields; this RFC also adds the notation of a embedded prefix, described below). If following by further items, the Field block is terminated by a semicolon, but otherwise the semicolon may be omitted if the field block is the last item in the trait.

trait Trait {
    field1: Type1, // <-- fields within a block separated by commas.
    field2: Type2  // <-- no semicolon needed if there are no more items

trait Trait {
    field1: Type1,
    field2: Type2; // <-- semicolon terminates the field block

    fn foo();

NB. It might be simpler to just require semicolons after fields, or else require that they appear at the end of a trait definition. The intention was that you should be able to copy-and-paste the contents of a struct into a trait.

Impls with fields

Impls are also extended with a field block, which maps field names to lvalues:

impl Trait for Type {
    field2: self.baz       // <-- optional terminating semicolon, as before

Trait fields cannot be mapped to arbitrary lvalues. Rather, the lvalue expression must be an expression of the form self(.F)* where F represents some field name (possibly a fully qualified one, see below). In other words, self.a.b.c would be legal, but (*self.a.b).c would not; nor would self.a[b]. Furthermore, the lvalue expression must not contain any implicit derefs.

These rules serve to ensure the following properties:

  1. the lvalue is located within the self value with some fixed pointer offset;
  2. borrowck can easily evaluate whether two field mappings are disjoint.

In the future, we might consider various extensions:

  • The ability to index into fixed-length arrays with a constant index. However, it would be best to couple that with a general overhaul of constant evaluation (and probably an extension of borrowck to understand expressions of this form more broadly).
  • The ability to deref. This was excluded so as not to complicate field access in trait objects, but it could be that traits with lvalues that require passing through a reference are simply not considered object safe.

Disjointness rules

The field mappings within an impl must be disjoint from other field mappings within that same impl, or within super-trait impls. More specifically, if there is some impl containing a field mapping like so:

impl<...> Trait<U,V> for T {
   field: lvalue,

then lvalue must be disjoint (defined below) from the lvalues found in all other field mappings within that impl. Furthermore, lvalue must be disjoint from the lvalues mapped in supertrait impls.

Note that if a trait has two unrelated supertraits, the fields of those supertraits do not have to be disjoint. This can be used to form arbitrary disjointness relationships. For example, imagine that we have some type Foo that implements the trait C shown below:

trait A {
    f: u32,
    g: u32, // must be disjoint from f

trait B {
    h: u32, // can overlap with f and g

trait C: A + B {
    i: u32, // must be disjoint from f, g, and h

As the comments suggest, Foo could map A::f and B::h to the same lvalue if it wanted to, but it must map A::f, A::g, and C::i to mutually disjoint lvalues.

Definition of "disjoint"

Two lvalues are considered "disjoint" if the borrow checker would allow &mut borrows of them simultaneously. This is typically true because they are based in different fields of the same struct.

Fully qualified field access

Generally speaking, the lookup for fields will follow the same rules as methods: if the type itself defines an "inherent" field, that field is used, but otherwise we search for in-scope traits that implement the trait and define a field with that name. Sometimes it may be necessary or desirable to specify the trait explicitly. For those cases, we introduce a fully qualified field notation which looks like x.<Trait<U,V>::f>.

This is comparable to the associated item notation <T as Trait<U,V>>::foo, but with some differences. First, the Self type is implied by the type of the left-hand side (x, in our example). Second, it is part of an lvalue expression, rather than being a path to an item.

This is obviously a point where one might bikeshed on the best syntax. Here are some alternatives that we considered and rejected:

  • x.Trait::f more closely resembles C++ and Java and could work, but it would have to be x.Trait::<U,V>::f if you wish to specify the trait's type parameters.
  • <x as Trait<U,V>>.f doesn't work because we'd need a cover grammar for types and expressions, since you cannot do not know whether x is a type or expression until you see the ..
  • x::<as Trait<U,V>>.f seems random

Leaving room for method calls

It has not escaped our notice that this same syntax could be used for method calls. This RFC does not propose that we permit that, but we do restrict the grammar of call expressions to disallow a fully qualified field path on the left-hand-side of (). In other words, just as calling a closure located at a.b.c must be written (a.b.c)() (so as to avoid ambiguity with calling a method c on the path a.b), so must you write (a.b.<Trait::c>)(); a.b.<Trait::c>() will not parse.

Field access via traits

This section covers the main rules regarding integrating trait fields into the borrow checker and other safety analyses.

When are two fields disjoint?

Today, if I access two fields of a struct like base.a and base.b, those two paths are known to be disjoint by the borrow checker. In the case where one or both of those fields is defined by a trait, we must now generalize this notion and define the criteria when two field names a and b are considered disjoint from one another (we assume both are being accessed from the same path base):

  • Both fields defined in the same struct: disjoint
  • Field a is defined in a trait A, field b is defined in a trait B: disjoint if A is a supertrait of B or vice versa (note that every trait is its own supertrait)
  • Otherwise: potentially overlapping

Moves are not allowed

For soundness reasons, we disallow moving individual fields out of values that have a defined destructor. When writing generic code, or when working with objects, one can never know whether a value has a destructor or not. Therefore, we disallow moving out of a trait field if the owner of that field may have a destructor. In practice that means that moving out from a field owned by one of these sorts of types is disallowed:

  • trait objects (e.g., Write);
  • generic type parameters (T);
  • associated type projectons (T::Output);

Field access and trait objects

Field access through a trait object is permitted. When constructing the vtable for a trait object, we will compute the offset for each field within the Self type and store it in the vtable. The compiled code from will thus be to load the offset from the vtable of object and adjust the object pointer accordingly. (Note that in the case of embedded structs, covered below, we can use a more efficient translation.)


