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;; Access to and use of these products is governed by the GNU General Public
;; License <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html>.
;; By using these products, you agree to be bound by the terms
;; of the GPL.
;; Language description text is excerpted from http://www.ethnologue.com/
;; and is copyright SIL International.
;; Those who are interested in making use of this ontology are requested
;; to contact Adam Pease (apease@articulatesoftware.com).
;; We ask the people using or referencing this work cite our primary paper:
;; Niles, I., and Pease, A. 2001. Towards a Standard Upper Ontology. In
;; Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Ontology in
;; Information Systems (FOIS-2001), Chris Welty and Barry Smith, eds,
;; Ogunquit, Maine, October 17-19, 2001. See also http://www.ontologyportal.org
;; Note: In this version, the language section is incomplete.
;; The following sections are completed down to the level of the individual
;; languages:
;; A. MANUAL LANGUAGES
;; PART a. NON-DEAF SIGN LANGUAGES
;; PART b. DEAF SIGN LANGUAGES
;; B. SPOKEN HUMAN LANGUAGES
;; PART a. ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES
;; PART b. CREOLE LANGUAGES
;; PART c. LANGUAGE ISOLATES
;; PART d. MIXED LANGUAGES
;; PART e. PIDGIN LANGUAGES
;; PART f. UNCLASSIFIED LANGUAGES
;; PART g. MAJOR LANGUAGE FAMILIES
;; SECTION II. ALACALUFAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION V. AMTO-MUSAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION VI. ANDAMANESE LANGUAGES
;; SECTION VII. ARAUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION VIII. ARAUCANIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION X. ARUTANI-SAPE LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XIV. AYMARAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XV. BARBACOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XVI. BASQUE GROUP LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XVII. BAYONO-AWBONO LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XVIII. CADDOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XIX. CAHUAPANAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XX. CANT LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXII. CHAPACURA-WANHAM LANGUAGES.
;; SECTION XXIV. CHIMAKUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXVI. CHON LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXVII. CHUKOTKO-KAMCHATKAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXVIII. CHUMASH GROUP LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXIX. COAHUILTECAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXI. EAST BIRD'S HEAD LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXV. GUAHIBAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXVI. GULF LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXVII. HARAKMBET LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XL. HUAVEAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLII. IROQUOIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLIII. JAPANESE GROUP LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLIV. JIVAROAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLV. KATUKINAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLVI. KERES LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLVIII. KIOWA TANOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLIX. LEFT MAY LANGUAGES
;; SECTION L. LOWER MAMBERAMO LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LI. LULE-VILELA LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LIII. MAKU LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LIV. MASCOIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LV. MATACO-GUAICURU LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LVII. MISUMALPAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LIX. MOSETENAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LX. MURA LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXI. MUSKOGEAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXIII. NAMBIQUARAN LANGUAGE
;; SECTION LXVIII. PAEZAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXX. PEBA-YAGUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXIV. SALIVAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXVIII. SKO LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXIX. SOUTH CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXX. SUBTIABA-TLAPANEC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXI. TACANAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXIV. TOTONACAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXIX. URU-CHIPAYA LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCI. WAKASHAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCII. WEST PAPUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCIII. WITOTOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCIV. YANOMAM LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCV. YENISEI OSTYAK LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCVI. YUKAGHIR LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCVII. YUKI GROUP LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCVIII. ZAMUCOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XCIX. ZAPAROAN LANGUAGES
;; The following major language families of spoken languages are still
;; incomplete (i.e. left either partially or fully unspecified):
;; PART g. MAJOR LANGUAGE FAMILIES
;; SECTION I. AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION III. ALGIC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION IV. ALTAIC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION IX. ARAWAKAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XI. AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XII. AUSTRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XIII. AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXI. CARIB LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXIII. CHIBCHAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXV. CHOCO LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXX. DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXII. EAST PAPUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXIII. ESKIMO-ALEUT LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXIV. GEELVINK BAY LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXVIII. HMONG-MIEN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XXXIX. HOKAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XLI. INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
;; (NOTE: ONLY INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES INCOMPLETE)
;; SECTION XLVII. KHOISAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LII. MACRO-GE LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LVI. MAYAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LVIII. MIXE-ZOQUE LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXII. NA-DENE LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXIV. NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXV. NILO-SAHARAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXVI. NORTH CAUCASIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXVII. OTO-MANGUEAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXIX. PANOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXI. PENUTIAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXII. QUECHUAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXIII. SALISHAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXV. SEPIK-RAMU LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXVI. SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXII. TAI-KADAI LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXIII. TORRICELLI LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXV. TRANS-NEW GUINEA LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXVI. TUCANOAN LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXVII. TUPI LANGUAGES
;; SECTION LXXXVIII. URALIC LANGUAGES
;; SECTION XC. UTO-AZTECAN LANGUAGES
;; A. MANUAL HUMAN LANGUAGES (116 Languages)
;; a. NON-DEAF SIGN LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
(instance MonasticSignLanguage ManualHumanLanguage)
(documentation MonasticSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MonasticSignLanguage is a
&%ManualHumanLanguage of the &%HolySee (the Vatican State) and &%Europe. SIL
code: MZG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate available. Region: Monastic
communities, especially in Europe. Comments: A second language means of
communicating while maintaining vows of silence. Not a deaf sign language.
Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PlainsIndianSignLanguage ManualHumanLanguage)
(documentation PlainsIndianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PlainsIndianSignLanguage is a
&%ManualHumanLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: PSD. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Great Plains of the USA and Canada.
Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: PLAINS SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Some
variation by ethnic group and region. Formerly used between nations in
hunting, trade, by deaf people, and at every level of social interaction, and
with non-Indians. Today used within nations in storytelling, rituals, legends,
prayers, and by deaf people. Arose when horses were introduced from the south
by the Spanish and guns from the east by the French. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; b. DEAF SIGN LANGUAGES (114 Languages)
(subclass DeafSignLanguage ManualHumanLanguage)
(documentation DeafSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%DeafSignLanguage is a
&%ManualHumanLanguage primarily intended for communication between a
deaf individual and a hearing individual or between deaf individuals.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AdamorobeSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AdamorobeSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%AdamorobeSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Ghana. SIL code: ADS. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 300 deaf in the village, 3,000 including hearing people
(1998 GILLBT). Region: Adamorobe, a village in the Eastern Region. The
district capital is Aburi. Comments: All ages, evenly distributed. 15%
deafness in the population, one of the highest percentages in the world,
caused by genetic recessive autosome. The village has been settled for 200
years. It is an indigenous deaf sign language, also used by many hearing
people. Most users have no contact with Ghanaian Sign Language. They are
considered to be full citizens. Agriculturalists, firewood traders.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AlgerianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AlgerianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%AlgerianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Algeria. SIL code: ASP. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: It has influenced the deaf
community in Oujda in northern Morocco.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AmericanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AmericanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%AmericanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: ASE. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 100,000 to 500,000 primary users (1986 Gallaudet U.) out of
nearly 2,000,000 profoundly deaf persons in USA (1988), 0.8% of the USA
population. 15,000,000 hard of hearing persons in the USA (1989 Sacks).
Population total all countries 100,000 to 500,000. Region: Also used in
varying degrees in Canada, Philippines, Ghana, Nigeria, Chad, Burkina Faso,
Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic,
Cote d'Ivoire, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar, Benin, Togo, Zimbabwe,
Singapore, China (Hong Kong). Also spoken in Canada, Guatemala. Alternate
names: ASL, AMESLAN, THE LANGUAGE OF THE DEAF. Dialects: BLACK AMERICAN
SIGN LANGUAGE, TACTILE SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Black American Sign Language
developed in segregated schools in the south. It contains much sign
vocabulary not in ASL and some different grammatical structure. Tactile
Sign Language is used by over 900 persons in Louisiana who know ASL, but
have lost their sight from a generic cause: Usher's Syndrome. They
communicate by touch on each other's wrists. Some have migrated to Seattle.
Some have learned Braille. ASL has 43% lexical similarity with French Sign
Language in an 872-word list. Sign language interpreters provided in court,
for college students, at important public events, in job training, at social
services programs, in mental health service programs, some instruction for
parents of deaf children, many sign language classes for hearing people.
There is an organization for sign language teachers. Many hearing people are
learning ASL as second language. Reported to be the third largest language in
the USA (1993 Honolulu Advertiser). Used since 1817. ASL is different from
'English on the Hands' (Signed English, Siglish). There are several systems
of manually coded English, including different ones in different countries.
Also several systems called Pidgin Signed English. Pidgin Signed English is
taught in schools in the USA rather than ASL. Investigation needed:
intelligibility with Black American Sign Language. Dictionary. SOV,
prepositions, genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives before
noun heads, question word initial. The average deaf person graduates from
high school with 3rd or 4th grade reading level in English. TV, videos.
Bible portions 1982-1996. Also used in: Canada (Language name AMERICAN SIGN
LANGUAGE, Alternate names: ASL, AMESLAN). Comments: Dialect differences with
USA ASL, and regional differences in Canada from east to west. Structurally
and grammatically distinct from Quebec Sign Language (LSQ). Has grammatical
characteristics independent of English. A few adults know both ASL and LSQ.
Most signers from eastern 'Canada use ASL with some British Sign Language
vocabulary, a remnant from Maritime Sign Language, which came from British
Sign Language. Sign language interpreters are required for deaf people in
court. Used for deaf college students, important public functions, job
training, social service programs, sign language instruction for parents of
deaf children, classes for hearing people, organization for sign language
teachers, committee on national sign language. Manual alphabet. Dictionary.
TV, videos. Bible portions 1982-1987. Also used in: Guatemala (Language name:
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE, Alternate names: ASL, AMESLAN). Comments: There may
be other sign languages besides ASL. Dictionary. Videos. Bible portions
1982-1987.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ArgentineSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ArgentineSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ArgentineSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Argentina. SIL code: AED. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Deaf people go to different schools, each
using a different sign language outside class. Sign language is not allowed
in the classroom. Volunteer sign language interpreters are used at some
important public events. There are sign language stories and drama on film.
There is a committee for a national sign language, and organizations for sign
language teachers and interpreters. Deaf schools were begun in 1885. Some
research on the language. There is a manual alphabet for Spanish spelling.
TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ArmenianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ArmenianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ArmenianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Armenia. SIL code: AEN. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AustralianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AustralianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%AustralianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Australia. SIL code: ASF. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
14,000 users possibly (1991 Hyde and Power). Alternate names: AUSLAN.
Comments: Related to British Sign Language, with influences also from Irish
and American sign languages. Australian Signed English is different. It is a
manual system for English spelling, used by hearing people for communication
with the deaf. It is used in teaching the deaf, and officially so in New
South Wales. The earliest schools for the deaf were established by British
deaf immigrants in 1860. Many agencies for the deaf. Some signed
interpretation in court, for college students, at important public events.
There is sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. There is a
committee on national sign language. Dictionary. Grammar. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AustralianAboriginesSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AustralianAboriginesSignLanguage EnglishLanguage
"&%AustralianAboriginesSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage of &%Australia.
SIL code: ASW. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate available. Region:
Southern, central, and western desert regions, coastal Arnhem Land, some
islands of north coast, western side of Cape York Peninsula, islands of
Torres Strait. Comments: Not related to Australian Sign Language. Several
different sign languages are also used by deaf persons. Also used by hearing
Aborigines as an alternate form of communication with speakers of other
languages. Other non-deaf sign languages are used by some groups, such as
Aranda, Warlpiri, Warumungu, during periods of mourning or hunting.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AustrianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation AustrianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%AustrianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Austria. SIL code: ASQ. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Alternate names: AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN SIGN LANGUAGE.
Comments: Partially intelligible with French Sign Language. Related to
Russian Sign Language. The sign language used in class and that used by adults
outside class are different. Deaf people go to different schools, each using
a different sign language. Sign language interpreters are used some in court.
Professionals are required to know sign language in job training and social
services programs. There is little research. There are a few classes for
hearing people. Originated 1870. There is a manual alphabet for spelling.
Dictionary. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BaliSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BaliSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BaliSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Indonesia (the island of Bali). SIL code: BQY.
ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 2,200 in the village, out of 50 deaf people and
2,150 hearing people (1995 T. Friedman). Region: 1 village in Bali. Comments:
The majority of the hearing people learn and use the sign language. This might
not be the correct name.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BamakoSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BamakoSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BamakoSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Mali. SIL code: BOG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Region: Bamako school for deaf children, separated into 3
grade classes. It is not known if it is widely used elsewhere or not.
Comments: Not related to other sign languages. They have some knowledge of
French, and possibly Bambara. 6 to 50 years old. Some hearing people use it to
communicate with deaf people. Another community of deaf people in Bamako use
a West African variety of American Sign Language. Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BanKhorSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BanKhorSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BanKhorSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Thailand. SIL code: BLA. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Northeastern Thailand, a few villages.
Comments: Not related to the original sign languages of Thailand, but there
is some similarity.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BelgianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BelgianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BelgianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Belgium. SIL code: BVS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Dialects: NORTH BELGIUM SIGN LANGUAGE, SOUTH BELGIUM
SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: A variety of regional dialects which have their
roots in different deaf schools. The dialect in the Flemish region is closer
to that in the Walloon region than it is to Dutch Sign Language. Adopted signs
from the old French sign language directly and indirectly. It began in 1825.
Different sign languages are used in the classroom and by adults outside the
classroom. Limited influence from Signed Dutch. Signed French and Signed
Dutch are used some for intercommunication with hearing people. 3 deaf
schools in Brussels have trained about one-third of the deaf in Belgium.
There are 26 deaf institutions. Sign language interpreters are required in
court. Some interpreters are available for college students. Some interpreters
are provided for job training and mental health programs. There is sign
language instruction for parents of deaf children. There is a committee on
national sign language. Little research on the language. There are sign
language classes for hearing people. There have been schools for deaf people
since 1825. Dictionary. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BolivianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BolivianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BolivianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Bolivia. SIL code: BVL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
350 to 400 users (1988 E. Powlison). Region: Cochabamba, La Paz, Riberalta,
Santa Cruz. Comments: Based on American Sign Language with necessary changes
for Spanish spelling. Some groups in La Paz and Santa Cruz use the same signs
with some dialect signs from their own areas. Originated by missionaries.
Other deaf schools use only the oralist approach. Investigation needed:
intelligibility with American Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BrazilianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BrazilianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BrazilianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Brazil. SIL code: BZS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Santa
Catarina, and elsewhere. Alternate names: LSB, SAO PAULO SIGN LANGUAGE.
Comments: The dialects appear to be inherently intelligible, although
northern dialects above the Amazon are probably more different. Some
relationship to North American and European sign languages. The
fingerspelling used for proper names is similar to a European system. The
first deaf school was begun in 1857 in Rio de Janeiro, then one in Porto
Alegre. The deaf in Sao Paulo generally receive an oralist education. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BritishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BritishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BritishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%UnitedKingdom. SIL code: BHO. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 40,000 mother tongue users (1984 Deuchar), out of 909,000 deaf,
of which the majority probably have some degree of sign language competence
(1977 Deuchar). Region: United Kingdom including Northern Ireland, Scotland.
Alternate names: BSL. Comments: Not inherently intelligible to users of ASL.
The deaf community is cohesive, so communication is good despite regional
differences. However, there are many reports of different sign languages
which are inherently unintelligible to users as close as approximately every
50 miles. Good regional and national organizations for the deaf. Signed
interpretation is required in court, and provided in some other situations.
Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Many sign language
classes for hearing people. There is an organization for sign language
teachers. There is a committee on national sign language. Sign language was
used before 1644. Deaf schools were established in the late 18th century.
There is increasing desire to train deaf children in BSL. British Signed
English is different from American Signed English. Dictionary. Grammar.
Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BulgarianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation BulgarianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%BulgarianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Bulgaria. SIL code: BQN. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Different sign languages are used in the
classroom and by adults outside. One sign language which has been used since
1920. There have been elementary schools for deaf people since 1898. Since
1945 sign language has been allowed in the classroom. Sign language
interpreters are required in court. Some are available for college students.
There is sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. There is a
committee on national sign language. Little research on the sign language.
There are few sign language classes for hearing people. There is a manual
alphabet for spelling. Dictionary. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance CatalonianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation CatalonianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%CatalonianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Spain. SIL code: CSC. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
18,000 (1994 estimate). Region: Catalonia. Comments: An indigenous sign
language, quite distinct from Spanish Sign Language. About 50%
intelligibility by users of Spanish Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ChadianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ChadianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ChadianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Chad. SIL code: CDS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 390
or more users out of a large deaf population (1989 Mokommbay Yonadjiel KATA).
Region: Schools and an association for the deaf in N'Djamena, Sarh, and
Moundou. Comments: Influences from American Sign Language. Some signs are
traditional. Teachers were trained in Nigeria. Muslim, Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ChiangmaiSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ChiangmaiSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ChiangmaiSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Thailand. SIL code: CSD. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Chiangmai. Alternate names: CHIENGMAI SIGN
LANGUAGE. Comments Related to present sign languages in Laos and Viet Nam
(Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). A distinct language from Thai Sign
Language. Still remembered by signers over 45 years old in Chiangmai. Younger
signers use Modern Thai Sign Language. Investigation needed: bilingual
proficiency in Thai Sign Language, attitudes.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ChileanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ChileanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ChileanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Chile. SIL code: CSG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ChineseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ChineseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ChineseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%China. SIL code: CSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(3,000,000 deaf persons in China, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Region: Also spoken
in Malaysia, Taiwan. Dialects: SHANGHAI SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: There are
several dialects, of which Shanghai is the most influential. Few signs of
foreign origin. Schools and workshops or farms for the deaf are channels of
dissemination. Developed since the late 1950s. There are also Chinese
character signs. Others use home sign languages. The first deaf school was
begun by missionary C.R. Mills and wife in 1887, but American Sign Language
did not influence Chinese Sign Language. Dictionary. Grammar. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ColombianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ColombianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ColombianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Columbia. SIL code: CSN. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(50,000 deaf in Bogota in 1992). Comments: Some signs are similar to those in
sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the USA. Half of school age. There
are at least 4 deaf schools (begun in 1924), 2 in Bogota and 2 in Medellin,
and 3 other deaf institutions. Some schools use sign language in the
classroom. Interpreters are provided at important public events, and for
college students. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a
committee on the national sign language, and an organization for sign
language teachers. Little research. It is not clear how many deaf persons
know a sign language. Begun in 1929. There is a manual alphabet for spelling.
Dictionary. Grammar. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance CostaRicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation CostaRicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%CostaRicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%CostaRica. SIL code: CSR. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: May be related to Providencia Sign Language.
