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// Copyright (c) 2011 The LevelDB Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file. See the AUTHORS file for names of contributors.
//
// We recover the contents of the descriptor from the other files we find.
// (1) Any log files are first converted to tables
// (2) We scan every table to compute
// (a) smallest/largest for the table
// (b) largest sequence number in the table
// (3) We generate descriptor contents:
// - log number is set to zero
// - next-file-number is set to 1 + largest file number we found
// - last-sequence-number is set to largest sequence# found across
// all tables (see 2c)
// - compaction pointers are cleared
// - every table file is added at level 0
//
// Possible optimization 1:
// (a) Compute total size and use to pick appropriate max-level M
// (b) Sort tables by largest sequence# in the table
// (c) For each table: if it overlaps earlier table, place in level-0,
// else place in level-M.
// Possible optimization 2:
// Store per-table metadata (smallest, largest, largest-seq#, ...)
// in the table's meta section to speed up ScanTable.
#include "db/builder.h"
#include "db/db_impl.h"
#include "db/dbformat.h"
#include "db/filename.h"
#include "db/log_reader.h"
#include "db/log_writer.h"
#include "db/memtable.h"
#include "db/table_cache.h"
#include "db/version_edit.h"
#include "db/write_batch_internal.h"
#include "leveldb/comparator.h"
#include "leveldb/db.h"
#include "leveldb/env.h"
namespace leveldb {
namespace {
class Repairer {
public:
Repairer(const std::string& dbname, const Options& options)
: dbname_(dbname),
env_(options.env),
icmp_(options.comparator),
ipolicy_(options.filter_policy),
options_(SanitizeOptions(dbname, &icmp_, &ipolicy_, options)),
owns_info_log_(options_.info_log != options.info_log),
owns_cache_(options_.block_cache != options.block_cache),
next_file_number_(1) {
// TableCache can be small since we expect each table to be opened once.
table_cache_ = new TableCache(dbname_, &options_, 10);
}
~Repairer() {
delete table_cache_;
if (owns_info_log_) {
delete options_.info_log;
}
if (owns_cache_) {
delete options_.block_cache;
}
}
Status Run() {
Status status = FindFiles();
if (status.ok()) {
ConvertLogFilesToTables();
ExtractMetaData();
status = WriteDescriptor();
}
if (status.ok()) {
unsigned long long bytes = 0;
for (size_t i = 0; i < tables_.size(); i++) {
bytes += tables_[i].meta.file_size;
}
Log(options_.info_log,
"**** Repaired leveldb %s; "
"recovered %d files; %llu bytes. "
"Some data may have been lost. "
"****",
dbname_.c_str(),
static_cast<int>(tables_.size()),
bytes);
}
return status;
}
private:
struct TableInfo {
FileMetaData meta;
SequenceNumber max_sequence;
};
std::string const dbname_;
Env* const env_;
InternalKeyComparator const icmp_;
InternalFilterPolicy const ipolicy_;
Options const options_;
bool owns_info_log_;
bool owns_cache_;
TableCache* table_cache_;
VersionEdit edit_;
std::vector<std::string> manifests_;
std::vector<uint64_t> table_numbers_;
std::vector<uint64_t> logs_;
std::vector<TableInfo> tables_;
uint64_t next_file_number_;
Status FindFiles() {
std::vector<std::string> filenames;
Status status = env_->GetChildren(dbname_, &filenames);
if (!status.ok()) {
return status;
}
if (filenames.empty()) {
return Status::IOError(dbname_, "repair found no files");
}
uint64_t number;
FileType type;
for (size_t i = 0; i < filenames.size(); i++) {
if (ParseFileName(filenames[i], &number, &type)) {
if (type == kDescriptorFile) {
manifests_.push_back(filenames[i]);
} else {
if (number + 1 > next_file_number_) {
next_file_number_ = number + 1;
}
if (type == kLogFile) {
logs_.push_back(number);
} else if (type == kTableFile) {
table_numbers_.push_back(number);
} else {
// Ignore other files
}
}
}
}
return status;
}
void ConvertLogFilesToTables() {
for (size_t i = 0; i < logs_.size(); i++) {
std::string logname = LogFileName(dbname_, logs_[i]);
Status status = ConvertLogToTable(logs_[i]);
if (!status.ok()) {
Log(options_.info_log, "Log #%llu: ignoring conversion error: %s",
(unsigned long long) logs_[i],
status.ToString().c_str());
}
ArchiveFile(logname);
}
}
Status ConvertLogToTable(uint64_t log) {
struct LogReporter : public log::Reader::Reporter {
Env* env;
Logger* info_log;
uint64_t lognum;
virtual void Corruption(size_t bytes, const Status& s) {
// We print error messages for corruption, but continue repairing.