Fields declared in traits are trait items, and hence they are public to all users of the trait. If you would like to have fields that are not accessible outside of a module, however, one can embed a struct and make the fields of that struct private:

mod x {
    pub struct TraitFields {
        f: u32 // private to `x`
    trait Trait {
        fields: TraitFields;

mod y {
    fn foo<T: Trait>(t: &T) {
        let value = t.fields.f; // ERROR: `f` is private here.

Private items in public APIs

The rules around private items in public APIs are extended as follows. Whenever a field that is private to a module M is mapped in an impl of a trait, the trait must also be private to the module M. (If the field is public, that's fine.) For example:

pub trait Trait {
    x: u32

struct Legal {
    pub y: u32

impl Trait for Legal {
    x: self.y

struct Illegal {
    z: u32

impl Trait for Illegal {
    x: self.z // ERROR: Private item in public API

This rule is slightly stronger than the rule for associated type definitions, which states that the value for an associated type must be public only if the input types to the trait are public. Fields in traits can only be mapped to public fields of self, full stop. The reason for the difference has to do with trait objects. Consider what could happen if we used the same rule that we use for associated types:

pub trait Trait {
    x: u32

mod foo {
    use Trait;
    struct Private {
        z: u32

    impl Trait for Private {
        x: self.z

    pub fn foo() -> Box<Trait> {
        Box::new(Private { z: 22 })

fn bar() {
    let mut obj = foo::foo();
    obj.x += 1; // direct access to the "private" field `z`

Here, the private type Private escapes as a trait object. The field x is then available on this trait object. Note that this sort of thing cannot occur with associated type bindings, because the value of the associated type must appear in the object type, and so if that value contains a private type, a compilation error will result. (See Addendum A for an example.)

Future directions

Although the changes proposed by this RFC stand alone, they were first considered in RFC 250, which aimed to solve the "efficient inheritance" problem. While this current RFC represents a first (and very important) step in this direction, it does not represent a complete solution. This section discusses some possible extensions we may wish to consider in the future. There is also some further discussion (and examples) in this blog post.

Embedding notation and prefix layout

Early drafts of this RFC included an "embedding" notation that allowed one struct to embed the fields of another:

struct Foo {
    /* Foo fields here */

struct Bar {
    /* add'l bar fields here */

In addition, this notation could be used in traits:

trait Baz {
    ..Bar // roughly equivalent to `bar: Bar`, but fields can be accessed directly 

The original drafts defined .. to imply "prefix" layout. This made field access through trait objects particularly efficient (no vtable access is needed). However, this was removed because it is unclear whether prefix layout (and efficient trait object access) is important enough to merit this syntax: perhaps it should be controlled through a #[repr] attribute. Moreover, prefix semantics are less composable than some other alternatives.

If one does not tie ..Foo to prefix semantics, but instead say that it just means that the trait is implemented by "some struct that itself includes a ..Foo somewhere", this also raises some interesting questions. For example, what are the semantics of having multiple instances of ..Foo in the same struct? (Perhaps inherited transitively.) In working out examples, it seemed clear that there was enough complexity here to merit a distinct RFC (and further consideration).

In any case, adding ..Foo notation does not add any expressiveness. It can always be modeled by using explicit fields, at the cost of some ergonomics.

Other changes

To use the pattern in aturon's blog post ergonomically, some other changes are needed; these changes are largely orthogonal to the current RFC. Many of these were originally proposed in RFC 250.

  • Upcasting: it must be possible to upcast a trait object into a "super-trait" object. Currently this is not supported.
  • Implicit trait coercion: it must be possible to invoke an inherent method defined on trait Foo when given an object of some type T: Foo. Without this, one could not invoke inherent methods defined on the GuiNode trait on some subtype thereof. (This same problem affects e.g. the methods on the Any trait object.)
  • Thin traits: For maximum efficiency, we should be able to declare a trait as a "thin trait". This would impose stricter orphan rules on the trait in exchange for making the size of a trait object be a single word (because the vtable can be embedded into the implementing types).
  • Super fn definitions: Specialization currently offers no equivalent to the notion of a "super fn" definition from OO languages. This means that if, e.g., a specific widget wanted to override some method on a supertrait, but also call out to the prior version, it can't easily do so. Super calls are not strictly needed thoug, as one can always refactor the super call into a free fn.