Reported to have about 60% lexical similarity with ASL.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance CzechSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation CzechSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%CzechSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%CzechRepublic. SIL code: CSE. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: Partially intelligible with
French Sign Language. Used since 1786 when deaf schools began. Sign language
used in school different from that used by adults outside. Signed
interpretation required in court. Some provided for college students and at
important public events. There is sign language instruction for parents of
deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a
committee on national sign language. More than one sign language used in the
country. There is a manual alphabet for spelling. Dictionary. Films, TV,
videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance DanishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation DanishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%DanishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Denmark. SIL code: DSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(3,500 deaf in Denmark, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.) Comments: Some signs are related
to French Sign Language. Intelligible with Swedish and Norwegian sign
languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign
Language. Used in all 5 state schools for the deaf. Signed interpretation
required in court, college classes, at important public events, in job
training, social services, and mental health programs. Instruction provided
for parents of deaf children, for other hearing people. There is a committee
on national sign language, an organization for sign language teachers. A lot
of research. Signed Danish is distinct, but used in intercommunication with
some hearing people. The first school was begun in 1807. Dictionary. Grammar.
Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance DominicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation DominicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%DominicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%DominicanRepublic. SIL code: DOQ. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: Reported to have 85% to 90%
lexical similarity with ASL, and to use most of the features of ASL, such as
absent referent and reduplication. Many are not fluent or use home sign.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance DutchSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation DutchSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%DutchSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of the &%Netherlands. SIL code: DSE. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 20,000 deaf
use Dutch Sign Language. There are 400,000 hearing impaired, 28,000 deaf
(1986 Gallaudet Univ.) Alternate names: SIGN LANGUAGE OF THE NETHERLANDS, SLN.
Comments: All users listed are adults (1986). There are 5 varieties associated
with 5 schools for the deaf, each with about 1,500 students. There have been
elementary schools for the deaf since 1790. Developed from French Sign
Language, some features similar to American and British sign languages.
Currently in transition. Distinct from Signed Dutch. There is a manual system
for spelling. Dictionary. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance EcuadorianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation EcuadorianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%EcuadorianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Ecuador. SIL code: ECS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(188,000 deaf persons, 2% of the population, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.) Comments:
Slight regional variants in sign languages. Some influences from USA Peace
Corps, others from people educated in Spain or Argentina. Some deaf schools
use total communication, speaking and signing.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance EstonianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation EstonianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%EstonianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Estonia. SIL code: ESO. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
4,500 users out of 1,600 deaf and 20,000 hearing impaired. 2,000 persons need
regular help from interpreters (1998 Urmas Sutrop). Region: Throughout
Estonia, especially Tallinn and Parnu. Alternate names: VIIPEKEEL. Comments:
Some local dialects. The dialect in Parnu is the most archaic. Apparent
influences from Finnish and Russian Sign Languages. Some people can use both
Estonian and Russian Sign Languages. Russian Sign Language is used in Tallinn
by deaf Russians. In other regions Russians use some pidginized versions of
Russian Sign Language mixed with Estonian Sign Language. Systematic teaching
and research since 1990 at the Dept. of Special Education at Tartu University.
Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children in Tallinn. Classes for
hearing people in Tallinn and Parnu. Classes for interpretars. Schools for
children with hearing impairments. Many children with hearing impairments in
ordinary schools. Oral and signed teaching. There is a Society of the
Interpreters of Estonian Sign Language. Centers for interpreters in Tallinn,
Tartu, Parnu, at the Association of Deaf People. Local authorities pay for
interpreters for 36 hours for each deaf person per year. Some grants for
students who need interpreters. Courts accept signed interpretation and pay
for interpreters. Dictionary. Grammar. TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance EthiopianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation EthiopianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%EthiopianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Ethiopia. SIL code: ETH. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: There are several sign languages used in
different schools for the deaf. Little research. Used since 1971. There have
been elementary schools for deaf children since 1956. There is a manual
alphabet for spelling.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance FinnishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation FinnishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%FinnishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Finland. SIL code: FSE. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
5,000 users out of 8,000 deaf persons (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names:
VIITTOMAKIELI. Comments: 2 major dialects from the Finnish (17 schools) and
Swedish (1 school) communities. Apparent influence from Swedish Sign Language
merged with local indigenous varieties. Not intelligible with Danish Sign
Language. The government pays interpreters to accompany the deaf to hospitals,
college, church, etc. Signed interpretation required in court. Sign language
instruction for parents of deaf children. Many classes for hearing people.
There is a committee on national sign language. The first deaf school was
founded in the 1850s. Signed Finnish is distinct, but used by some teachers
of the deaf. Dictionary. Grammar. Films, TV, videos. Bible portions 1989.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance FrenchSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation FrenchSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%FrenchSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%France. SIL code: FSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
50,000 to 100,000 primary users in France (1986 Gallaudet Univ.) 1,000 users
of Marseille Sign Language (1975 Sallagooty). Population total both countries
50,000 to 100,000. Region: Southern FSL is used in Marseille, Toulon, La
Ciotat, and Salon de Provence. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: LANGUE
DES SIGNES FRANCAISE, LSF, FSL. Dialects: MARSEILLE SIGN LANGUAGE (SOUTHERN
FRENCH SIGN LANGUAGE). Comments: Many sign languages have been influenced by
this, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. Reported to be partially
intelligible with sign languages from Austria, Czech Republic, and Italy, at
least. 43% lexical similarity with American Sign Language in an 872-word list.
First sign language in the western world to gain recognition as a language
(1830). Originated in 1752. Sign languages were known in France in the 16th
century, and probably earlier. Different from Signed French and Old French
Sign Language. Also used in: Togo (Language name: FRENCH SIGN LANGUAGE,
Alternate names: LANGUE DES SIGNES FRANCAISE, LSF). Comments: Taught in 1
school for the deaf in Togo.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GermanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation GermanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%GermanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Germany. SIL code: GSG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(50,000 deaf persons, 22,000 members of German Deaf Association, 1986
Gallaudet Univ.) Region: Western Germany. Alternate names: DEUTSCHE
GEBAERDENSPRACHE, DGS. Comments: Many regional lexical variations, but
dialects are easily inherently intelligible. Some similarity to French and
other European sign languages. Relation to sign languages of eastern Germany,
Austria, and Switzerland is not known. More than one sign language used in
eastern Germany. Bible portions 1998.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GhanaianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation GhanaianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%GhanaianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Ghana. SIL code: GSE. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Comments: Related to American and Nigerian sign languages.
Brought in 1957 by missionary Andrew Foster. Differs from American Sign
Language in lexicon. There are new and local signs, and some modified from
ASL. 9 deaf schools. Other deaf people use home signs. Elementary schools for
deaf children since 1957. Sign language interpreters are required for deaf
people in court. Little research. Some sign language classes for hearing
people. There is a manual alphabet for signing. Investigation needed:
intelligibility with American Sign Language, Nigerian Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GreekSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation GreekSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%GreekSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%Greece. SIL code: GSS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 42,600 or more users
(1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Comments: 12,000 children and 30,000 active adult
users (1996). Roots in American and French sign languages and various indigenous sign languages, which came together in the 1950s.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GuatemalanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation GuatemalanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%GuatemalanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Guatemala. SIL code: GSM. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GuineanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation GuineanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%GuineanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Guinea. SIL code: GUS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Conakry. Comments: Used in the deaf school in
Conakry. Appears to be heavily influenced by, or based on, ASL, with some
influence from French Sign Language. Investigation needed: intelligibility
with American Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HaiphongSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HaiphongSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HaiphongSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%VietNam. SIL code: HAF. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Haiphong. Comments: Related to sign languages
in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HanoiSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HanoiSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HanoiSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%VietNam. SIL code: HAB. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate
available. Region: Hanoi. Comments: Related to sign languages in Haiphong,
Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HausaSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HausaSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HausaSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%Nigeria. SIL code: HSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate
available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HawaiiPidginSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HawaiiPidginSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HawaiiPidginSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: HPS. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: A few users out of about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii
(1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard of hearing people in Hawaii
(1998 Honolulu Advertiser). Region: Hawaiian Islands. Alternate names: PIDGIN
SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Bilingualism in American Sign Language. Mainly 70 to
90 years old (1993). 9,600 deaf people in Hawaii now use American Sign
Language with a few local signs for place names and cultural items (1998
Honolulu Advertiser). Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HoChiMinhCitySignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HoChiMinhCitySignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HoChiMinhCitySignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%VietNam. SIL code: HOS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Ho Chi Minh City. Comments: Related to sign
languages in Hanoi, Haiphong, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HungarianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation HungarianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%HungarianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Hungary. SIL code: HSH. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
60,000 deaf (1999 National Association for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing). 300,000
hard-of-hearing people use it as second language. Region: Used throughout
Hungary. May also be used in western Romania. Alternate names: MAGYAR
JELVNYELV. Dialects: BUDAPEST, SOPRON, MISKOLC, DEBRECEN, SZEGED, EGER.
Comments: Related to Austrian Sign Language and German Sign Language. May be
related to Yugoslavian Sign Language. Dialects have some different signs for
lexical items, similar or same grammar. All ages. Budapest dialect is viewed
as the standard. Dictionary. Extensive literacy effort needed.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance IcelandicSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation IcelandicSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%IcelandicSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Iceland. SIL code: ICL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Until 1910 Icelandic deaf people were sent
to school in Denmark. The sign language is based on Danish Sign Language, but
has changed and developed since then, so it is not the same today. Signed
interpretation provided for college students. Instruction for parents of deaf
children. There is a committee on national sign language. There is a manual
spelling system. Dictionary. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance IndianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation IndianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%IndianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%India. SIL code: INS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
1,500,000 or more users (1986 Gallaudet Univ.) Population: total all countries
1,500,000 or more. Region: All over the country. Also spoken in Bangladesh,
Pakistan. Dialects: DELHI SIGN LANGUAGE, CALCUTTA SIGN LANGUAGE,
BANGALORE-MADRAS SIGN LANGUAGE, BOMBAY SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Over 75% of
signs from all regions are related. Dialects are not related to deaf school
usage. Delhi dialect is the most influential. Not related to French, Spanish,
or American sign languages, or their group. Some influence from British Sign
Language in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs, but most are
unrelated to European sign systems. Developed indigenously in India. The
Indian manual English system is hardly intelligible to American Signed
English. Related to Nepalese Sign Language. Over 1,000,000 deaf adults, and
about 500,000 deaf children (1986). Deaf schools mainly do not use ISL, but
vocational programs often do. Less than 5% of deaf people attend deaf schools.
Investigation needed: intelligibility with Pakistan Sign Language. Also used
in: Bangladesh (Language name: INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE). Comments: Not related
to French, Spanish, American sign languages, or their group. Some influence
from British Sign Language in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs,
but most signs are unrelated to European sign systems. It developed
indigenously in India. The Indian manual English system is hardly
understandable to American Signed English.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance IndonesianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation IndonesianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%IndonesianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Indonesia. SIL code: INL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(At least 2,000,000 deaf people, 1993). Comments: 94 schools for the deaf use
the oral method for instruction. A blend of Malaysian Sign Language and
indigenous signs. ASL not used.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance IrishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation IrishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%IrishSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%Ireland. SIL code: ISG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate
available. Region: Dublin and elsewhere. Comments: In 1816 British signs were
brought in. In 1846 Irish signs developed in the girls' school, in 1857 Irish
signs brought into the boys' school. Related to French Sign Language. There
are informal male and female sign systems. Females learn the male system
during dating and marriage. The informal system is referred to as 'Deaf Sign
Language'. Irish Sign Language is a new unified system, a manual code for
English. It has structural features such as directional verbs. It has
influenced sign languages in South Africa and Australia. It originated
between 1846-1849. Several deaf schools with 750 to 800 students in each.
There is a committee on national sign language, and an organization for sign
language teachers. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance IsraeliSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation IsraeliSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%IsraeliSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Israel. SIL code: ISL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
5,000 users including some hearing persons (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Comments:
Not derived from and relatively little influence from other sign languages.
No special signs have been introduced from outside by educators. Minor dialect
variation. Not all deaf use ISL. Interpreters are provided in courts. Some
interpretation for college students. Sign language instruction for parents of
deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a
committee on national sign language, and an organization for sign language
teachers. The sign language used in classrooms and that by deaf adults outside
is different. The first deaf school was established in Jerusalem in 1934. A
fingerspelling system was developed in 1976. Dictionary. Grammar. Employs the
Eshkol-Wachmann movement notation system. Films, TV, videos. Jewish.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ItalianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ItalianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ItalianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Italy. SIL code: ISE. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Alternate names: LINGUA ITALIANA DEI SEGNI, LIS. Comments:
Partially intelligible with French Sign Language. Not intelligible with
American Sign Language. Regional differences, but signers from different
regions seem to communicate fluently. Used in families, clubs, and schools
outside the classroom, but not in the classroom.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance JamaicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation JamaicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%JamaicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Jamaica. SIL code: JCS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Alternate names: COUNTRY SIGN. Comments: There is no
standardized sign language, but 'Country Sign' differs from region to region.
Signed English is used in at least one deaf school, but students do not
understand many of the function words. It is used for all communication needs
outside the classroom. Many deaf children do not attend school.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance JapaneseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation JapaneseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%JapaneseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Japan. SIL code: JSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
Hearing impaired: 317,000 (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names: SHUWA,
TEMANE. Comments: Related to Taiwanese and Korean sign languages. Over 95% of
the deaf understand Japanese Sign Language. 107 deaf schools. The first school
was in Kyoto in 1878. 'Temane' is the former name. Pidgin Signed Japanese is
different. Pidgin Signed Japanese is used often in formal situations,
lectures, speeches. 80% of the deaf understand finger spelling. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance JordanianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation JordanianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%JordanianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Jordan. SIL code:JOS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KenyanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation KenyanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%KenyanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Kenya. SIL code: XKI. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
Students in primary schools in 1990: 2,600. There are around 200,000 deaf
people in Kenya. It is not known how many know KSL. Region: 32 primary schools
for the deaf in Hola, Kapsabet, Karatina, Karen, Kerugoya, Kilifi, Kisumu,
Kitui, Kwale, Meru, Mombasa, Mumias, Murang'a, Nairobi, Nakuru, North
Kinangop, Ruiru, Sakwa. Schools under the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE)
use a Kenyan version of (American) Exact Signed English, including one at
Machakos. KSL is used at Nyangoma School at Bondo, a primary and boys'
technical school (Sakwa), and in one girl's school. A school in Mombasa uses
British Sign Language. Some Belgian brothers use Belgian Sign language in a
school near Oyugis. 4 churches in Nairobi: 2 use KIE Signed English, 1 a
mixture of that and KSL, the other uses a mixture of Korean, American, and
Kenyan Sign Languages. Comments: Mainly unrelated to other sign languages. It
has become standardized with slight variations since 1961, when elementary
schools for deaf children were begun. The deaf from Kisumu (western Kenya) to
the deaf in Mombasa (eastern Kenya) can understand each other completely even
with some dialect differences. The deaf in Uganda and Tanzania do not really
understand KSL, though they have much in common. Used in court cases involving
deaf people. The Kenya National Association of the Deaf, which has 12
branches. The government is using KIE Signed English. The University of
Nairobi backs KSL. Little research. Communication with those who do not know
KSL is superficial only. KSL fits Kenyan culture and ties students back to
their families and friends who know it. There is a manual alphabet for
spelling. Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KoreanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation KoreanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%KoreanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%SouthKorea. SIL code: KVK. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Related to Japanese and Taiwanese sign
languages, but distinct. Used since 1889. Signed interpretation required in
court, used at important public events, in social services programs. There is
sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Many sign language
classes for hearing people. There is a manual system for spelling. Dictionary.
Elementary schools for deaf children using sign language since 1908. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KualaLumpurSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation KualaLumpurSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%KualaLumpurSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Malahysia (Peninsular). SIL code: KGI. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Kuala Lumpur and elsewhere in
Peninsular Malaysia. Alternate names: KLSL. Comments: American signs were
introduced in the late 1960s to a class for deaf children. They were promoted
by the club for deaf adults which was started at the YMCA in 1973. Many former
users of Penang Sign Language now use KLSL. Uses predominantly American signs
in a mixture of English and Malay word order. Investigation needed: bilingual
proficiency in Malaysian Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LaosSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation LaosSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%LaosSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%Laos. SIL code: LSO. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate available.
Comments: Related to sign languages in Viet Nam and earlier ones in Thailand.
May be more than one sign language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LatvianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation LatvianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%LatvianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Latvia. SIL code:LSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LibyanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation LibyanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%LibyanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Libya. SIL code:LBS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LithuanianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation LithuanianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%LithuanianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Lithuania. SIL code:LLS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LyonsSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation LyonsSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%LyonsSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%France. SIL code: LSG. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No estimate available.
Comments: 250 miles from Paris, but difficult and little intelligibility with
French Sign Language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MalaysianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MalaysianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MalaysianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Malahysia (Peninsular). SIL code: XML. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Alternate names: BAHASA MALAYSIA KOD
TANGAN. Comments: It is manually coded Bahasa Malaysia, it is easier than
manual codes for other languages because Bahasa Malaysia is comparatively
noninflected. It has input from local and American signs and structure. Under
development by the Ministry of Education since 1978, and used in government
programs. Words without signs are fingerspelled using the international
version of the American manual alphabet.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MalteseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MalteseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MalteseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Malta. SIL code: MDL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MaritimeSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MaritimeSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MaritimeSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Canada. SIL code: NSR. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward
Island. Alternate names: NOVA SCOTIAN SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Now remembered
only by older deaf people. Based on British Sign Language. Distinct from
American and Quebec sign languages. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MarthasVineyardSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MarthasVineyardSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MarthasVineyardSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: MRE. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.
Comments: The early sign language was based on a regional one in Weald,
England, where the deaf persons' ancestors had lived. French Sign Language was
introduced to Martha's Vineyard in 1817. MVSL was later combined with American
Sign Language, but never became identical to ASL. From 1692 to 1910 nearly all
hearers on Martha's Vineyard were bilingual in English and sign language. The
first deaf person arrived in 1692. From 1692 to 1950 there was a high rate of
hereditary deafness. In the 19th century, 1/5700 of Americans were deaf, 1/155
in Martha's Vineyard, 1/25 in one town, 1/4 in one neighborhood. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MexicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MexicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MexicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Mexico. SIL code: MFS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
87,000 to 100,000 mainly monolingual users (1986 T.C. Smith-Stark), out of
1,300,000 deaf persons in Mexico (1986 Gallaudet University). Region: Used
throughout Mexico, except in some American Indian areas (see Yucatec Maya
Sign Language): Mexico D.F. Guadalajara, Monterrey, Hermosillo, Morelia,
Veracruz, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Torreon,
Saltillo, Toluca. Alternate names: EL LENGUAJE MEXICANO DE LAS MANOS, EL
LENGUAJE MANUAL DE MEXICO, LA LENGUA MANUAL MEXICANA, EL LENGUAJE DE SENAS
MEXICANAS. Comments: Influence from French Sign Language. Users of ASL have
14% intelligibility of MSL. Preliminary investigation indicates lexical
similarities from 85% to 100% among regional dialects, nearly all above 90%
(A. Bickford SIL 1989). Most deaf schools use the oralist method, but some
use signs. At least 3 deaf churches in Mexico City, 3 in Guadalajara. 19
schools for the deaf in Saltillo, Torreon, Guadalajara (3), Mexico City (6),
Morelia, Cuernavaca, Monterrey, Ciudad Obregon, Hermosillo, Villahermosa,
Matamoros, Veracruz, athletic clubs, craft schools, rehabilitation
institutions. It does not follow Spanish grammar. The deaf are called 'sordos,
sordomudos, los silentes.' Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MongolianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MongolianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MongolianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Mongolia. SIL code: QMM. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
Unknown number of users out of 10,000 to 147,330 deaf (1998). Comments:
Different from Russian Sign Language and other sign languages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MoroccanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MoroccanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MoroccanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Morocco. SIL code: XMS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Used in Tetouan and other cities. Comments:
Algerian Sign Language has influenced the strong deaf community of 60 to 70
men in the city of Oujda in the north. Less than 50% lexical similarity with
American Sign Language. Most deaf people cannot read or write or understand
Arabic. Many deaf women do not leave their homes, or do not sign in the
streets, so it is difficult to determine numbers. Association Nanane, a
school in the north, had about 30 students, ages 4-21. MSL used in 3 programs
for the deaf. Communities in Rabat, Tangier, and Casa Blanca do not use MSL.