Log(info_log, "Log #%llu: dropping %d bytes; %s",
(unsigned long long) lognum,
static_cast<int>(bytes),
s.ToString().c_str());
}
};
// Open the log file
std::string logname = LogFileName(dbname_, log);
SequentialFile* lfile;
Status status = env_->NewSequentialFile(logname, &lfile);
if (!status.ok()) {
return status;
}
// Create the log reader.
LogReporter reporter;
reporter.env = env_;
reporter.info_log = options_.info_log;
reporter.lognum = log;
// We intentionally make log::Reader do checksumming so that
// corruptions cause entire commits to be skipped instead of
// propagating bad information (like overly large sequence
// numbers).
log::Reader reader(lfile, &reporter, false/*do not checksum*/,
0/*initial_offset*/);
// Read all the records and add to a memtable
std::string scratch;
Slice record;
WriteBatch batch;
MemTable* mem = new MemTable(icmp_);
mem->Ref();
int counter = 0;
while (reader.ReadRecord(&record, &scratch)) {
if (record.size() < 12) {
reporter.Corruption(
record.size(), Status::Corruption("log record too small"));
continue;
}
WriteBatchInternal::SetContents(&batch, record);
status = WriteBatchInternal::InsertInto(&batch, mem);
if (status.ok()) {
counter += WriteBatchInternal::Count(&batch);
} else {
Log(options_.info_log, "Log #%llu: ignoring %s",
(unsigned long long) log,
status.ToString().c_str());
status = Status::OK(); // Keep going with rest of file
}
}
delete lfile;
// Do not record a version edit for this conversion to a Table
// since ExtractMetaData() will also generate edits.
FileMetaData meta;
meta.number = next_file_number_++;
Iterator* iter = mem->NewIterator();
status = BuildTable(dbname_, env_, options_, table_cache_, iter, &meta);
delete iter;
mem->Unref();
mem = NULL;
if (status.ok()) {
if (meta.file_size > 0) {
table_numbers_.push_back(meta.number);
}
}
Log(options_.info_log, "Log #%llu: %d ops saved to Table #%llu %s",
(unsigned long long) log,
counter,
(unsigned long long) meta.number,
status.ToString().c_str());
return status;
}
void ExtractMetaData() {
for (size_t i = 0; i < table_numbers_.size(); i++) {
ScanTable(table_numbers_[i]);
}
}
Iterator* NewTableIterator(const FileMetaData& meta) {
// Same as compaction iterators: if paranoid_checks are on, turn
// on checksum verification.
ReadOptions r;
r.verify_checksums = options_.paranoid_checks;
return table_cache_->NewIterator(r, meta.number, meta.file_size);
}
void ScanTable(uint64_t number) {
TableInfo t;
t.meta.number = number;
std::string fname = TableFileName(dbname_, number);
Status status = env_->GetFileSize(fname, &t.meta.file_size);
if (!status.ok()) {
// Try alternate file name.
fname = SSTTableFileName(dbname_, number);
Status s2 = env_->GetFileSize(fname, &t.meta.file_size);
if (s2.ok()) {
status = Status::OK();
}
}
if (!status.ok()) {
ArchiveFile(TableFileName(dbname_, number));
ArchiveFile(SSTTableFileName(dbname_, number));
Log(options_.info_log, "Table #%llu: dropped: %s",
(unsigned long long) t.meta.number,
status.ToString().c_str());
return;
}
// Extract metadata by scanning through table.
int counter = 0;
Iterator* iter = NewTableIterator(t.meta);
bool empty = true;
ParsedInternalKey parsed;
t.max_sequence = 0;
for (iter->SeekToFirst(); iter->Valid(); iter->Next()) {
Slice key = iter->key();
if (!ParseInternalKey(key, &parsed)) {
Log(options_.info_log, "Table #%llu: unparsable key %s",
(unsigned long long) t.meta.number,
EscapeString(key).c_str());
continue;
}
counter++;
if (empty) {
empty = false;
t.meta.smallest.DecodeFrom(key);
}
t.meta.largest.DecodeFrom(key);
if (parsed.sequence > t.max_sequence) {
t.max_sequence = parsed.sequence;
}
}
if (!iter->status().ok()) {
status = iter->status();
}
delete iter;
Log(options_.info_log, "Table #%llu: %d entries %s",
(unsigned long long) t.meta.number,
counter,
status.ToString().c_str());
if (status.ok()) {
tables_.push_back(t);
} else {
RepairTable(fname, t); // RepairTable archives input file.