Introducing this feature offers users more choice, but with choice always comes the opportunity to choose incorrectly. For example, if one is designing an "open" trait that will be implemented by arbitrary downstream crates, then embedding a struct with ..N may well be a poor choice. That would require that any type which implements the trait also embeds N, which is very limiting. You would be better off redeclaring the fields within the trait individually, so that implementors can redirect those fields anywhere within the Self type.


Virtual structs

This RFC is part of an extended conversation about the best way to model class hierarches in Rust, often called "virtual structs". This conversation has been going for several years now and has spawned numerous proposals and RFCs, far too many to summarize in full here. Since this RFC is focused on enabling field access from trait objects, we will just focus our attention on how other proposals have handled that specific concept.

Struct bounds

As far back as this blog post, the idea of "struct bounds" has been floating around. Roughly speaking, the idea is to write struct Foo: Bar as the loose equivalent to what this RFC describes as struct Foo { ..Bar } (here Bar is a struct). This same bound Bar could also be used on type parameters and traits, so one could write fn foo<T: Bar>(t: &T) to write a function that operates over any struct which derives from Bar. (In fact, an earlier draft of this RFC adopted this approach, before eddyb convinced me it was incorrect.)

This approach is convenient, but it is limited to single inheritance. There is no way to express the idea that a certain set of fields are available, but not necessarily at the very prefix of a struct. This is in tension with the rest of the trait design, which emphasizes composability (that is, implementing one trait does not generally prevent you from implementing another).

This RFC does not include any way to specify prefix layout, though the topic is discussed in the Future Directions section briefly. (The author expects to propose another RFC including some kind of #[repr] annotations for achieving this goal.)

Extended enums

An alternative area of exploration for virtual structs has been the so-called "Extended Enums" proposal. This proposal came aim at the problem from a vastly different angle. Rather than making traits able to express lower-level features (like the presence of fields), it extended enums to support higher-level features. For example, each enum variant became its own type, and we gained the ability to specify common fields.

Interestingly, that proposal and this RFC are not necessarily in conflict. It is true that both of them can be used to model class-like patterns, but those class-like patterns have quite different features:

  • In the extended enums proposal, the class hierarchy was "closed" -- it was confined to a single crate.
    • This permits the "base classes" to be sized, if desired, much like enum types today. That is, the size of a base class can be made equal to the union of the sizes of the substructs.
      • But note that this is not always desirable, so it would be important to offer "unsized" enum types as well.
    • This also permits downcasting via exhaustive match, just like enums today.
  • In contrast, the trait-based approach defines an open hierarchy. The "abstract base class" are defined by traits, and those traits can be implemented by other crates in the usual fashion.
    • This requires "unsized" base classes, since the size of all subtypes in the hierarchy cannot be known.
    • This prevents exhaustive match downcasting.

(This dichotomy is essentially a manifestation of the classic "Expression Problem".)

Note that the "field in traits" system is compatible with an extended enum proposal in many ways. For example, if each enum variant were made into its own type, one could define a trait containing common fields and have this trait be implemented by the various enum variants. And so forth.

Protected qualifier

This RFC proposed to adapt the existing Rust privacy rules in a very minimal way. Naturally there is lots of precedent for other approaches. One obvious feature offered by many OO languages is some sort of "protected" qualifier, which would make the fields of a struct S available to structs that embed S. The protected qualifier doesn't map very naturally to Rust, since our privacy rules are based on modules (presumably if a struct T embedded another struct S, then the fields of S would be available within the module containing T?). Moreover, protected fields don't serve the state purpose of privacy in Rust: giving a strict bound on the set of files/modules where one must search for find accesses. Nonetheless, we may find a need for some kind of "semi-private" privacy construct of this form, by which downstream crates can gain access to "protected" data in an upstream crate.

Note that the pub(restricted) also suggests some stronger variations on privacy that may be useful in this context, though it does not offer the "semi-private" status of protected fields.


Many other languages offer "accessors" -- basically field syntax that invokes methods. This RFC does not completely preclude the addition of accessors, but it does make it very unlikely. The motivation section details why accessors are not deemed to be a good fit for Rust.

Unresolved questions

  • Should we permit fields in inherent impls as well? It seems like a natural extension, and might be convenient. For example, one could use private field names, and publicly offer a "simpler" set of fields. The precise disjointness rules would have to be worked out. (For example, can the fields defined in different inherent impls be overlapping?)


1: It has oft been observed that parallelism and abstraction are at odds. The problem is that to know whether two functions are safe to run in parallel, one must know what data they access and how they access it -- but abstraction is all about hiding those details. Given that memory safety and data-race freedom are both addressed by the borrow checker in Rust, it's not surprising that accessors -- which preserve abstraction -- would force it to be more conservative than fields.


Addendum A

An example of how private types cannot escape through associated types.

pub trait Trait {
    type Out;

mod foo {
    use Trait;
    struct Private { x: u32 }
    struct AlsoPrivate { y: u32 }
    impl Trait for Private {
        type Out = AlsoPrivate;
    pub fn foo() -> Box<Trait<Out=AlsoPrivate>> {
        //^ ERROR: Private type `AlsoPrivate` in public API
        Box::new(Private { x: 0 })

fn main() { }
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