Used by USA Peace Corps. Developed from local signs and introduced signs.
Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance MozambicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation MozambicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%MozambicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Mozambique. SIL code: MZY. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Region: In at least the 3 largest cities: Maputo,
Beira, and Nampula. Comments: Some dialectal variation. Standardization
efforts are in progress (1999). Not related to or based on Portuguese nor
Portuguese Sign Language. Being taught and developed.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NamibianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NamibianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NamibianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Namibia. SIL code: NBS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NewZealandSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NewZealandSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NewZealandSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%NewZealand. SIL code: NZS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: The first school for the deaf was established
in 1878. Sign language used since the 1800s. It developed informally among
deaf people because the oralist method only was used in schools. It has some
features in common with British sign languages and some from other countries.
Some signed interpretation used in court and at important public events. There
is a committee on national sign language. There is a manual system for
spelling. Investigation needed: intelligibility with British Sign Language,
Australian Sign Languages. Dictionary. Grammar. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NepaleseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NepaleseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NepaleseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Nepal. SIL code: NSP. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Comments: Developed from local signs and introduced signs.
Related to Indian and Pakistan Sign Languages. Used by USA Peace Corps.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NicaraguanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NicaraguanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NicaraguanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Nicaragua. SIL code: NCS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
3,000 deaf users plus other hearing people (1997 Asociacion Nacional de Sordos
de Nicaragua). Region: Managua and throughout the nation. Alternate names:
IDIOMA DE SENAS DE NICARAGUA. Comments: Unrelated to El Salvadoran, Costa
Rican, or other sign languages. Users know little Spanish. Officially used in
school since 1992, and used outside the classroom. Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NigerianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NigerianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NigerianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Nigeria. SIL code: NSI. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Influences from American and Ghanaian sign
languages. Originated in 1960.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NorwegianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation NorwegianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%NorwegianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Norway. SIL code: NSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
4,000 deaf users out of about 4,000 deaf (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Dialects:
HOLMESTRAND, OSLO, TRONDHEIM. Comments: Intelligible with Danish and Swedish
sign languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish
Sign Language. Used since 1815. The first deaf school was begun in 1825, first
club in 1878. It is passed to the next generation mainly through the schools.
3 dialects are associated with 3 schools. Signed Norwegian is used by
teachers, pupils use Norwegian Sign Language among themselves. Signed
interpretation required in court, provided some for college students, in
mental health programs. Sign language instruction provided for parents of
deaf children. Many classes for hearing people. There is a committee on
national sign language. There is a manual system for spelling. Films, TV,
videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance OldKentishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation OldKentishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%OldKentishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%UnitedKingdom. SIL code: OKL. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Kent. Comments: The apparent
ancestor of Martha's Vineyard Sign Language. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PakistanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PakistanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PakistanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Pakistan. SIL code: PKS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Alternate names: ISHARON KI ZUBANN. Comments: Related
to Nepalese Sign Language, may be the same language as Indian Sign Language.
Used in urban centers with some regional variation in vocabulary. The
National Institute of Special Education encourages a total communication
approach, including the teaching of PSL. Dictionary. Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PenangSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PenangSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PenangSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Malahysia (Peninsular). SIL code: PSG. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Penang. Comments: Deaf school
established in 1954, where only oral method was used. Sign language evolved
outside the classroom. Use declined in the late 1970s due to spread of other
sign languages, but there are still users.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PersianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PersianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PersianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Iran. SIL code: PSC. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Comments: Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PeruvianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PeruvianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PeruvianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Peru. SIL code: PRL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Comments: There are over 70 deaf schools, but the oralist
method is used by most in the classroom. The majority of students use sign
language outside the classroom. The sign language used in the schools is
different from what adults use outside. There is a manual alphabet for
spelling. Investigation needed: intelligibility. Dictionary. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PhilippineSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PhilippineSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PhilippineSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%Philippines. SIL code: PSP. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: (100,000 deaf persons, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names:
LOCAL SIGN LANGUAGE, FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE, FSL. Comments: Reported to be
very similar to ASL. American Sign Language is well-known as a second
language. Total communication is used in deaf schools, with teachers both
speaking and signing. Used by USA Peace Corps.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PolishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PolishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PolishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Poland. SIL code: PSO. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(50,000 deaf, 25,000 members of Polish Association of the Deaf, 1986 Gallaudet
Univ.). Comments: Various regional dialects. Not intelligible with ASL. 5,000
deaf children in deaf schools, plus 1,000 who attend school with hearing
children. There is a committee for the unification of Polish Sign Language.
Used since 1889. Elementary schools for deaf children since 1817. Signed
interpretation required in court, provided for some college students and in
important public events. Sign language instruction for parents of deaf
children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a committee
on national sign language. There is a manual system for spelling. Dictionary.
Grammar. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PortugueseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PortugueseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PortugueseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Portugal. SIL code: PSR. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(Used by a considerable portion of the 8,000 deaf persons, 1986 Gallaudet
Univ.). Alternate names: LINGUA GESTUAL PORTUGUESA. Dialects: LISBON, OPORTO.
Comments: Not derived from Portuguese. Different dialects in 2 different
deaf schools in Lisbon and Oporto. Related to Swedish Sign Language. Signed
Portuguese has similar signs to Signed Swedish. It began in 1823.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ProvidenciaSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ProvidenciaSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ProvidenciaSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Colombia. SIL code: PRO. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
Known by most people on the Island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to
3,000 population (1986 W. Washabaugh). Region: Providencia Island off the
coast of Nicaragua. Comments: They have not been exposed to other sign
languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages. The
high deaf population is probably caused by in-breeding. The deaf are fairly
well integrated into daily activities. The system is about 100 years old.
They are illiterate and untutored, do not use finger spelling.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PuertoRicanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation PuertoRicanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%PuertoRicanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%PuertoRico. SIL code: PSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(8,000 to 40,000 deaf persons, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names: PRSL.
Comments: Related to American Sign Language but distinct. 4 varieties are
used: Signed Spanish as a pidgin with hearing Spanish speakers, Signed English
as a pidgin with deaf educated in USA and with hearing English speakers,
American Sign Language with those who know only that, and PRSL. Some know only
PRSL. Signs were introduced in 1907 by nuns. Some home signs are also used.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance QuebecSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation QuebecSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%QuebecSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Canada. SIL code: FCS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Region: Quebec, except northern Quebec, Ottawa, Northern
Ontario, Bathurst New Brunswick, and a few in Vancouver and Edmonton.
Alternate names: LANGUE SIGNE QUEBECARS, LANGUE DES SIGNES QUEBECOISE, LSQ.
Comments: Related to French Sign Language (LSF). In northern Quebec, deaf
people use ASL, with English the second language. Some use Signed French.
Segregated deaf education by sex resulted in some lexical differences between
the sexes, female use more influenced by ASL and LSQ, male by Signed French
and LSQ. It is rare for a deaf child to learn both LSQ and ASL. A few adults
have a working knowledge of both.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance RennelleseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation RennelleseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%RennelleseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%SolomonIslands. SIL code: RSI. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 1 (1986 Gallaudet University), other second language users.
Region: Rennell Island. Comments: Developed about 1915 by Kagobai, the first
deaf person. Used by others. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance RomanianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation RomanianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%RomanianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Romania. SIL code: RMS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance RussianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation RussianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%RussianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Russia (Europe). SIL code: RSL. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Moscow, Armavir, Gorky, Kazan,
Kirov, Kolomna, Kujbyshev, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Rostov on Don,
Sverdlovsk have schools for the deaf. Also spoken in Bulgaria. Comments:
Related to Austrian and French sign languages, but different. There are deaf
associations and athletic clubs. Signed interpretation required in court, and
used at important public events. Many sign language classes for hearing
people. There is an organization for sign language teachers. Originated in
1806. There is a manual system for spelling. Dictionary. Elementary schools
for deaf children since 1878. Films, TV, videos. Also used in: Bulgaria
(Language name: RUSSIAN SIGN LANGUAGE) Comments: Related to Austrian and
French sign languages, but different. Originated 1806.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SalvadoranSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SalvadoranSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SalvadoranSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%ElSalvador. SIL code: ESN. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Alternate names: EL SALVADORAN SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments:
Different from French or Spanish sign languages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SaudiArabianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SaudiArabianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SaudiArabianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%SaudiArabia. SIL code: SDL. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SingaporeSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SingaporeSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SingaporeSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Singapore. SIL code: SLS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SlovakianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SlovakianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SlovakianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Slovakia. SIL code: SVK. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SouthAfricanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SouthAfricanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SouthAfricanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: SFS. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: (12,100 deaf persons including 6,000 Black, 2,000 English white,
2,000 Afrikaans white, 1,200 Coloured, 900 Indian, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.).
Comments: The North British sign system was used for the deaf in white English
speaking families. In 1881 a school for Afrikaans speaking families was begun
using British Sign Language. Several dialects are used unofficially in
different schools. There are 9 sign language systems, 60% related to British
or Australian sign languages, few to American Sign Language. Sign language is
understood to some degree by most deaf people. Some interpreters are provided
in courts. The first deaf school was established about 1846. Now there are 29
schools for 4,000 children. There is a Signed Afrikaans.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SpanishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SpanishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SpanishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Spain. SIL code: SSP. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
102,000 (1994). 20,000 members of deaf associations (1986 Gallaudet
University). Alternate names: MIMICA. Comments: Small differences throughout
Spain with no difficulties in intercommunication, except in Catalonia. Origin
unknown, but it is reported that there are influences from American, French,
and Mexican sign languages. Some signed interpretation used in court, at
important public events. There is sign language instruction for parents of
deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. There is a
committee on national sign language. There is a manual system for spelling.
Dictionary. Literacy rate in second language: 20% to 30%. Films, TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SwedishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SwedishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SwedishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Sweden. SIL code: SWL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
8,000 deaf primary users, and the first language of many hearing children of
deaf parents (1986 Gallaudet University). Comments: No origins from other sign
languages, but it has influenced Portuguese and Finnish sign languages.
Intelligible with Norwegian and Danish sign languages with only moderate
difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign Language. Today the deaf are
regarded as a bilingual minority. Sign language used since 1800. The first
deaf school was established in 1809. There are 5 deaf schools, and they use
Swedish Sign Language for instruction in all subjects. Also taught at the
University of Stockholm. Many sign language classes for hearing people.
Government interpreters assist the deaf in contacts with official and private
institutions. There is an organization for sign language teachers. Signed
Swedish is distinct. Much research. Dictionary. Grammar. TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SwissFrenchSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SwissFrenchSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SwissFrenchSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Switzerland. SIL code: SSR. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 1,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Alternate names: LANGAGE
GESTUELLE. Comments: Some regional lexical variations in the French area are
tied to specific schools. There are local Swiss signs and imported French
signs. Sign language is now taught in a bilingual program in Geneva. The
status of signing has been low, but is now improving. French Sign Language is
used some in the French area. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SwissGermanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SwissGermanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SwissGermanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Switzerland. SIL code: SGG. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 6,000 (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names: NATUERLICHE
GEBAERDE. Comments: Some regional lexical variations in German areas are tied
to specific schools. The status of signing has been low, but is now improving.
In schools in the German area there is a strong oralist tradition.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SwissItalianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SwissItalianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SwissItalianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Switzerland. SIL code: SLF. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: 200 (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Comments: The status of signing has
been low, but is now improving.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SriLankanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation SriLankanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%SriLankanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%SriLanka. SIL code: SQS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
(12,800 deaf persons, 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Comments: 14 deaf schools.
Several sign languages used by different schools. British English
fingerspelling also used. Investigation needed: intelligibility.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TaiwaneseSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation TaiwaneseSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%TaiwaneseSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Taiwan. SIL code: TSS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
30,000 users (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Alternate names: ZIRAN SHOUYU. Dialects:
TAIPEI, TAINAN. Comments: 2 major dialects. The sources from which the sign
language developed were indigenous sign systems before 1895, Japanese
occupation and education 1895-1946, Mainland Chinese Sign Language brought by
refugees in 1949 and some from Hong Kong since. 50% lexical similarity with
Japanese Sign Language. Quite different from (Mainland) Chinese Sign Language;
only a few signs are the same or similar. Not related to Taiwanese languages.
Some signs are borrowed from Mandarin through palmwriting. There is also a
Signed Mandarin (Wenfa Shouyu).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TanzanianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation TanzanianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%TanzanianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Tanzania. SIL code: TZA. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Deaf people go to different schools, each
using a different sign language. There have been elementary schools for deaf
children since 1963. There is a committee on national sign language. Little
research.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ThaiSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ThaiSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ThaiSignLanguage is a &%DeafSignLanguage
of &%Thailand. SIL code: TSQ. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 51,000 profoundly,
prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 Charles B. Reilly). 20% of deaf
children go to school, where they get the opportunity to learn this language.
Region: Major regional centers and Bangkok. Comments: The first deaf school
was established in 1951, with influence from Gallaudet University in the USA.
It uses a combination of indigneous signs and ASL. Before 1950 Chiangmai and
Bangkok had their own separate but related sign languages, and probably other
'urban' areas had their own sign languages, related to present sign languages
in parts of Laos and Vietnam, including Haiphong. The signs used at the deaf
school at Tak are reported to be very different. Bilingualism in Central Thai.
All deaf born since 1951, and some older ones. Total communication used in
school: speaking and signing. Reported to be high mobility among most deaf
people today. The sign language used in the classroom and that by deaf adults
outside is different. There is a manual system for spelling. Dictionary.
Literacy rate in second language: Fewer than 10%. Educated deaf people have
some Thai literacy skills, but limited. TV. Buddhist.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TunisianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation TunisianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%TunisianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Tunisia. SIL code: TSE. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: Used in a school for the deaf. Used by USA
Peace Corps. There are loans from French Sign Language and Italian Sign
Language, but it is distinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TurkishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation TurkishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%TurkishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Turkey (Asia). SIL code: TSM. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance UgandanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation UgandanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%UgandanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Uganda. SIL code: UGN. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Region: All over Uganda, but mainly in the towns.
Alternate names: USL. Comments: Influences from Kenyan Sign Language and ASL.
Knowledge of English is not widespread or deep. There have been elementary
schools for deaf children since 1962. Several sign languages became one in
1988. The schools allow sign language in the classroom since 1988. The sign
language used in the classroom and that used by adults outside is the same.
Some sign language interpreters are provided for deaf people in court. There
are a few sign language classes for hearing people. It was recognized as a
minority language in 1995. Interpretation provided in parliament from a deaf
member. Promotion by the Uganda National Association of the Deaf. USL's
prestige is growing. There is a manual alphabet for spelling. Dictionary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance UkrainianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation UkrainianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%UkrainianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of the &%Ukraine. SIL code: UKL. ISO 639-2: sgn.
Population: No estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance UrubuKaaporSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation UrubuKaaporSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%UrubuKaaporSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Brazil. SIL code: UKS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
7 first language users, 500 second language users (1986 J. Kakumasu). Region:
Maranhao. Alternate names: URUBU SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: The deaf are
monolingual in sign language. About one out of every 75 persons is deaf. Urubu
hearing children grow up knowing both the verbal and the sign systems. OSV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance UruguayanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation UruguayanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%UruguayanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Uruguay. SIL code: UGY. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: The sign language has been used since 1910.
Used in schools. Sign language interpreters are required in court. Instruction
for parents of deaf children. A committee on national sign language, and an
organization for sign language teachers. There is a manual alphabet for
spelling. Dictionary. TV, videos.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance VenezuelanSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation VenezuelanSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%VenezuelanSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Venezuela. SIL code: VSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Comments: The sign language used in the classroom is
different from the one used by adults outside. There is a national bilingual
education program for Venezuelan Sign Language and Spanish. There have been
schools for the deaf since 1937, and they use sign language. Deaf people can
attend college with a sign language interpreter. There is a manual alphabet
for spelling. Dictionary. Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance YiddishSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation YiddishSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%YiddishSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Israel. SIL code: YDS. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available. Comments: Apparently distinct from Israeli Sign Language.
Jewish.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance YucatecMayaSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation YucatecMayaSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%YucatecMayaSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Mexico. SIL code: MSD. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: 17
deaf people out of a village of 500 in the primary location (1999 H. Smith).
All use sign (1989 Sacks), including hearing people in the village. Region:
Concentrated population in south central Yucatan and in smaller groups in the
same region, and a sizeable concentration in northern Quintana Roo (1999 H.
Smith). Chican, formerly called 'Nohya', Yucatan. An isolated village plus
other villages (at least 2 in Oxkutzcab, 4 in Xyatil, 1 in Carillo Puerto)
throughout a wide portion of the lowland Mayan region. Kinil is also mentioned
(1997 H. Smith). Alternate names: NOHYA SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments: Dialects of
Yucatan and Quintana Roo probably differ, but users have no contact with each
other. There is a report of a person in Guatemala who uses related signs. Not
intelligible with Mexican Sign Language used elsewhere in Mexico, or other
sign languages. 100% monolingual. 3 years old to 70 years old (1999 H. Smith).
13 adults and 3 children under 5 (1997 H. Smith), plus all hearing people
(1989 Sacks). 400 to 500 who use it as a second or third language (1999 H.
Smith). Congenital deafness. It is of some antiquity. Investigation needed:
intelligibility with dialects. Literacy rate in second language: 0%.