}
}
void RepairTable(const std::string& src, TableInfo t) {
// We will copy src contents to a new table and then rename the
// new table over the source.
// Create builder.
std::string copy = TableFileName(dbname_, next_file_number_++);
WritableFile* file;
Status s = env_->NewWritableFile(copy, &file);
if (!s.ok()) {
return;
}
TableBuilder* builder = new TableBuilder(options_, file);
// Copy data.
Iterator* iter = NewTableIterator(t.meta);
int counter = 0;
for (iter->SeekToFirst(); iter->Valid(); iter->Next()) {
builder->Add(iter->key(), iter->value());
counter++;
}
delete iter;
ArchiveFile(src);
if (counter == 0) {
builder->Abandon(); // Nothing to save
} else {
s = builder->Finish();
if (s.ok()) {
t.meta.file_size = builder->FileSize();
}
}
delete builder;
builder = NULL;
if (s.ok()) {
s = file->Close();
}
delete file;
file = NULL;
if (counter > 0 && s.ok()) {
std::string orig = TableFileName(dbname_, t.meta.number);
s = env_->RenameFile(copy, orig);
if (s.ok()) {
Log(options_.info_log, "Table #%llu: %d entries repaired",
(unsigned long long) t.meta.number, counter);
tables_.push_back(t);
}
}
if (!s.ok()) {
env_->DeleteFile(copy);
}
}
Status WriteDescriptor() {
std::string tmp = TempFileName(dbname_, 1);
WritableFile* file;
Status status = env_->NewWritableFile(tmp, &file);
if (!status.ok()) {
return status;
}
SequenceNumber max_sequence = 0;
for (size_t i = 0; i < tables_.size(); i++) {
if (max_sequence < tables_[i].max_sequence) {
max_sequence = tables_[i].max_sequence;
}
}
edit_.SetComparatorName(icmp_.user_comparator()->Name());
edit_.SetLogNumber(0);
edit_.SetNextFile(next_file_number_);
edit_.SetLastSequence(max_sequence);
for (size_t i = 0; i < tables_.size(); i++) {
// TODO(opt): separate out into multiple levels
const TableInfo& t = tables_[i];
edit_.AddFile(0, t.meta.number, t.meta.file_size,
t.meta.smallest, t.meta.largest);
}
//fprintf(stderr, "NewDescriptor:\n%s\n", edit_.DebugString().c_str());
{
log::Writer log(file);
std::string record;
edit_.EncodeTo(&record);
status = log.AddRecord(record);
}
if (status.ok()) {
status = file->Close();
}
delete file;
file = NULL;
if (!status.ok()) {
env_->DeleteFile(tmp);
} else {
// Discard older manifests
for (size_t i = 0; i < manifests_.size(); i++) {
ArchiveFile(dbname_ + "/" + manifests_[i]);
}
// Install new manifest
status = env_->RenameFile(tmp, DescriptorFileName(dbname_, 1));
if (status.ok()) {
status = SetCurrentFile(env_, dbname_, 1);
} else {
env_->DeleteFile(tmp);
}
}
return status;
}
void ArchiveFile(const std::string& fname) {
// Move into another directory. E.g., for
// dir/foo
// rename to
// dir/lost/foo
const char* slash = strrchr(fname.c_str(), '/');
std::string new_dir;
if (slash != NULL) {
new_dir.assign(fname.data(), slash - fname.data());
}
new_dir.append("/lost");
env_->CreateDir(new_dir); // Ignore error
std::string new_file = new_dir;
new_file.append("/");
new_file.append((slash == NULL) ? fname.c_str() : slash + 1);
Status s = env_->RenameFile(fname, new_file);
Log(options_.info_log, "Archiving %s: %s\n",
fname.c_str(), s.ToString().c_str());
}
};
} // namespace
Status RepairDB(const std::string& dbname, const Options& options) {
Repairer repairer(dbname, options);
return repairer.Run();
}
} // namespace leveldb