Lowland.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance YugoslavianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation YugoslavianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%YugoslavianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Yugoslavia. SIL code: YSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
30,000 users out of 60,000 deaf persons in the former larger Yugoslavia (1986
Gallaudet Univ.) Population: total both countries 30,000 (1986 Gallaudet
University). Region: Also spoken in Slovenia. Dialects: SERBIAN SIGN LANGUAGE.
Comments: Origin from deaf schools in Austria and Hungary. There are regional
variants, but no problem in comprehension. Since 1979 there have been efforts
to standardize. Slovenian Sign Language used in Slovenia is a dialect. First
deaf school in 1840, but sign language is not used in schools. Interpreters
are furnished in court. TV. Also used in: Slovenia (Language name:
YUGOSLAVIAN SIGN LANGUAGE). Dialects: SLOVENIAN SIGN LANGUAGE. Comments:
Related to Austrian and Hungarian sign languages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ZambianSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ZambianSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ZambianSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Zambia. SIL code: ZSL. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population: No
estimate available.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance ZimbabweSignLanguage DeafSignLanguage)
(documentation ZimbabweSignLanguage EnglishLanguage "&%ZimbabweSignLanguage is a
&%DeafSignLanguage of &%Zimbabwe. SIL code: ZIB. ISO 639-2: sgn. Population:
No estimate available. Alternate names: ZIMSIGN. Dialects: ZIMBABWE SCHOOL
SIGN, MASVINGO SCHOOL SIGN, ZIMBABWE COMMUNITY SIGN. Comments: The sign
language used in Masvingo is different from that used in other schools. The
sign language used in schools and that used by adults outside is different. It
is not clear if they are inherently intelligible to each other. There is some
desire for standardization among educators. There are rumors of relationships
to sign languages from Germany, Ireland, Australia, England, South Africa.
Deaf people go to different schools, each using a different sign language.
There have been elementary schools for deaf children since the 1940s. The
Ministry of Education has pushed to open more spaces for deaf students in
special classes in local schools. There is little research on the sign
language. The deaf community is quite strong in terms of individual identity.
They live their lives around deaf social networks and activities. There is a
manual alphabet used for spelling English, possibly related to that in South
Africa. Literacy in English is better among some deaf people than others, but
generally limited. It is quite limited in Shona, mainly known by those from
Masvingo. TV.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; B. SPOKEN HUMAN LANGUAGES
;; a. ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES (3 Languages)
(instance EsperantoLanguage ArtificialLanguage)
(documentation EsperantoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%EsperantoLanguage is an
&%ArtificialLanguage. SIL code: ESP. ISO 639-1: eo. ISO 639-2: epo.
Population: 200 to 2,000 people who speak it as first language (1996),
2,000,000 users (1999 WA). Region: Speakers in about 115 countries, used most
widely in central and eastern Europe, China and other countries in eastern
Asia, certain areas of South America and southwest Asia. Alternate names: LA
LINGVO INTERNACIA. Comments: All ages. Was developed from 1872 to 1885 by L.L.
Zamenhof of Warsaw Poland for intercommunication by mother tongue speakers of
other languages. SVO, prepositions, genitives, relatives after noun heads,
articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads, question word initial,
accusative -n, dative -al affixes mark tense, passive with esti = passive
participle, causative -ig, comparative word, non-tonal. Christian, Baha'i,
Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Shinto, Taoist, tribal religions,
none. Bible 1900-1910.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance EuropantoLanguage ArtificialLanguage)
(documentation EuropantoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%EuropantoLanguage is an
&%ArtificialLanguage of &%Belgium. SIL code: EUR. ISO 639-2: art. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Brussels, European Union buildings. Comments:
A mixture of elements from some of the main European languages, for use among
members of the European Union. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance InterlinguaLanguage ArtificialLanguage)
(documentation InterlinguaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%InterlinguaLanguage is an
&%ArtificialLanguage. SIL code: INR. ISO 639-1: ia. ISO 639-2: ina.
Population: No estimate available. Alternate names: INTERLINGUA DE IALA.
Comments: A latinate language devised by Alexander Gode around 1950, and
published by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). Second
language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; b. CREOLE LANGUAGES (81 Languages)
(subclass CreoleLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation CreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%CreoleLanguage is a &%PidginLanguage that
has developed and become the mother tongue for a community of people. This
process is called 'creolization' and results in an expanded vocabulary and
grammar structure that allow for communication as rich and complex as that of
non-creole languages. While pidgins are regarded as reduced languages, creoles
are considered expanded languages. That is, while pidgins develop to enable
communication in relatively isolated domains, creoles allow for a full range
of expressive possibilities on a par with more 'recognized' languages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; AFRIKAANS-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
(subclass AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%AfrikaansLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance OorlamsLanguage AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation OorlamsLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%OorlamsLanguage is an
&%AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: OOR. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: There are mother tongue speakers.
It also includes some Bantu words. There are a large number of small colonies
of Africans.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TsotsitaalLanguage AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TsotsitaalLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TsotsitaalLanguage is an
&%AfrikaansBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: FLY. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: It had tens of thousands of primary users, hundreds of thousands
of second language users (1984 Gilbert and Makhudu). Region: In African
townships around Johannesburg, Pretoria, Bloemfontein and other cities.
Alternate names: FLY TAAL, FLAAI TAAL. Comments: Not intelligible to Afrikaans
speakers. Uses many Afrikaans, English, and Bantu words, and others of unknown
origin. Originated in the gold mines in Transvaal from 1886. Creolized by
1930. Used until the 1970s or 1980s. 'Tsotsitaal' means 'speech of young gang
member, criminal, or thug.' Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ARABIC-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (3 Languages)
(subclass ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of a
dialect of the &%ArabicLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BabaliaCreoleArabicLanguage ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BabaliaCreoleArabicLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BabaliaCreoleArabicLanguage
is an &%ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Chad. SIL code: BBZ. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 3,937 (1993 census). Region: West. Chari Baguirmi Prefecture,
N'Djamena Subprefecture. North of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba.
Possibly also in the Bokoro Subprefecture around Ngoura. 23 villages.
Alternate names: BABALIA, BUBALIA, BABALIYA. Comments: A creole developed
from Chadian Arabic (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou (10%, Decobert). The
original language of the ethnic group was Berakou. Babalia shares structural
similarities with Juba Arabic. There is a post-creole continuum from Chadian
Arabic to the Bagirmian basilect. The ethnic group is called 'Babalia.'
Muslim.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NubiLanguage ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BabaliaCreoleArabicLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NubiLanguage
is an &%ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Uganda. SIL code: KCN. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 14,739 in Uganda (1991 census). Population total both countries
25,000. Region: Bombo, 30 miles north of Kampala, Arua, and elsewhere in
Uganda. Also spoken in Kenya. Alternate names: KINUBI, KI-NUBI. Comments:
Descendants of Emin Pasha's troops. Formerly a soldier language, which split
off from Sudanese Pidgin Arabic about 1900.There are conflicting reports of
intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic. 90% of the lexicon is from
Arabic. Traders. Muslim. Also spoken in: Kenya (Language name: NUBI).
Population: 10,000 in Kenya, including 3,000 to 6,000 in Kibera. Alternate
names: KI-NUBI, KINUBI. Comments: Speakers use Swahili for out-group
communication and Nubi for in-group communication, with a stable bilingualism.
30% can also use English. Non-Nubi wives of Nubi men are expected to learn
Nubi. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic.
Grammar. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second
language: Below 5%. Muslim.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SudaneseCreoleArabicLanguage ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BabaliaCreoleArabicLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SudaneseCreoleArabicLanguage
is an &%ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Sudan. SIL code: PGA. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 20,000 first language and 44,000 second language speakers in Juba
alone (1987 estimate). Region: Southern Sudan, in the towns and many villages
all over Equatoria Region, and up into Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile regions.
Refugees have gone to other countries. Alternate names: JUBA ARABIC, SOUTHERN
SUDAN ARABIC, PIDGIN ARABIC. Comments: Difficult intelligibility with Nubi,
Sudanese Arabic, or Modern Standard Arabic. Also used as the major language
of communication among speakers of different languages in Equatoria, south of
Wau and Malakal. Used in many church services as first or second language in
Juba and a few other towns. Many school teachers use it at least part of the
time. Most people in towns speak at least two languages, and it is common for
them to speak Creole Arabic, English, and 1, 2, or 3 vernaculars. Creole
Arabic is gaining at the expense of English and the vernaculars, although most
people keep their vernaculars as first, or at least second language. Trade
language. SVO, tonal. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1983-1985.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ASSAMESE-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
(subclass AssameseBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation AssameseBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%AssameseBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%AssameseLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NagaPidginLanguage AssameseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation NagaPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NagaPidginLanguage is an
&%AssameseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%India. SIL code: NAG. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: Used by most of the 500,000 speakers of 29 Naga languages as
second language (1989 J. Holm). Region: Nagaland, especially Kohima District,
Dimapur Subdivision, bordering areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names:
NAGAMESE, NAGA-ASSAMESE, NAGA CREOLE ASSAMESE, KACHARI BENGALI, BODO.
Comments: A variety farthest from Assamese is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga,
and varieties closest to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and
Kohima. Mother tongue for the Kachari in and around Dimapur, a small
community, and among children of interethnic marriages. Classroom textbooks
(1992). Trade language. Grammar. An official medium of instruction in
schools. Mountains.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; DUTCH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (4 Languages)
(subclass DutchBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%DutchBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%DutchLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BerbiceCreoleDutchLanguage DutchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BerbiceCreoleDutchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BerbiceCreoleDutchLanguage
is a &%DutchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Guyana. SIL code: BRC. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 4 or 5 speakers (1993 S. Kouwenberg), 15 with limited competence
(1989 J. Holm). Region: Berbice River area. Comments: Speakers claim it is
not inherently intelligible with Skepi or Rupununi. About 1/3 of the basic
lexicon and, most of the productive morphology is from Eastern Ijo in Nigeria;
most of the rest of the lexicon is from Dutch, 10% loans from Arawak and
Guyanese Creole English. Speakers are bilingual in Guyanese, which has
influenced Berbice considerably. Grammar. SVO. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance DutchCreoleLanguage DutchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation DutchCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%DutchCreoleLanguage is a
&%DutchBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%UnitedStatesVirginIslands. SIL code: DCR.
ISO 639-2: crp. Region: Formerly in Leeward Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, St.
Thomas, St. John, Puerto Rico. Alternate names: NEGERHOLLANDS. Comments: The
last speaker died recently. There may be some remaining second language
speakers. Extinct. NT 1781-1833.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PetjoLanguage DutchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PetjoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PetjoLanguage is a
&%DutchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia. SIL code: PEY. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Djakarta (Batavia), Java. Alternate
names: PETJOH, PECOK. Comments: Influences from Dutch, Javanese, and Betawi.
Little is known of this language. May be a pidgin or mixed language, rather
than a creole.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SkepiCreoleDutchLanguage DutchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SkepiCreoleDutchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SkepiCreoleDutchLanguage
is a &%DutchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Guyana. SIL code: SKW. ISO 639-2: crp.
Region: Essequibo region. Dialects: ESSEQUIBO. Comments: Speakers said it was
not inherently intelligible with Berbice or Rupununi. 52% lexical similarity
with Berbice. Became extinct by 1998. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (30 Languages)
(subclass EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%EnglishLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (22 Languages)
(subclass AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an &%EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that
evolved in areas in and near the &%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; UNCLASSIFIED ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
(instance SamanaEnglishLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SamanaEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SamanaEnglishLanguage is an
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%DominicanRepublic. SIL code:
SAX. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 8,000 (1989 J. Holm). Region: Samana
Peninsula, northeastern Dominican Republic. Comments: Spanish is used as
second language. Some use Haitian Creole. A community of descendants of
ex-USA slaves settled in 1824. It is reported that there was a settlement of
African slaves here in the early 1500s. It may not be a creole, but a
regional variety of uncreolized English. There are features of creolization
and archaic Black English.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; EASTERN ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (11 Languages)
(subclass EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An
&%EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that evolved in eastern areas of the
&%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (3 Languages)
(subclass NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an
&%EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that evolved in northern areas
near the eastern &%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AfroSeminoleCreoleLanguage NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation AfroSeminoleCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AfroSeminoleCreoleLanguage is
a &%NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL
code: AFS. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: No estimate available. Region:
Bracketville, Texas and El Nacimiento, Coahuila, Mexico. Alternate names:
AFRO-SEMINOLE, SEMINOLE, BLACK SEMINOLE. Dialects: TEXAS, MEXICO. Comments:
Separated from coastal Sea Islands Creole between 1690 and 1760. Similar to
Sea Islands Creole of USA and Bahamas Creole. 90% lexical similarity with Sea
Islands Creole. Speakers use English or Spanish as second language. No
speakers left in Oklahoma. 'Probably absorbed by Bahamian on Andros Island,
and by Spanish in Cuba.' Also spoken in: Mexico. (Language name: AFRO-SEMINOLE
CREOLE). Population: Several hundred (1990). Alternate names: AFRO-SEMINOLE,
AFRO-SEMINOL CRIOLLO. Dialects: MEXICO AFRO-SEMINOLE. Comments: Separated from
coastal Sea Islands Creole between 1690 and 1760. 'The variety in Mexico has
not been described' (J. Holm 1989:496). Similar to Bahamas Creole. 90% lexical
similarity with Sea Islands Creole. Bilingualism in Spanish. Only spoken by
older people in Nacimiento.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BahamasCreoleEnglishLanguage NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BahamasCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%BahamasCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%Bahamas. SIL code:
BAH. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 225,000 or 86.5% of population (1987).
Population total both countries 225,000. Region: Also spoken in USA.
Alternate names: BAHAMIAN CREOLE ENGLISH, BAHAMIAN DIALECT. Comments:
Intelligible with Sea Islands Creole good. Very close to Sea Islands Creole
and Afro-Seminole of USA (Ian Hancock). The major differences with Sea
Islands are in phonology, a few words, regional expressions, and a few
grammatical differences (verbal markers). There is a spectrum of varieties
from Standard USA English usage to the creole (Todd and Hancock 1986).
Dictionary. Another orthography may be needed, since there were negative
responses to the Sea Islands orthography presently in use. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SeaIslandCreoleEnglishLanguage NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SeaIslandCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%SeaIslandCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%NorthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL
code: GUL. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 125,000 speakers (1977 I. Hancock),
including 7,000 to 10,000 monolinguals, and 10,000 in New York City (1989 J.
Holm). Region: Coastal region from Jacksonville, North Carolina to
Jacksonville, Florida, and especially on the Sea Islands off the Georgia
coast. Small clusters in New York City and Detroit. Alternate names: GULLAH,
GEECHEE. Dialects: NORTHEAST FLORIDA COAST, GEORGIA, SOUTH CAROLINA. Comments:
Intelligibility with other English based creoles is undetermined. Very close
to Bahamas Creole and Afro-Seminole. 90% lexical similarity with
Afro-Seminole. In limited contact with English, and barely understandable
with Standard English. Government bilingual education program begun. Vigorous.
Linguistic influences from Fula, Mende, upper Guinea coast, Gambia River area
(I. Hancock 1987). Scholars have been predicting its demise for 100 years (W.
Stewart). Investigation needed: intelligibility with Bahamas Creole,
Afro-Seminole. Dictionary. Literacy rate in first language: 1% to 5%.
Literacy rate in second language: 75% to 100%. Swamps, coastal plains.
Agriculturalists: rice, cotton. Bible portions 1994.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SOUTH EASTERN ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (7 Languages)
(subclass SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an
&%EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that evolved in southern areas
near the eastern &%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BajanLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BajanLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BajanLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Barbados. SIL code: BJS.
ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 259,000 (1995 estimate). Alternate names:
BARBADIAN CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: There is a basilectal variety spoken in a
fishing village (Roy 1986). The speech of the poor and less educated is
similar to the mesolect in nearby countries. Increasingly influenced by USA
rather than United Kingdom English (Todd and Hancock 1986). Fewer than 20
lexical items are traceable to African origin (Niles 1980:148). Shares
lexical features with Caribbean creoles. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance GuyaneseCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation GuyaneseCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%GuyaneseCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Guyana. SIL code: GYN.
ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 650,000 possibly (250,000 Blacks and 400,000
Hindustanis). Population total all countries: 700,000. Region: Georgetown,
coast, and Rupununi River area. There may be some in French Guiana. Also
spoken in Suriname, USA. Alternate names: CREOLESE, GUYANESE CREOLE. Dialects:
AFRO-GUYANESE CREOLE, RUPUNUNI, INDO-GUYANESE CREOLE. Comments: It may be
intelligible with other English based creoles of the Caribbean. Closest to
creoles of Windward and Leeward Islands and Tobago. Rupununi may be a
separate language. Speakers of Rupununi, Berbice Creole Dutch, and Skepi
Creole Dutch claim they are not inherently intelligible with each other. It
will remain the home language and be used alongside Standard English (M.
Adler 1977). There is a creole continuum with Standard English. The first or
second language of most people, but it has no official status. Grammar. Also
spoken in: Suriname. (Language name: GUYANESE CREOLE ENGLISH.) Population:
50,000 in Suriname (1986 SIL). Alternate names: CREOLESE, GUYANESE CREOLE.
Comments: Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance LeewardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation LeewardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%LeewardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%AntiguaAndBarbuda. SIL
code: AIG. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 65,100, including 64,000 in Antigua,
1,100 in Barbuda (1990). Population total all countries: 120,370. Region:
Antigua and Barbuda. Also spoken in Anguilla, Dominica, Montserrat, St.
Kitts-Nevis, United Kingdom. Dialects: ANTIGUAN CREOLE ENGLISH, BARBUDA
CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Closest to Barbuda, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Nevis.
Most villagers deny the existence of a creole, although they speak it. There
is a creole continuum with Standard English. Agriculturalists: sugarcane.
Also spoken in: Anguilla. (Language name: LEEWARD CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.)
Population: 7,000 in Anguilla (1998). Dialects: ANGUILLAN CREOLE ENGLISH.
Comments: Reported to be close to the creoles of Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis,
Montserrat, and Barbuda (Holm 1989:450-1). Slightly intelligible with Jamaican
and perhaps Bahamas creoles. Agriculturalists, fishermen. Christian. Also
spoken in: Dominica. (Language name: LEEWARD CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.)
Dialects: KOKOY. Comments: Grammar closest to basilectal Antiguan or Jamaican
(Pauline Christie 1998). People use it with Jamaicans and some others
Caribbean people, but not with non-Caribbean people. Also spoken in:
Montserrat. (Language name: LEEWARD CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.) Population:
10,000. Dialects: MONTSERRAT CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Montserrat variety is
closest to St. Kitts, Nevis, Antigua (Ian Hancock). Montserrat has a creole
continuum with Standard English. Agriculturalists: cotton. Also spoken in:
St. Kitts-Nevis. (Language name: LEEWARD CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.)
Population: 39,000 in St. Kitts. Dialects: ST. KITTS CREOLE ENGLISH
(KITTITIAN CREOLE ENGLISH). Comments: Closest to Montserrat, Antigua, Barbuda.
There is a creole continuum with Standard English. Investigation needed:
intelligibility with St. Kitts and Nevis. Agriculturalists: sugarcane.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TobagonianCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TobagonianCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%TobagonianCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%TrinidadAndTobago. SIL
code: TGH. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 36,000 (1990 estimate). Not known if
population is of speakers or the ethnic group. Region: Tobago. Alternate
names: TOBAGONIAN DIALECT. Comments: Closest to Grenada, St. Vincent.
Slightly intelligible with Jamaican and perhaps Bahamas creoles. Investigation
needed: intelligibility with regional dialects, bilingual proficiency in
English. Dictionary. Plains, hills, low mountains.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TrinidadianCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TrinidadianCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%TrinidadianCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%TrinidadAndTobago. SIL
code: TRF. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: No estimate available. Region: Trinidad.
Comments: Investigation needed: intelligibility with regional varieties,
bilingual proficiency in English. Dictionary. Grammar. Plains, hills, low
mountains.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance VirginIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation VirginIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%VirginIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the
&%UnitedStatesVirginIslands. SIL code: VIB. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population:
52,250 (1980 WA). Population total all countries 64,250. Region: Also spoken
in British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Netherlands Antilles. Dialects: CRUZAN.
Comments: St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St. John, and Saba are closest. Slightly
intelligible with Jamaican and perhaps Bahamas Creole. Alleyne says it is
post-creole English. Dictionary. Also spoken in: British Virgin Islands.
(Language name: VIRGIN ISLANDS CREOLE ENGLISH.) Population: 12,000 in British
Virgin Islands (1987). Comments: Coexists with English in a fairly stable
diglossic relationship (Holm 1989:455). Also spoken in: Guadeloupe. (Language
name: VIRGIN ISLANDS CREOLE ENGLISH.) Dialects: ST. BARTH CREOLE ENGLISH. Also
spoken in: Netherlands Antilles. (Language name: VIRGIN ISLANDS CREOLE
ENGLISH.) Population: 12,700 including 10,000 on St. Maarten, 1,100 on Saba,
1,600 on St. Eustatius. Dialects: ST. MAARTEN CREOLE ENGLISH.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance WindwardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation WindwardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%WindwardCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%SouthEasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of
&%StVincentAndTheGrenadines. SIL code: SVG. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population:
138,000 (1989 J. Holm). Population total both countries: 251,000. Dialects:
VINCENTIAN CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Closest to Grenada, Tobago. Slightly
intelligible with Jamaican and perhaps Bahamas creoles. May have some French
influence, although the former French creole used here is virtually gone. J.
Holm says it is the only folk language (1989:457). Also spoken in: Grenada.
Language name: WINDWARD CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH. Population: 113,000 (Holm
1989:458). Dialects: GRENADA CREOLE ENGLISH (CARRIACOU CREOLE ENGLISH).
Comments: Closest to St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago. M. Alleyne
says it is a post-creole English with French creole influence, no longer a
creole. R. Kephart says Carriacou is a creole English. J. Holm says the
creole predominates in Grenada (1989:458). Grammar. See main entry under St.
Vincent and the Grenadines.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TurksAndCaicosCreoleEnglishLanguage EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TurksAndCaicosCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%TurksAndCaicosCreoleEnglishLanguage is an
&%EasternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%TurksAndCaicosIslands. SIL
code: TCH. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 10,730 (1995). Comments: This variety
has not been studied, but it may be related to Bahamas creole (Holm 1989:489).
Agriculturalists: cotton.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; KRIO GROUP LANGUAGES (4 Languages)
(subclass KrioGroupLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KrioGroupLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%KrioGroupLanguage is any of four
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguages, including &%KrioLanguage, spoken in
West Africa.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance FernandoPoCreoleEnglishLanguage KrioGroupLanguage)
(documentation FernandoPoCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%FernandoPoCreoleEnglishLanguage is a &%KrioGroupLanguage of
&%EquatorialGuinea. SIL code: FPE. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 5,000 mother
tongue speakers (1998 S. Smith SIL), 1.25% of the population, plus 70,000 or
17.5% who speak it as trade language. Region: North central Bioko Island
(Fernando Po), 6 communities in or near Malabo: Musola, Las Palmas, Sampaca,
Basupu, Fiston, Balveri de Cristo Rey. Alternate names: PIDGINGLIS,
FERNANDINO, FERNANDO PO KRIO, CRIOLLO. Comments: Pidginglis may be a separate
language from Krio. About 1,000 are monolingual. Language of instruction in
school is Spanish. English and some Bubi are also used. Speakers came from
Sierra Leone in 1827. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Krio,
attitudes. Trade language. Literacy rate in second language: 75% in Spanish,
none in Krio. Tropical forest. Volcanic island. Agriculturalists. 0 to 1,000
feet. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KrioLanguage KrioGroupLanguage)
(documentation KrioLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KrioLanguage is a &%KrioGroupLanguage of
&%SierraLeone. SIL code: KRI. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 472,600 in Sierra
Leone (1993), or 10% of the population are first language speakers (1987
Frederick Jones). Possibly 4,000,000 or 95% of the remainder are second
language users (1987 F. Jones). Population total all countries: 478,000 or
more. Region: Communities in Freetown, on the Peninsula, on the Banana
Islands, York Island, in Bonthe, by de-tribalized Sierra Leoneans and as the
lingua franca throughout the country. Also spoken in Gambia, Guinea, Senegal.
Alternate names: CREOLE, PATOIS. Dialects: AKU. Comments: Krio and Jamaican
Creole, and Krio and Sea Islands Creole may have some interintelligibility.
Domains of use include education, urban and town living, every-day life.
Dominant language of the younger generation. Vigorous. Spoken more in
provincial towns than in villages, and for inter-ethnic communication.
Possibly half the speakers use Krio in their workplace. It is the formal
language for those who do not speak English. Second language users prefer
their indigenous languages for informal situations. Mother tongue Krio
speakers are mainly descendents of repatriated slaves from Jamaica. There is
linguistic influence from Yoruba (I. Hancock 1987). Language of wider
communication. Literacy rate in second language: Fewer than 15% in English.
Taught as an elective from primary to college level. Traditional religion,
Christian. NT 1986-1992.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NigerianPidginLanguage KrioGroupLanguage)
(documentation NigerianPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NigerianPidginLanguage is a
&%KrioGroupLanguage of &%Nigeria. SIL code: PCM. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population:
No estimate available. Region: Southern states and in Sabon Garis of the
northern states, coastal and urban areas. Alternate names: NIGERIAN CREOLE
ENGLISH, NIGERIAN PIDGIN ENGLISH. Dialects: LAGOS PIDGIN, DELTA PIDGIN, CROSS
RIVER PIDGIN, BENIN PIDGIN. Comments: No unified standard. The dialects listed
may be very different from each other. Partially intelligible with Krio of
Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin. Used in novels, plays, advertising.
Increasing in importance and use. It is a creole with native speakers, as well
as used as a pidgin between Africans and Europeans, and Africans from
different languages. Trade language. Grammar. No unified orthography. Poetry,
radio programs, TV. Bible portions 1957.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance CameroonPidginLanguage KrioGroupLanguage)
(documentation CameroonPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CameroonPidginLanguage is a
&%KrioGroupLanguage of &%Cameroon. SIL code: WES. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population:
(2,000,000 mainly second language users, 1989 UBS). Region: Primarily in South
West and North West provinces, and widespread elsewhere. Alternate names: WES
COS, CAMEROON CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Similar to Krio of Sierra Leone and
Pidgin English of various West African countries, probably an offshoot of 19th
century Krio. Also similar to Sranan (Ian Hancock). There are dialect
variations. A growing number of first language speakers. Used by the police,
prisons, urban school children at play since 1884. Now the most widespread
lingua franca in Cameroon, used by about half the population (Todd and Hancock
1986). Trade language. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy
rate in second language: Below 5%. Bible portions 1966.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SURINAME ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (3 Languages)
(subclass SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is any of three
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguages spoken in &%Suriname.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; NDYUKA LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
(subclass NdyukaLanguage SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation NdyukaLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%NdyukaLanguage are two closely-related
&%SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance AukanLanguage NdyukaLanguage)
(documentation AukanLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AukanLanguage is a &%NdyukaLanguage of
&%Suriname. SIL code: DJK. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 15,542 in Suriname,
including 14,353 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,156 Paramaccan (1980 census). Population
total both countries: 21,500 or more. Region: Eastern along the Marowijne and
Tapanahony rivers, northeastern along the Cottica River. Aluku are along the
French Guiana border and in French Guiana. Paramaccan are in northeast
Suriname. Also spoken in French Guiana. Alternate names: NDYUKA, NDJUKA,
NJUKA, 'DJUKA', 'DJOEKA', AUKAANS, OKANISI. Dialects: AUKAN, ALUKU (ALOEKOE,
BONI), PARAMACCAN. Comments: Kwinti is further removed from Aukan than are
Aluku and Paramaccan. The society was formed by escaped slaves. Subsistence
and economy is Amerindian, social culture and religion are West African. Aluku
has more French influence than Paramaccan does. Any spelling of Ndyuka without
the initial nasal is considered derogatory. 'Aukan' is English, 'Aukaans' is
Dutch. Dictionary. Grammar. Tonal. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%.
Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Traditional religion, Christian.
NT 1999.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KwintiLanguage NdyukaLanguage)
(documentation KwintiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KwintiLanguage is a &%NdyukaLanguage of
&%Suriname. SIL code: KWW. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 133 living in villages
in Suriname (1980 census). Region: North central, along the Coppename River,
upstream from Carib villages in Kaimanstan and Witagron. Comments: Further
removed from Ndyuka than Aluku and Paramaccan. Probably needs literature
adapted from Ndyuka. Traditional religion.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SrananLanguage SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SrananLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SrananLanguage is a
&%SurinameEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Suriname. SIL code: SRN. ISO 639-2:
cpe. Population: 120,000 or more first language speakers in Suriname or 30% of
the population (1993 SIL), 400,000 including second language speakers (1993).
Population total all countries: 120,000 or more. Region: Mainly in Paramaribo
and along the coast. Also spoken in Aruba, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles.
Alternate names: SRANAN TONGO, TAKI-TAKI, SURINAAMS, SURINAMESE, SURINAME
CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Similar to Ndyuka, but there are cultural
differences. Also has many similarities to Krio of Sierra Leone. Bilingualism
in Dutch. Some literature. The lingua franca of 80% of the population of the
country, including the Hindustanis, Javanese, Chinese, American Indians, and
Bush Negroes. Language of wider communication. Literacy rate in first
language: 10%. Literacy rate in second language: 50% to 75%. Christian,
traditional religion. Bible 1997.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; WESTERN ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (11 Languages)
(subclass WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that evolved in western areas of the
&%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BayIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BayIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%BayIslandsCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Honduras. SIL code: BYH. ISO
639-2: cpe. Population: 13,000 first language speakers, including 10,000 on
the Bay Islands, and 3,000 on the north coast (1998 estimate). Region: Bay
Islands (Guanaja, Roatan, Utila), north coast including La Ceiba and Puerto
Cortes, and some in the Mosquitia. Dialects: CALABASH BIGHT. Comments: Ross
Graham says creole influence is wider than has been reported and still needs
to be addressed (1996). They understand at least some of San Andres Creole
(Colombia). They may not understand Limon Creole (Costa Rica), and they say
Jamaican is different. A 'stronger dialect' in Calabash Bight needs
investigation. The variety on the north coast is reported to be a creole.
Investigation needed: intelligibility with Calabash Bight, North Coast, San
Andres, Limon, Belize.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NorthernCentralAmericaCreoleEnglishLanguage WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation NorthernCentralAmericaCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%NorthernCentralAmericaCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Belize. SIL code: BZI. ISO
639-2: cpe. Population: 55,051 first language speakers in Belize (1991
census). 158,000 including second language speakers (1990 estimate).
Population total all countries: 137,000 or more. Region: Most live in Belize
City, but nearly everyone else in Belize is either a first or second language
speaker of Creole. Many of the rural villages are Creole-speaking. Creole
people tend to live along the coast or other waterways. It is the lingua
franca in much of the country. Also spoken in Colombia, Nicaragua, USA.
Dialects: BELIZE CREOLE ENGLISH (KRIOL, CREOLA). Comments: Reported to be
very close to Miskito coast, Rama Cay, and Islander (San Andres) creoles,
Jamaican creole is different in grammar. Historically an extension of Miskito
Coast Creole. Dahufra was a creole used in the 16th to 18th centuries. Spoken
by creoles and people of East Indian descent, used everywhere in most areas
of life. Used in advertisements. People have a positive attitude toward
Creole. There is popular support for development. Dictionary. Jamaican creole
is different in orthography. Newspapers, radio programs, TV. Timber,
agriculturalists, fishermen, industrial workers, construction industry,
business, commerce, government, teachers. Also spoken in: Colombia. Language
name: NORTHERN CENTRAL AMERICA CREOLE ENGLISH. Population: 12,000 to 18,000
(1981 SIL) out of total San Andres population of 30,000 (1989 J. Holm).
Dialects: ISLANDER CREOLE ENGLISH (SAN ANDRES CREOLE, BENDE). Comments: There
is reported to be a 'deep Creole'. Very close to Belize Creole English.
Standard English is used among the most highly educated. Probably the first
language of the majority of the Islanders. Creole is considered appropriate
for oral purposes only in popular thinking. Literacy rate in second language:
90% Spanish, 80% English. Providencia: mountains, San Andres: plains. Also
spoken in: Nicaragua. (Language name: NORTHERN CENTRAL AMERICA CREOLE
ENGLISH.) Population: 30,000 or more (1986 Carrier Pidgin), 23.5% of the
coastal population (1989 J. Holm). Includes 625 speakers of Rama Cay Creole
(1989 Holm). Dialects: MISKITO COAST CREOLE ENGLISH (BLUEFIELDS CREOLE
ENGLISH), RAMA CAY CREOLE ENGLISH. Comments: Bilingualism in English, Spanish.
The first language of the Creole people and most Carib, the second language
of most Miskito and some Spanish speakers. Speakers consider English to be
their standard language, but identify with the creole.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance SouthwesternCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SouthwesternCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%SouthwesternCaribbeanCreoleEnglishLanguage is a
&%WesternAtlanticEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Jamaica. SIL code: JAM. ISO
639-2: cpe. Population: 2,544,000 in Jamaica (1995 estimate). Population total
all countries 2,699,000 or more. Region: Also spoken in Canada, Costa Rica,
Dominican Republic, Panama, United Kingdom, USA. Dialects: JAMAICAN CREOLE
ENGLISH (PATWA, PATOIS, BONGO TALK, QUASHIE TALK). Comments: The extreme
varieties and Standard English are inherently unintelligible to each other's
speakers (Voegelin and Voegelin, LePage, Adler). It may be partly intelligible
to speakers of Cameroons Pidgin and Krio of Sierra Leone, spoken by
descendants of Jamaicans repatriated between 1787 and 1860. Inherently
intelligible to speakers of creoles in Panama and Costa Rica. Reported to be
very close to Creole of Belize, close to Grenada, St. Vincent, different from
Tobago, very different from Guyana, Barbados, Leeward and Windward Islands.
25% lexical similarity with Guyanese, 13% with Belizean, 9% with Trinidadian,
8% with Barbadian, 5% with Nicaraguan. Most speakers have some competence in
Standard English. Education is in Standard English. Extreme vitality. Creole
is the dominant language and gaining in prestige. Continuum of speech from the
distinct creole to provincial Standard English of town dwellers. Most speakers
believe that they speak Standard English. Linguistic influences from Akan in
Ghana and Bantu (I. Hancock 1988). Dictionary. Grammar. Literacy rate in
second language: High in English. Also spoken in: Costa Rica. (Language name:
SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.) Population: 55,100 in Costa Rica, 2%
of the population (1986). Dialects: LIMON CREOLE ENGLISH (LIMONESE CREOLE,
MEKITELYU). Comments: Jamaican migrants settled in Limon about the middle of
the 19th Century, as they also did in Panama, so those varieties are close.
Some say they do not understand Islander Creole of San Andres. Comprehension
of Standard English is somewhat limited. All ages. Vigorous among themselves.
Creole is not considered proper for literary purposes. They consider Jamaican
Creole to be more 'broken' than their own. Also spoken in: Panama. (Language
name: SOUTHWESTERN CARIBBEAN CREOLE ENGLISH.) Population: 100,000 to 299,600
in Panama, 14% of the population (1986). Dialects: PANAMANIAN CREOLE ENGLISH
(PANAMA ENGLISH CREOLE, GUARI-GUARI). Comments: Ancestors came from Barbados
and Jamaica in mid-19th century to work in fruit plantations, and later to
build the railway and canal. Influences from both eastern and western
Caribbean creole English. Formerly education was in English, but is now in
Spanish.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; PACIFIC ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (22 Languages)
(subclass PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage is an &%EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage that
evolved in areas in and near the &%PacificOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance BislamaLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BislamaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BislamaLanguage is a
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Vanuatu. SIL code: BCY. ISO 639-1:
bi. ISO 639-2: bis. Population: The majority of the population of 128,000
understands and uses it as a lingua franca. There are some first language
speakers. Population total both countries: 1,200 or more. Alternate names:
BICHELAMAR. Comments: Unlike Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea) and Pijin (Solomon
Islands) there are some French loan words. Partially intelligible with Pijin
and Tok Pisin. Widely used in commerce, government, internal dealings.
National language. Dictionary. Grammar. Literacy rate in first language: 10%
to 30%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. Newspapers. Bible 1998.
Also spoken in: New Caledonia. (Language name: BISLAMA.) Population: 1,200 in
New Caledonia (1982 SIL). Alternate names: BICHELAMAR. Comments: Bible in
press (1996).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance HawaiiCreoleEnglishLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation HawaiiCreoleEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HawaiiCreoleEnglishLanguage
is a &%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code:
HAW. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 600,000 speakers or more, half of the state
population (1986 M. Forman), including 100,000 to 200,000 who have limited
control of Standard English and near Standard English (1986 M. Forman).
Another 100,000 speakers on the USA mainland. There are many second language
users. The population of Hawaii is 1,185,497 (1999 census). Region: All the
Hawaiian Islands, USA mainland (especially the west coast, Las Vegas, and
Orlando). Alternate names: PIDGIN, HAWAI'I PIDGIN, HCE. Comments: The basilect
(heavy creole) is barely intelligible with Standard English (H. McKaughan and
M. Forman 1982). Bilingualism in English, Hawaiian, Hakka, Cantonese,
Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, Ilocano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Portuguese, Spanish,
Samoan. 50% of children in Hawaii do not speak English as mother tongue when
entering school. Most of these speak HCE as mother tongue. Used in courts by
officers, jurors, plaintiffs, defendants, witnesses. Creative writing in it in
some schools. A growing body of serious literature. Used in schools for many
explanations, because many students do not control Standard English. There are
some communication problems at university level. All ages. Vigorous use by
100,000 to 200,000. The native speech of a large number of those born or
brought up in Hawaii, regardless of racial origin. There is a continuum of
speech from the distinct creole to Standard English of Hawaii. Different
speakers control different spans along the continuum, there are those whose
only form of verbal communication is the creole. It is accepted by many as an
important part of the local culture, a distinctive local language, but looked
down on by others. Some official acknowledgement of it in print and public
discussion. Grammar. Literacy rate in first language: 66% to 75%. Literacy
rate in second language: 66% to 75%. Roman. Radio programs, TV. Tropical
forest. Volcanic islands, coral reefs, coastal, mountain slope. Fishermen,
agriculturalists, animal husbandry, white and blue collar workers, tourism,
military. Sea level to 4,000 feet. Christian, Hawaiian traditional religion,
Buddhist. Bible portions 1997.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance KriolLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KriolLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KriolLanguage is a
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Australia. SIL code: ROP. ISO 639-2:
cpe. Population: 10,000 or more fluent first language speakers (1991 B.
Borneman SIL), 20,000 or more including second language users (1991 SIL).
Region: Roper River, Katherine areas, Ngukurr, Northern Territory, Kimberley
Region, Western Australia, Gulf Country, Lower Cape York Peninsula, Queensland.
Alternate names: ROPER-BAMYILI CREOLE. Dialects: ROPER RIVER KRIOL (ROPER
RIVER PIDGIN), BAMYILI CREOLE, BARKLY KRIOL, FITZROY VALLEY KRIOL, DALY RIVER
KRIOL. Comments: Kimberley Kriol has many differences with Ngukkur Kriol. Both
Kriol and Torres Strait Creole are spreading, and are nearly overlapping in
Queensland. There are many first language Kriol speakers who are not fully
bilingual in English or in Aboriginal languages. Preschool children may not be
bilingual in another language. SVO. Savannah, scrub forest. Coastal, plains.
Pastoralists, hunter-gatherers. 0 to 1,000 meters. NT 1991.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance NgatikMensCreoleLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation NgatikMensCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NgatikMensCreoleLanguage is a
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Micronesia. SIL code: NGM. ISO 639-2:
cpe. Population: 700 including 500 on atoll (1983 Poyer), 200 on Ponape.
Region: Ngatik (Sapuahfik) Atoll, east of the Caroline Islands. Alternate
names: NGATIKESE MEN'S LANGUAGE, NGATIKESE. Comments: A creolized language
from the Sapuahfik dialect of Ponapean and English whose genesis is the direct
result of a massacre in 1837 of adult males on Ngatik by British traders.
Spoken by adult males who are also native bilinguals of the Sapuahfik dialect
of Ponapean. Adult male speakers. Women and children understand it.
Agriculturalists: coconut, fishermen, pig raisers.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance PijinLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PijinLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PijinLanguage is a
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%SolomonIslands. SIL code: PIS.
ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: 15,000 first language speakers, 300,000 second or
third language speakers (1997 Beimers SIL). Alternate names: SOLOMONS PIDGIN,
NEO-SOLOMONIC. Comments: Basic vocabulary is closer to standard English than
is Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea. Grammar shows Melanesian features.
Pronunciation varies according to local languages. Historically related to
Tok Pisin of PNG and Bislama of Vanuatu. Intelligibility with Bislama is quite
high. Creolization in progress. Language of wider communication. Dictionary.
Literacy rate in first language: 60%. Literacy rate in second language: 50%.
Recent efforts to standardize orthography. NT 1993.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TokPisinLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TokPisinLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TokPisinLanguage is a
&%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: PDG. ISO
639-2: tpi. Population: 50,000 first language, 2,000,000 second language
speakers (1982 SIL). Region: Mainly in the northern half of the country.
Alternate names: PISIN, PIDGIN, NEOMELANESIAN, NEW GUINEA PIDGIN ENGLISH,
MELANESIAN ENGLISH. Comments: There are dialect differences between lowlands,
highlands, and the islands. The highlands lexicon has more English influence
(J. Holm). The native language of some people in mixed urban areas. The main
means of communication between speakers of different languages. The most
frequently used language in Parliament and commerce. Some second language
users speak a 'broken' Pidgin. Official language. Dictionary. Grammar.
Christian, traditional religion. Bible 1989.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
(instance TorresStraitCreoleLanguage PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TorresStraitCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TorresStraitCreoleLanguage is
a &%PacificEnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Australia. SIL code: TCS. ISO
639-2: cpe. Population: 23,400 or fewer (1989 J. Holm). Others are second
language users. Region: Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York and
some towns on the east coast of north Queensland. Alternate names: TORRES
STRAIT PIDGIN, TORRES STRAIT BROKEN, CAPE YORK CREOLE, LOCKHART CREOLE.
Dialects: AP-NE-AP, MODERN LANGUS. Comments: 80% lexical similarity with
English. A creolization of Tok Pisin or Bislama and Kala Lagau Langgus. Trade
language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; OTHER ENGLISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
(instance SaramaccanLanguage EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SaramaccanLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SaramaccanLanguage is an
&%EnglishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Suriname. SIL code: SRM. ISO 639-2: cpe.
Population: 23,000 in Suriname including 1,000 Matawari (1995 N. Glock SIL).
Population total both countries 26,000. Region: Central, along Saramacca and
upper Suriname rivers. Refugees are in Paramaribo. Also spoken in French
Guiana. Dialects: MATAWARI (MATAWAI, MATUARI, MATOEWARI). Comments:
Portuguese influenced. Also linguistic influences from KiKongo (Hancock 1988).
20% or more of the lexicon has an African component. A Bush Negro ethnic
group with background similar to the Ndyuka. Dictionary. Grammar. Tonal, one
tone per vowel. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in
second language: 15% to 25%. Traditional religion. NT 1991-1999.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; FRENCH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (11 Languages)
;; FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation ArabicBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%FrenchLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. AmapaCreoleLanguage (AMD Brazil)
(instance AmapaCreoleLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation AmapaCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AmapaCreoleLanguage is a
&%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Brazil. SIL code: AMD. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 25,000 (1995 SIL). Region: Throughout State of Amapa, concentrated
around the capital, Macapa. Alternate names: LANC-PATUA. Comments: Has English
and French influences. Some Indian groups in Amapa speak other creoles, like
the Karipuna.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. FrenchGuianeseCreoleFrenchLanguage (FRE French Guiana)
(instance FrenchGuianeseCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation FrenchGuianeseCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%FrenchGuianeseCreoleFrenchLanguage is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of
&%FrenchGuiana. SIL code: FRE. ISO 639-2: cpf. Population: 50,000 (1977 SIL).
Alternate names: GUYANAIS, GUYANE, GUYANE CREOLE, PATOIS, PATWA. Comments:
Intelligibility of St. Lucia Creole is 78%, of Karipuna Creole of Brazil 77%.
Most speakers are bilingual in French to some degree. Over one-third of the
population in the capital speaks Creole as mother tongue. It is the most
important rural language. Educated people can all speak it, but try to avoid
it. Low status. Not taught in schools. A counter-movement is beginning. Some
decreolization is taking place. Trade language. Dictionary. Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. HaitianCreoleFrenchLanguage (HAT Haiti)
(instance HaitianCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation HaitianCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HaitianCreoleFrenchLanguage
is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Haiti. SIL code: HAT. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 7,410,000 in Haiti (1998). Population: total all countries
7,800,000. Region: Throughout the country. Also spoken in Bahamas, Canada,
Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Puerto Rico, USA. Dialects:
FABLAS, PLATEAU HAITIAN CREOLE. Comments: Linguistic influences from Wolof
(Benjamin 1956), Fon,and Ewe (C. Lefebvre) of West Africa. Bilingualism in
French. Mother tongue of the entire population, the only language of 95% of
the population (Nida 1972). Strong, with strong basilect. In 1961 it was
granted legal and educational status in Haiti. A growing literature, including
poetry. Lower social status than Standard French. National language.
Dictionary. Grammar. SVO, prepositions, articles after noun heads.
Faublas-Pressoir orthography is standard since 1979. Newspapers, radio
programs, TV. Bible 1985. Also spoken in: The Dominican Republic. (Language
name: HAITIAN CREOLE FRENCH.) Population: 159,000 or 2% of the population in
Dominican Republic (1987). Comments: Bible 1985.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 4. KaripunaCreoleFrenchLanguage (KMV Brazil)
(instance KaripunaCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KaripunaCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%KaripunaCreoleFrenchLanguage is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Brazil.
SIL code: KMV. ISO 639-2: cpf. Population: 672 (1995 SIL). Region: Amapa, on
French Guiana border. Alternate names: CRIOULO. Comments: There are
conflicting reports about how different it is from French Guianese. It is
different from Haitian Creole. Limited bilingualism. Speakers formerly spoke
Karipuna, an unclassified language, possibly formerly from Marajo Island at
the mouth of the Amazon. Investigation needed: intelligibility with French
Guianese, Amapa Creole. Grammar. SVO. Tropical forest. Islands, swamp.
Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists: manioc. Traditional religion, Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 5. LesserAntilleanCreoleFrenchLanguage (DOM St. Lucia)
(instance LesserAntilleanCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation LesserAntilleanCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%LesserAntilleanCreoleFrenchLanguage is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of
&%StLucia. SIL code: DOM. ISO 639-2: cpf. Population: 123,000 in St. Lucia
(1995), 75% of the population (1997 M. Parkvall). Population: total all
countries 985,450. Region: Also spoken in Dominica, France, Grenada,
Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Trinidad and Tobago. Dialects: ST. LUCIA
CREOLE FRENCH (PATWA, PATOIS, KWEYOL). Comments: Guadeloupe dialect is similar
to Haiti, close to Martinique, St. Lucia is close to Dominica (97% to 99%
intelligibility). Goodman (1964) says all French creoles of the Caribbean are
somewhat inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Other sources also
include those of the Indian Ocean and probably Southeast Asia and Oceania
(Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Standard French is understood by no more than
10% of the population in St. Lucia. Standard French is used in some church
services. English is also used. Politicians give speeches in Creole. In the
islands under French influence nearly all the population speaks creole as
mother tongue, although there is a local variety of Standard French. In those
under English influence, the creole has less standing, and its speakers are
normally illiterate in the creole. Dictionary. Grammar. Literacy rate in
second language: 36%. Has an orthography. Newspapers, radio programs.
Christian. NT 1999. Also spoken in: Dominica. (Language name: LESSER ANTILLEAN
CREOLE FRENCH.) Population: 42,600 in Dominica (1998), 60% of the population
(M. Parkvall). Dialects: DOMINICA CREOLE FRENCH (PATWA, PATOIS, KWEYOL).
Comments: The dialect of Dominica is virtually the same as St. Lucia. Most
people are bilingual in English or English dominant, especially younger
people. Standard French understood by no more than 10% of the population (M.
Adler 1977). Loan words from Island Carib and Arawak. Dictionary. Christian.
NT 1999. Also spoken in: Grenada. (Language name: LESSER ANTILLEAN CREOLE
FRENCH.) Dialects: GRENADA CREOLE FRENCH (PATWA, PATOIS). Comments: Mainly
older people on Grenada Island. The same as, or similar to, that spoken in St.
Lucia (M. Alleyne). NT 1999. Also spoken in: Guadeloupe. (Language name:
LESSER ANTILLEAN CREOLE FRENCH.) Population: 335,000 in Guadeloupe (1975).
Dialects: GUADELOUPE CREOLE FRENCH (PATWA, PATOIS, KREYOL), ST. MARTIN CREOLE
FRENCH, MARIE GALANTE CREOLE FRENCH, ST. BARTH CREOLE FRENCH. Comments: Very
close to Martinique Creole. St. Barth Creole is distinct in grammatical,
phonological, and lexical feaatures, and may not be a dialect (J. Maher 1989).
Investigation needed: intelligibility with St. Barth Creole, St. Martin
Creole, Marie Galante Creole. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1999. Also spoken in:
Martinique. (Language name: LESSER ANTILLEAN CREOLE FRENCH.) Population:
325,000 in Martinique (1975). Dialects: MARTINIQUE CREOLE FRENCH (PATWA,
PATOIS). Comments: Dialect of Guadeloupe is close to Martinique. Comprehension
of St. Lucia Creole is 89%. NT 1999. Also spoken in: Trinidad and Tobago.
(Language name: LESSER ANTILLEAN CREOLE FRENCH.) Dialects: TRINIDADIAN CREOLE
FRENCH (PATOIS, TRINIDADIEN). Comments: Speakers have contact with French
creoles from St. Lucia and elsewhere, which contributes to language
maintenance. M. Alleyne and J. Holm say it is close to Lesser Antillean Creole
French. Not intelligible with Standard French. In settlements around Dragon
Mouths children under ten speak the language, elsewhere speakers are
middle-aged and older (I. Hancock 1984). Fishermen. NT 1999.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 6. LouisianaCreoleFrenchLanguage (LOU USA)
(instance LouisianaCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation LouisianaCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%LouisianaCreoleFrenchLanguage is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of the
&%UnitedStates. SIL code: LOU. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 60,000 to 80,000 (1985 Neumann) out of an ethnic group of
1,500,000 (1977 M. Adler). Region: Predominantly in St. Martin parish (St.
Martinville, Breaux Bridge, Cecilia), New Roads and Edgard, Louisiana, parts
of east Texas, small community in Sacramento, California. Comments: Different
from Standard French, the Cajun French also spoken in Louisiana, Haitian
Creole French, and others of the Caribbean. Reports indicate that monolingual
speakers may not be able to understand those other creoles. 'Over 2/3 of the
original slaves came from Senegambia, hardly any slaves arrived during the
second decade of exploitation, and within just over two decades, 2/3 of the
population was native-born. No slaves (and few if any of the slaveowners)
appear to have come from the French Antilles ... What we now need is a careful
comparison between Louisiana Creole and other French Caribbean creoles,
detailing the similarities and differences' (D. Bickerton, Carrier Pidgin
1995.23.2:2). People are reported to have a high degree of bilingualism in
English. 4.6% in the older group are monolingual in Creole. Some in the
younger group are monolingual in English. Those over 60 prefer Creole, and
those under 30 prefer English. Investigation needed: intelligibility with
French Caribbean Creoles, bilingual proficiency in English. Dictionary.
Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 7. MorisyenLanguage (MFE Mauritius)
(instance MorisyenLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation MorisyenLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MorisyenLanguage is a
&%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Mauritius. SIL code: MFE. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 600,000 first language speakers in Mauritius (1989). Population:
total both countries 604,000. Region: Also spoken in Madagascar. Alternate
names: MAURITIUS CREOLE FRENCH, KREOLE, KREOL, MAURITIAN, MAURYSEN. Dialects:
RODRIGUES CREOLE. Comments: Closer to French creoles of the Caribbean than to
Reunion Creole (Philip Baker). Nearly identical to Rodrigues. Bilingualism in
French. The mother tongue of virtually the entire population (D. Bickerton).
Lower prestige than French or English. Trade language. Dictionary. Grammar.
Bible portions 1885-1900.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 8. ReunionCreoleFrenchLanguage (RCF Reunion)
(instance ReunionCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation ReunionCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ReunionCreoleFrenchLanguage
is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Reunion. SIL code: RCF. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 554,500 in Reunion (1987 estimate), or 91% of the population (1982
Barrett). Population total all countries: 595,000. Region: Also spoken in
Comoros Islands, Madagascar. Comments: Two dialects - urban and popular, the
former is closer to French, the latter more similar to Bantu and West African
languages. Education is in French. 25% of the speakers are white, poor, living
in the mountainous interior, and speak archaic highland varieties. 25% are
Indian, live in the coastal lowlands, and speak the basilect or deep creole.
45% are African and mixed, live in the coastal lowlands, and speak the
basilect. The creole is gaining status on Reunion. Dictionary. Sugar, perfume
production.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 9. SanMiguelCreoleFrenchLanguage (SME Panama)
(instance SanMiguelCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SanMiguelCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%SanMiguelCreoleFrenchLanguage is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Panama.
SIL code: SME. ISO 639-2: cpf. Population: 3 or more speakers (1999 SIL).
Comments: Ancestors came from St. Lucia in mid-19th century as laborers. The
Creole had Spanish influences. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 10. SeselwaCreoleFrenchLanguage (CRS Seychelles)
(instance SeselwaCreoleFrenchLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SeselwaCreoleFrenchLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SeselwaCreoleFrenchLanguage
is a &%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%Seychelles. SIL code: CRS. ISO
639-2: cpf. Population: 69,000 (1995), 95.7% of the population (1982 Barrett).
Alternate names: SEYCHELLOIS CREOLE, SEYCHELLES CREOLE FRENCH, KREOL, CREOLE.
Comments: Seychelles dialect is reported to be the same as Chagos. Structural
differences with Mauritius are relatively minor. Not adequately intelligible
with Reunion Creole. It is heard everywhere on the streets, in the shops and
homes. The native language of virtually all its citizens (D. Bickerton 1988).
It is gaining rapidly in status. Dictionary. Grammar. The first 4 years of
education are in Seselwa. Used for some subjects for 5 more years. Radio
programs. Fishermen. Christian. NT in press (1998).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 11. TayoLanguage (CKS New Caledonia)
(instance TayoLanguage FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TayoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TayoLanguage is a
&%FrenchBasedCreoleLanguage of &%NewCaledonia. SIL code: CKS. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Population: 2,000 (1996 C. Corne). Region: Southern, Ploum, Mont-Dore, and
especially Saint Louis, near Noumea, and Paita. Alternate names: 'KALDOSH',
'CALDOCHE', PATOIS, PATOIS DE ST-LOUIS. Comments: Not intelligible with
French. Used as first language by some who are also bilingual in French, and
as second language by others, mainly Wallis Islanders. Investigation needed:
bilingual proficiency, attitudes. Grammar. The only known writing is personal
letters using French orthography.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; GERMAN-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; GermanBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass GermanBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation GermanBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%GermanBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%GermanLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. UnserDeutschLanguage (ULN Papua New Guinea)
(instance UnserDeutschLanguage GermanBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation UnserDeutschLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%UnserDeutschLanguage is a
&%GermanBasedCreoleLanguage of &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: ULN. ISO 639-2:
crp. Population: 100 or fewer fluent speakers including 15 in New Britain, a
few in other parts of PNG and the rest in southeastern Queensland, Australia
(1981 C. Volker). Population total both countries: 100 or fewer. Region: West
New Britain. Also spoken in Australia. Alternate names: RABAUL CREOLE GERMAN.
Comments: All speakers are fluent in at least two of the following: Standard
German, English, or Tok Pisin. Some can also speak Kuanua. Most speakers are
middle-aged or older, although many younger members of the community can
understand it. The descendent of a pidginized form of Standard German which
originated in the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain during German colonial
times among the Catholic mixed-race ('Vunapope') community. With increased
mobility and intermarriage, it has been disappearing in the last few decades.
Grammar. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; IBERIAN-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; IberianBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass IberianBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation IberianBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%IberianBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of an
Iberian language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. PapiamentuLanguage (PAE Netherlands Antilles)
(instance PapiamentuLanguage IberianBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PapiamentuLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PapiamentuLanguage is an
&%IberianBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%NetherlandsAntilles. SIL code: PAE. ISO
639-2: pap. Population: 179,000 in Netherlands Antilles (1998), 84% of the
population (1995). Population total all countries: 329,000. Region: Curacao,
St. Maartens, Bonaire islands off Venezuela coast and islands off Nicaragua.
Also spoken in Aruba, Netherlands, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands. Alternate
names: PAPIAMENTO, PAPIAM, PAPIAMENTOE, PAPIAMEN, CURACOLENO, CURASSESE.
Comments: The language is becoming more like Spanish, which is prestigious.
They use Dutch at school and with tourists, Spanish with Spanish-speaking
persons, English with tourists. All domains. All ages. About 20,000 speak it
as second language. Using both Papiamentu and Dutch is not considered an
indication of lack of education. However, inability to use Dutch hinders
social and political mobility, and leads to discontent. Dictionary. Grammar.
Taught in first 2 years of primary school. Newspapers. Christian. Bible 1997.
Also spoken in: Aruba. (Language name: PAPIAMENTU.) Population: 70,000 in
Aruba (1999 estimate). Alternate names: PAPIAMENTO, PAPIAM, CURACOLENO,
CURASSESE, PAPIAMENTOE. Comments: Three main dialects.The language is becoming
more like Spanish, which is prestigious. Using both Papiamentu and Dutch is
not considered an indication of lack of education. However, inability to use
Dutch hinders social and political mobility, and leads to discontent. Bible
1997.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; INDONESIAN-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "An
&%IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and
core lexical foundation of the &%IndonesianLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. PeranakanIndonesianLanguage (PEA Indonesia - Java and Bali)
(instance PeranakanIndonesianLanguage IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PeranakanIndonesianLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PeranakanIndonesianLanguage
is an &%IndonesianBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia (Java). SIL code: PEA.
ISO 639-2: crp. Population: Many thousands of speakers (1981 Wurm and
Hattori). Region: East and central Java. Alternate names: CHINESE INDONESIAN,
BABA INDONESIAN, PERANAKA. Comments: It is based in Indonesian and Javanese.
It has Mandarin elements, in contrast to Baba Malay, which has Hokkien
elements. Monolinguals are over 70 years old. Developed at the beginning of
the 17th century among Low Malay speaking Chinese traders from Fukien who
married Javanese women. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Baba Malay,
bilingual proficiency in Indonesian, Javanese.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; KONGO-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
;; KongoBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass KongoBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation KongoBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%KongoBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of a
Kongo language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. KitubaLanguage (KTU Democratic Republic of Congo)
(instance KitubaLanguage KongoBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KitubaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KitubaLanguage is a
&%KongoBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%DemocraticRepublicOfCongo. SIL code: KTU.
ISO 639-2: crp. Population: 4,200,000 (1990 UBS), 5,000,000 including second
language users (1989 Mufwene). Region: Orientale and southern Bandundu
provinces. Alternate names: KIKONGO-KUTUBA, KIKONGO SIMPLIFIE, KIKONGO YA
LETA, KILETA, KIKONGO COMMERCIAL, KIBULAMATADI. Dialects: IKELEVE, WESTERN
KITUBA, EASTERN KITUBA. Comments: A creole based on the KiKongo dialect spoken
in Manianga area (Bas-Congo), but unintelligible to speakers of it or other
Kikongo dialects. Influenced by Lingala, French, restructured Swahili,
Portuguese, and other local dialects. Munukutuba of Congo is closely related.
Means of communication among various language groups. Bible 1990.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. MunukutubaLanguage (MKW Congo)
(instance MunukutubaLanguage KongoBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation MunukutubaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MunukutubaLanguage is a
&%KongoBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%Congo. SIL code: MKW. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 1,156,800 or 60% of the population (1987 SIL). Region: Mainly
along roads and railroads westwards from Brazzaville and northwards to Mayoko.
Comments: Close to Kituba of DRC. The main language of the south. National
language. Literacy rate in first language: 5% to 10%. Literacy rate in second
language: 15% to 25%. Bible portions 1989.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; MALAY-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (6 Languages)
;; MalayBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass MalayBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation MalayBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%MalayLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. AmboneseMalayLanguage (ABS Indonesia - Maluku)
(instance AmboneseMalayLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation AmboneseMalayLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AmboneseMalayLanguage is a
&%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia (Maluku). SIL code: ABS. ISO 639-2:
crp. Population: 200,000 first language speakers, other second language
speakers in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). Population total all countries:
245,000. Region: Central Maluku, Ambon, Haruku, Nusa Laut, Saparua islands,
along the coastal areas of Seram, and southern Maluku. Also spoken in
Netherlands, USA. Alternate names: MELAYU AMBON, AMBONESE. Comments: Marginal
intelligibility with Indonesian. Difficult intelligibility with Ternate Malay;
speakers switch to Indonesian. 81% lexical similarity with Standard Malay.
Bilingualism in Indonesian is high around Ambon city, Some Dutch is known.
Developed from Bazaar Malay and still reflects some archaic forms. Further
diverged by adapting to the vernaculars of central Maluku. Considered to be a
Malay-based creole by B.D. Grimes (1988, 1991) and J. Holm (1989:581-3).
Trade language. Grammar. Literacy rate in first language: 1% to 5%. Literacy
rate in second language: 50% to 75%. Christian (since early 16th century),
Muslim. NT 1877-1883.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. BabaMalayLanguage (BAL Singapore)
(instance BabaMalayLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BabaMalayLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BabaMalayLanguage is a
&%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Singapore. SIL code: BAL. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 10,000 or more in Singapore (1986 A. Pakir). Estimates of ethnic
Baba are from 250,000 to 400,000. Population: total both countries 15,000.
Region: Mainly in the Katong District on the east coast and the surrounding
districts of Geylang and Jao Chiat. Also spoken in Malaysia (Peninsular).
Alternate names: CHINESE MALAY, BABA, STRAITS MALAY. Comments: It developed
since the 15th century from Low Malay with many Hokkien Chinese borrowings.
Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with
Standard Malay. It is generally believed that the Baba of Malaysia is more
'refined', and that of Singapore more 'rough'. Most have learned Standard
Malay and English in school. Lim (1981) and Holm (1989) treat it as a
Malay-based creole. It is different from Peranakan Indonesian. Some who grew
up with Chinese neighbors know Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese. Children now
learn Mandarin in school rather than Standard Malay. Baba is mainly used in
the home and with other Babas. The only monolinguals are over 70 years old.
NT 1913, out of print. Also spoken in: Malaysia (Peninsular). (Language name:
MALAY, BABA.) Population: 5,000 in Malacca or 3% of the Chinese population
(1979 Tan Chee Beng). Alternate names: STRAITS MALAY, CHINESE MALAY. Comments:
Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with
Standard Malay. It is different from Peranakan Indonesian. Much bilingualism
in Standard Malay. The only monolinguals are over 70 years old. It developed
since the 15th century from Low Malay with many Hokkien Chinese borrowings.
Lim (1981) and Holm (1989) treat it as a Malay-based creole. NT 1913, out of
print.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. BetawiLanguage (BEW Indonesia - Java and Bali)
(instance BetawiLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation BetawiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BetawiLanguage is a
&%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia (Java and Bali). SIL code: BEW. ISO
639-2: crp. Population: 2,700,000 (1993 Johnstone). Region: Jakarta, Java.
Alternate names: JAKARTA MALAY, BETAWI MALAY, BATAVI, BATAWI, MELAYU JAKARTE.
Comments: 'A Malay based creole which is quite distinct from both standard
Indonesian and from other Malay-based pidgins and creoles.' It had evolved by
the mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits.
There are also influences from Peranakan Chinese and Bali. Often not
intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (R.B. Allen, Jr.
1989). Functions as a 'low' variety in a diglossic situation, but is a
prestige variety when used by the upper class. The people are called 'Betawi
Asli' or 'Betawi.' Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 4. KupangMalayLanguage (MKN Indonesia - Nusa Tenggara)
(instance KupangMalayLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KupangMalayLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KupangMalayLanguage is a
&%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara). SIL code: MKN. ISO
639-2: crp. Population: 200,000 mother tongue speakers (1997 Max Jacob).
Others use it as a second language. Region: Kupang and surrounding towns, West
Timor. Alternate names: KUPANG. Dialects: AIR MATA. Comments: 2 dialects. Some
preachers preach in it. Loan words from Rote, Portuguese, Chinese, Uab Meto
(Atoni), Sabu, Spanish, Dutch, English. Newspapers, radio programs. Christian.
Bible portions 1999.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 5. MalaccanCreoleMalayLanguage (CCM Malaysia - Peninsular)
(instance MalaccanCreoleMalayLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation MalaccanCreoleMalayLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MalaccanCreoleMalayLanguage
is a &%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Malaysia (Peninsular). SIL code: CCM.
ISO 639-2: crp. Population: No estimate available. Region: Malacca Straits.
Alternate names: CHITTIES CREOLE MALAY. Comments: May be historically related
to Sri Lankan Creole Malay. Spoken since the 16th century by descendants of
Tamil merchants who intermarried with other groups. The speakers are called
'Chitties' (Lim 1981:126-8, Holm 1989:580). Has not been studied in detail.
Investigation needed: intelligibility with Sri Lankan Creole Malay.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 6. SriLankanCreoleMalayLanguage (SCI Sri Lanka)
(instance SriLankanCreoleMalayLanguage MalayBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SriLankanCreoleMalayLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%SriLankanCreoleMalayLanguage is a &%MalayBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SriLanka.
SIL code: SCI. ISO 639-2: crp. Population: 50,000 speakers, .29% of the
population (1986 Hussainmiya, Prentice 1994:411). Region: Especially the
cities of Colombo, Kandy, Badulla, Hambantota. Alternate names: SRI LANKAN
MALAY, MELAYU BAHASA. Comments: Not intelligible with standard Malay because
of phonological and syntactic differences, and strong influence from Tamil.
May be close to Malaccan Creole Malay (S. Lim 1981). Most or all may speak
Tamil, but second language proficiency needs investigation. The creole is
used at home and among friends. All ages. There are current efforts to revive
the older literature. Widely used. Malay vocabulary with grammatical structure
based on Sri Lankan Moor Tamil. Investigation needed: intelligibility with
Malaccan Creole Malay, bilingual proficiency in Tamil. SOV, postpositions,
case, adjectives and genitives precede noun heads. Roman script used. Jawi
(Arabic) script used earlier. Newspapers, radio programs.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; NGBANDI-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
;; NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%NgbandiLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. RiverainSangoLanguage (SNJ Central African Republic)
(instance RiverainSangoLanguage NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation RiverainSangoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%RiverainSangoLanguage is a
&%NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%CentralAfricanRepublic. SIL code: SNJ.
ISO 639-2: crp. Population: 34,500 (1996). Region: Mobaye Subprefecture,
along the Ubangi River. Comments: High intelligibility with Sango.
Investigation needed: intelligibility with Sango.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. SangoLanguage (SAJ Central African Republic)
(instance SangoLanguage NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SangoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SangoLanguage is a
&%NgbandiBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%CentralAfricanRepublic. SIL code: SAJ.
ISO 639-1: sg. ISO 639-2: sag. Population: 350,000 mother tongue speakers in
CAR, including 24,573 Sango Riverain (1988 census). Population total all
countries: 400,000 or more. Including second language speakers: 5,000,000
(1997 UBS). Region: Scattered. Not in Cameroon. Also spoken in Chad, Congo,
DRC. Alternate names: SANGHO. Comments: 51% lexical similarity with French,
49% from African languages. However, the African-based words are used more
frequently. Spoken and written for informal use, used for instruction in
community schools, in public schools when students do not understand French,
church and mission publications. More men than women speak it as second
language. A rapidly spreading creole derived from Ngbandi. National language.
SVO. Radio programs, TV. Bible 1966. Also spoken in: Chad. (Language name:
SANGO.) Alternate names: SANGHO. Comments: A trade language derived from
Ngbandi, with decreasing usage in Chad. Probably no mother tongue speakers in
Chad. Trade language. Bible 1966. Also spoken in: Democratic Republic of
Congo. (Language name: SANGO.) Population: Only a few in DRC. Alternate
names: SANGHO. Comments: A rapidly spreading language derived from Ngbandi
with loans from Bantu languages and French. Trade language. Bible 1966.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; PORTUGUESE-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (13 Languages)
;; PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%PortugueseLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. AngolarLanguage (AOA Sao Tome e Principe)
(instance AngolarLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation AngolarLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AngolarLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SaoTomeEPrincipe. SIL code: AOA. ISO
639-2: cpp. Population: 5,000 (1998 S. and T. Graham. Region: Angolar is
spoken on the southern tip of Sao Tome Island. Most are around the town of
Sao Joao dos Angolares, and some in the southern region of Caue. Alternate
names: NGOLA. Comments: The substratum was largely Kwa and Western Bantu
languages, quite distinct from the creoles of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Gambia,
and Cape Verde. The 33% of the Angolar lexicon not shared with Sao Tomense is
largely of Bantu origin, apparently KiMbundu of Angola, with some from Kongo,
Bini, and Ndingi. Angolar shares 70% lexical similarity with Sao Tomense, 67%
with Principense, 53% with Annobonese. Some Angolares speak Sao Tomense also,
and are tending to be absorbed into the Forros. Many speak Portuguese, but
many are not comfortable in speaking it. Home and community social life. The
Angolares are a distinct ethnolinguistic group from the Forros ('freedmen').
Grammar. Tonal. Literacy rate in second language: 50% Portuguese. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. CafundoCreoleLanguage (CCD Brazil)
(instance CafundoCreoleLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation CafundoCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CafundoCreoleLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Brazil. SIL code: CCD. ISO 639-2: cpp.
Population: 40 (1978 M. Gnerre, U. Estadual de Campinas). Region: Cafundo,
150 miles from Sao Paulo. Comments: Bilingualism in Portuguese. Bantu lexicon
in Portuguese morphological and syntactic framework. The people are all fluent
in Portuguese. The creole is considered a secret language. A similar creole
has been recently discovered in Minas Gerais.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. FaDAmbuLanguage (FAB Equatorial Guinea)
(instance FaDAmbuLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation FaDAmbuLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%FaDAmbuLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%EquatorialGuinea. SIL code: FAB. ISO
639-2: cpp. Population: 2,500 (1999 SIL). Population: total both countries
2,500. Region: Annobon Island, isolated from the mainland by 360 km. of ocean
(2,000), and in a community from Annobon living in Malabo on Bioko Island
(500), a few on continental Equatorial Guinea. Also spoken in Spain. Alternate
names: ANNOBONES, ANNOBONESE, ANNOBONENSE. Comments: Different from Fernando
Po Krio and Crioulo of Guinea-Bissau and Kabuverdianu. Little variation
between Annobonese in Annobon and Malabo. 62.5% lexical similarity with Sao
Tomense. About 10% of the lexicon comes from Spanish. Many on Bioko learn
Spanish, but less so on Annobon. Women on Annobon seem uncomfortable in
Spanish. Spanish is used in government and education. Many on Bioko learn the
local trade language, Fernando Po Creole English. Non-creolized Portuguese
used as liturgical language by local Catholics. Used in the home and with
other Annobonese, all contexts except government and education. Vigorous use
in Annobon and Malabo. Language closely related to cultural identity and
solidarity. The Portuguese took slaves from Sao Tome and Angola to establish
a population on Annobon. It was later traded to Spain. Also influenced by the
Creole English of Bioko. They are famed swimmers, fishermen, and whalers.
Possible vowel length, vowel harmony, tone sandhi. Tropical forest. Volcanic
island. Fishermen, agricultural laborers, coconut palms, whalers. 0 to 500
meters. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 4. IndoPortugueseLanguage (IDB Sri Lanka)
(instance IndoPortugueseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation IndoPortugueseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%IndoPortugueseLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SriLanka. SIL code: IDB. ISO 639-2: cpp.
Population: 30 to 2,250 in Sri Lanka (1971 Ian Smith), including 250 families
in Batticaloa (1984 Ian Smith), but possibly only about 30 speakers left (1992
P. Baker). Population total all countries: 730 to 3,000. Region: Colombo,
Kandy, Trincomalee, Galle, Batticaloa. Also spoken in Australia, India.
Comments: Similar to Tamil in phonology and syntax. Varieties of creole
Portuguese were also spoken in Myanmar, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia,
Malaysia, China. See also Malaccan Creole Portuguese (Peninsular Malaysia),
Macao Creole Portuguese (Macau, Hongkong), Ternateno (Maluku, Indonesia),
Timor Pidgin (Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia). Everyone is fluent in Tamil. Older
speakers are also bilingual in English, some younger ones in Sinhalese. The
creole is used at home only. Most of the Burgher caste speak it at home. Many
in the ethnic group may not know the creole well. Virtually no contact with
Goa or Portugal since 1656. NT 1826-1852. Also spoken in: India. (Language
name: INDO-PORTUGUESE.) Population: 700 monolingual speakers in Korlai (1977
Theban). Comments: Active use among Catholic citizens in Daman (1982 Jackson).
Some communities in India have become extinct. SOV. NT 1826-1852.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 5. KabuverdianuLanguage (KEA Cape Verde Islands)
(instance KabuverdianuLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KabuverdianuLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KabuverdianuLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%CapeVerdeIslands. SIL code: KEA. ISO
639-2: cpp. Population: 393,943 including 255,101 in Sotavento or 65% of the
speakers, 138,842 in Barlavento or 35% of the speakers (1998 S. Graham).
Population: total all countries 934,000. Region: Sotavento dialect is on
Santiago, Maio, Fogo, and Brava islands, Barlavento dialect is on Santo Antao,
Sao Vicente, Sao Nicolau, Sal, and Boa Vista islands. Also spoken in France,
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, USA.
Alternate names: CABOVERDIANO. Dialects: SOTAVENTO, BARLAVENTO. Comments: 59%
lexical similarity with the Gulf of Guinea creoles. 29% are comfortable in
Portuguese, 36% uncomfortable, 34% block up. Since independence in 1975, the
domains of spoken Portuguese have receded in favor of Creole. Portuguese used
primarily on TV and radio, in Congress, classrooms, churches, and with
foreigners. Portuguese is the primary language of instruction in 12 grades.
Used in most domains, and some in Congress, classrooms, churches. There is a
creole continuum and some decreolization. National language. Dictionary.
Grammar. Literacy rate in second language: 29% Portuguese. Radio programs.
Christian. Bible portions 1936.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 6. KorlaiCreolePortugueseLanguage (VKP India)
(instance KorlaiCreolePortugueseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation KorlaiCreolePortugueseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%KorlaiCreolePortugueseLanguage is a &%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of
&%India. SIL code: VKP. ISO 639-2: cpp. Population: 750 (1998 J.C. Clements).
Region: Maharashtra, Korlai, 200 km. south of Bombay, west coast. Comments:
Recently discovered. Originated around 1520. Originally cut off from Hindu and
Muslim neighbors by social and religious barriers, lost virtually all
Portugese contact as well after 1740. Situation now rapidly changing, with
intense cultural pressure from the surrounding Marathi-speaking population.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 7. MalaccanCreolePortugueseLanguage (MCM Malaysia - Peninsular)
(instance MalaccanCreolePortugueseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation MalaccanCreolePortugueseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%MalaccanCreolePortugueseLanguage is a &%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of
&%Malaysia (Peninsular). SIL code: MCM. ISO 639-2: cpp. Population: 5,000
(1997 Col. Timothy D'Souza, Eurasian Association). Population: total both
countries 5,000 or more (1997). Region: Trankera and Hilir, Melaka, Straits of
Malacca, Malacca city and the southwest coast of the Malaysian Peninsula.
Related varieties in parts of Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Variety in Pulau
Tikus, Penang is now virtually extinct. Also spoken in Singapore. Alternate
names: MALAYSIAN CREOLE PORTUGUESE, MALACCAN, PAPIA KRISTANG, KRISTANG,
PORTUGUESE PATOIS, SERANI, BAHASA SERANI, BAHASA GERAGAU, MALAQUEIRO,
MALAQUENSE, MALAQUES, MALAQUENHO, PORTUGUES DE MALACA, MALAYO-PORTUGUESE.
Comments: Most speakers also know local varieties of Bazaar Malay and
Malaysian English. Some Creole people speak only English. Some older female
speakers have limited English. Most people over 20 speak Kristang, and 1/3 of
those under 20. Also spoken as second language by some Chinese shopkeepers in
Hilir. Used by Creole people more in 1997 than in 1987. 'Kristang' is their
name for the language, people, and religion. Trade language. Dictionary.
Grammar. Fishermen. Bible portions 1884. Also spoken in: Singapore. (Language
name: MALACCAN CREOLE PORTUGUESE.) Alternate names: MALAYSIAN CREOLE
PORTUGUESE, MALACCAN, PAPIA KRISTANG. Comments: Also spoken as second language
by some Chinese shopkeepers in Hilir. Used in RC church services until World
War II. Trade language. Fishermen. Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 8. MacaneseLanguage (MZS China)
(instance MacaneseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation MacaneseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MacaneseLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%China. SIL code: MZS. ISO 639-2: cpp.
Population: 4,000 in Hong Kong (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin) and a few in
Macau (1996 Ian Watts), out of 8,500 in the ethnic group (1985). Region: Hong
Kong and Macau. Possibly in USA. Alternate names: MACAO CREOLE PORTUGUESE,
MACAENSE. Comments: A small number of elderly women in Macau speak it as
mother tongue.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 9. PrincipenseLanguage (PRE Sao Tome e Principe)
(instance PrincipenseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PrincipenseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PrincipenseLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SaoTomeEPrincipe. SIL code: PRE. ISO
639-2: cpp. Population: Few speakers out of 1,558 Principenses on Principe
(1999 S. Graham). Region: On Principe Island. Alternate names: LUN'GWIYE,
'MONCO'. Comments: The substratum was largely Kwa and Western Bantu languages;
quite distinct from the creoles of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Gambia, and Cape
Verde. Principense shares 77% lexical similarity with Sao Tomense, 67% with
Angolar, 62% with Annobonese. Most speak Portuguese, and some learn
Saotomense. Speakers are elderly. National language. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 10. SaotomenseLanguage (CRI Sao Tome e Principe)
(instance SaotomenseLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation SaotomenseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SaotomenseLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%SaoTomeEPrincipe. SIL code: CRI
ISO 639-2: cpp. Population: 69,899 (1999 S. Graham). Region: Sao Tomense is
spoken on Sao Tome Island, all but the southern tip. Alternate names: SAO
TOMENSE. Comments: The substratum was largely Kwa and Western Bantu languages;
quite distinct from the creoles of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Gambia, and Cape
Verde. Saotomense shares 77% lexical similarity with Principense, and 62% with
Fa D'Ambu (Annobonese), 70% with Angolar. Most speak Portuguese. Some elderly
women may not understand Portuguese adequately. The language of social
identity in most Sao Tome social networks for age 30 and above. The Angolares
are a distinct ethnolinguistic group from the Forros ('freedmen'), Saotomense
speakers also on Sao Tome Island. Most Angolares speak Saotomense also, and
are tending to be absorbed into the Forros. National language. Literacy rate
in second language: 50% Portuguese.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 11. TernatenoLanguage (TMG Indonesia - Maluku)
(instance TernatenoLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TernatenoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TernatenoLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Indonesia (Maluku). SIL code: TMG. ISO
639-2: cpp. Region: North Maluku, Ternate Island, west of Halmahera Island.
Alternate names: TERNATENYO. Comments: Spanish relexification. Historical
relationship with Chavacano and dialects, which are still spoken in the
Philippines. Varieties of creole Portuguese were also spoken in Banda and
Ambon. The Jakarta variety of creole Portuguese survived in Tugu until recent
times (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Other varieties were also spoken in Larantuka,
Flores, Adonara (Vure), Solor, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi. See also
Timor Pidgin in Timor Lorosae, Indo-Portuguese in Sri Lanka, and Malaccan
Creole Portuguese in Peninsular Malaysia. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 12. TimorPidginLanguage (TVY Timor Lorosae)
(instance TimorPidginLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TimorPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TimorPidginLanguage is a
&%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%TimorLorosae. SIL code: TVY. ISO 639-2:
cpp. Region: Timor Island, around Bidau, Dili and Lifan. Alternate names:
TIMOR CREOLE PORTUGUESE. Dialects: PORTUGUES DE BIDAU, MACAISTA. Comments:
Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 13. UpperGuineaCriouloLanguage (POV Guinea-Bissau)
(instance UpperGuineaCriouloLanguage PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation UpperGuineaCriouloLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%UpperGuineaCriouloLanguage is
a &%PortugueseBasedCreoleLanguage of &%GuineaBissau. SIL code: POV. ISO
639-2: cpp. Population: 159,000 first language speakers in Guinea-Bissau (1996)
and 600,000 second language users (Chataigner ms.) Population total all
countries: 361,500 or more. Region: Also Bijagos Islands. Also spoken in
Gambia, Senegal, USA. Alternate names: PORTUGUESE CREOLE, KRIULO. Dialects:
BISSAU-BOLAMA CREOLE, BAFATA CREOLE, CACHEU-ZIGUINCHOR CREOLE. Comments: The
Senegal dialect is a little different, but they are intelligible to each
other's speakers. Portuguese not well known. The lingua franca in much of
Guinea-Bissau, more in the west than in the east. Trade language. Grammar.
Bible in press (1997). Also spoken in: Senegal. (Language name: CRIOULO,
UPPER GUINEA.) Population: 46,500 in Senegal (1998). Alternate names:
PORTUGUESE CREOLE, KRIULO. Dialects: CACHEU-ZIGUINCHOR CREOLE. Comments: The
Senegal dialect is a little different than Guinea-Bissau, with some Pidgin
French vocabulary. Intelligible with Guinea-Bissau Creole. Literacy rate in
first language: Below 1%. Christian. Bible in press (1997).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SPANISH-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
;; SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%SpanishLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. ChavacanoLanguage (CBK Philippines)
(instance ChavacanoLanguage SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation ChavacanoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ChavacanoLanguage is a
&%SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage of the &%Philippines. SIL code: CBK. ISO 639-2:
crp. Population: 292,630 (1990 census), including 155,000 Zamboangueno (1989
J. Holm), 27,841 Caviten, 3,750 Ternateno (1975 census), 5,473 Cotabato
Chavacano (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population: total both countries 292,630.
Region: Zamboanga, Basilan, Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas,
Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawa, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, Cotabato
city, Mindanao, Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila. The 1970 census
listed speakers in 60 of the 66 provinces. Alternate names: ZAMBOANGUENO,
CHABAKANO. Dialects: CAVITEQO, TERNATENO (TERNATENO CHAVACANO), ERMITANO
(ERMITENO), DAVAWENYO ZAMBOANGUENYO (ABAKAY SPANISH, DAVAO CHAVACANO,
DAVAOENO, DAVAWENO), COTOBATO CHAVACANO, ZAMBOANGUENO (CHAVACANO). Comments:
A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical
structure. Davawen Zamboangueno may be extinct. Nearly all Caviten speak
Tagalog, but many still speak Caviteno. The major language of Zamboanga city.
Ermiteno is extinct. Literacy rate in first language: 80%. Literacy rate in
second language: 80%. Used in primary education. Newspapers, radio programs.
NT 1981. Also spoken in: Malaysia (Sabah). (Language name: CHAVACANO.
Comments: NT 1981.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. PalenqueroLanguage (PLN Colombia)
(instance PalenqueroLanguage SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation PalenqueroLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PalenqueroLanguage is a
&%SpanishBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Colombia. SIL code: PLN. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: The ethnic group is 2,500 (1989 J. Holm). Region: Village of San
Basilio de Palenque southeast of Cartagena, and 2 neighborhoods in
Barranquilla. Alternate names: PALENQUE, LENGUA. Comments: Entirely
unintelligible to Spanish speakers. Linguistic influences from Kongo in
Democratic Republic of Congo (I. Hancock 1987). Most members of the ethnic
group speak Spanish as mother tongue, but some old people have limited
proficiency in Spanish. 10% of those under 25 speak it (1998 Armin Schwegler).
Most speakers are older. Everyone values Palenquero. People are culturally
distinct from nearby Spanish speakers. Investigation needed: bilingual
proficiency in Spanish, attitudes toward Spanish. Grammar.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SWAHILI-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%SwahiliLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. CutchiSwahiliLanguage (CCL Kenya)
(instance CutchiSwahiliLanguage SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation CutchiSwahiliLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CutchiSwahiliLanguage is a
&%SwahiliBasedCreoleLanguage of &%Kenya. SIL code: CCL. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Also spoken in Tanzania. Alternate
names: ASIAN SWAHILI. Comments: May be adequately intelligible to speakers of
standard Swahili. Cutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili may not be the same.
Bilingualism in English. Asian Swahili is used by other Asians in
communicating with non-English speaking Africans and other Asians who share
no other common language. The first language of some Gujarati Muslims who
have come from Zanzibar. It has regular but distinct phonology, lexical, and
grammatical differences from Swahili, described by Whitely (1974.73-79).
Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language:
15% to 25%. Ismaili and Ithnasheri Muslim. Also spoken in: Tanzania. (Language
name: CUTCHI-SWAHILI.) Alternate names: ASIAN SWAHILI. Comments: May be
adequately intelligible to speakers of standard Swahili. Cutchi-Swahili and
Asian Swahili may not be identical. Bilingualism in English. The first
language of some Gujarati Muslims who have come from Zanzibar. Asian Swahili
is used by other Asians in communicating with non-English speaking Africans
and other Asians who share no common language. It has a regular but distinct
phonology and lexical and grammatical differences, described by Whitely
(1974.73-79). Cutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili may not be identical. Ismaili
and Ithnasheri Muslim.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; TETUN-BASED CREOLE LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; TetunBasedCreoleLanguage
(subclass TetunBasedCreoleLanguage CreoleLanguage)
(documentation TetunBasedCreoleLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%TetunBasedCreoleLanguage
is a &%CreoleLanguage using a grammatical and core lexical foundation of the
&%TetunLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. TetumPrasaLanguage (TDT Timor Lorosae)
(instance TetumPrasaLanguage TetunBasedCreoleLanguage)
(documentation TetumPrasaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TetumPrasaLanguage is a
&%TetunBasedCreoleLanguage of &%TimorLorosae. SIL code: TDT. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: 50,000 (?) (1995). Region: First language speakers concentrated
in and around Dili on the north coast of Timor Lorosae. Fluent second language
speakers scattered widely throughout the western 2/3 of Timor Lorosae.
Alternate names: TETUM PRACA, DILI TETUM, TETUM DILI. Comments: Speakers of
North and South Tetun [TTM] have significant difficulty understanding it in
many speech domains, and vice versa. Some first language speakers of Tetum
Prasa consider themselves to be bilingual in Tetun because of contact, but
when pressed, admit there are domains in which communication is completely
blocked. There are important differences with Tetun in parts of the grammar,
morphology, functors, and much of the lexicon. There is heavy influence of
Portuguese and some Indonesian or Malay loans in Tetum Prasa. Growing in its
role as a language of wider communication, functioning as a symbol of
inter-ethnic solidarity in the region, predominantly in urban areas. There
are 3 second-language varieties spoken by different people: (1) fluent Tetum
Prasa spoken throughout the western 2/3 of Timor Lorosae, primarily by those
who have lived in Dili for one or more years, (2) occasional Dili residents
with significant influence from their own local mother tongues, and (3)
people originally from Timor Lorosae who are overseas residents in Portugal or
Australia, with higher portion of inflected Portuguese vocabulary and almost
complete lack of Indonesian or Malay loans. There is also 'Tetum Ibadat' or
'liturgical Tetum' which is not spoken by anyone for everyday communication,
nor as mother tongue, with a lot of vocabulary and some grammar that is not
understood widely. Cultural rituals and themes in Tetun are not as deeply
rooted in Tetum Prasa. Heavy Portuguese and Mambae influence. Language of
wider communication. Compared to Tetun: many more Portuguese loan words, does
not inflect V-initial verb roots for person or number, uses more
periphrastic constructions than morphological constructions (e.g.,
causatives), differences in possessive constructions and negatives.
Christian. Bible portions 1996.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; c. LANGUAGE ISOLATES (30 Languages)
;; 1. AbinomnLanguage (BSA Indonesia - Irian Jaya)
(instance AbinomnLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation AbinomnLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AbinomnLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Indonesia (Irian Jaya). SIL code: BSA. ISO 639-2: paa. Population:
300 (1999 Clouse and Donohue). Region: Lakes Plain area, from the mouth of the
Baso River just east of Dabra at the Idenburg River to its headwaters in the
Foya Mts., Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Hulu Kecamatan. Alternate names:
AVINOMEN, 'BASO', FOYA, FOJA. Comments: Completely unrelated to any language
in the area. Very eager for literacy. Want to make their own dictionary and
write their traditional stories. They strongly dislike the name 'Baso.' SOV.
Schooling is very low.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. AinuJapaneseLanguage (AIN Japan)
(instance AinuJapaneseLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation AinuJapaneseLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AinuJapaneseLanguage is a language
isolate spoken in &%Japan. SIL code: AIN. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 15
active speakers (1996 Alexander Vovin). In the ethnic group: 15,000 in Japan.
Population total both countries 15. Region: Kuril Islands (Tsishima),
Hokkaido. Formerly also on south Sakhalin Island, Russia. Alternate names:
AINU ITAK. Dialects: TSISHIMA, SAKHALIN. Comments: The last speaker of
Sakhalin dialect died in 1994. There were at least 19 dialects. Bilingualism
in Japanese. Most of the people speak only Japanese and are integrated into
Japanese culture. The Ainu in China is a different, unrelated language. SOV.
Nearly extinct. NT 1897. Also spoken in: Russia (Asia). (Language name: AINU.)
Dialects: SAKHALIN (SAGHILIN), TARAIKA, HOKKAIDO (EZO, YEZO), KURIL
(SHIKOTAN). Comments: Ainu has not been determined to be related
linguistically to any other language. Sources list up to 19 dialects. The
last speaker of Sakhalin dialect died in 1994. Except for 15 speakers (1996),
the Ainu in Japan speak Japanese. The Ainu spoken in China is a different,
unrelated language. Nearly extinct. NT 1897.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. AndoqueLanguage (ANO Colombia)
(instance AndoqueLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation AndoqueLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AndoqueLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Colombia. SIL code: ANO. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 518 to 600
speakers in Colombia, all of whom are reported to understand it, but few speak
it (1998 Arango and Sanchez). Extinct in Peru (1992 SIL). There were 10,000
in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). Region: Aduche River (tributary of Caqueta) 15 km.
down river from Araracuara, Amazonas. Alternate names: ANDOKE. Comments:
Mason (1950:246 with disclaimer), Tax (1960:433), and Kaufman (1990:43
tentatively) say this is Witotoan. Tovar (1961:150), Witte (1981:1), and
Aschmann (1993:2) say it is an isolate. 80% speak fair Spanish, 10% are
monolingual. People are somewhat acculturated. Tropical forest. Rubber
gatherers.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 4. BurmesoLanguage (BZU Indonesia - Irian Jaya)
(instance BurmesoLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation BurmesoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BurmesoLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Indonesia (Irian Jaya). SIL code: BZU. ISO 639-2: paa. Population:
250 (1998 Donohue). Region: Burmeso village and isolated temporary houses
along nearby rivers, mid Mamberamo River between Trimuris and Sikari northeast
of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). Jayapura Kabupaten, Mamberamo Tengah Kecamatan.
Alternate names: TAURAP, BOROMESO, BORUMESSO, BURUMESO, MONAU, MONAO, MANAU.
Comments: Less than 5% lexical similarity with any other languages. Many
proficient in Indonesian, more than surrounding groups. Many understand nearby
languages. All domains. All ages. Vigorous. Interest in language strong. Not
spoken by outsiders. Pride in ethnic identity. Dictionary. Fishermen, hunters,
sago horticulturalists, animal husbandry: chickens, ducks. 200 meters.
Christian.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 5. BurushaskiLanguage (BSK Pakistan)
(instance BurushaskiLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation BurushaskiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BurushaskiLanguage is a language
isolate spoken in &%Pakistan. SIL code: BSK. ISO 639-2: mis. Population:
55,000 to 60,000 (1981). Population total both countries: 55,000 to 60,000.
Region: Hunza-Nagar area and Yasin area in Gilgit District, Northern Areas.
Scattered speakers also in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. Also spoken
in India. Alternate names: BRUSHASKI, BURUSHAKI, BURUCAKI, BURUSHKI,
BURUCASKI, BILTUM, KHAJUNA, KUNJUT. Dialects: NAGAR (NAGIR), HUNZA, YASIN
(WERCHIKWAR). Comments: Werchikwar is geographically separated from other
dialects. Nagar and Hunza dialects have 91% to 94% lexical similarity.
Werchikwar has 67% to 72% lexical similarity with Hunza, 66% to 71% with
Nagar, and may be a separate language. Werchikwar speakers are somewhat
bilingual in Khowar. Knowledge of Urdu is limited among women and some
others. People are called Burusho. SOV. Literacy rate in second language:
20%. Ismaili Muslim, Shi'a Muslim (Nagar).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 6. BusaLanguage (BHF Papua New Guinea)
(instance BusaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation BusaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BusaLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: BHF. ISO 639-2: paa. Population: 307 (1994
SIL). Region: Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Upper Sepik River,
west of Namia. 3 villages. Yare is north and east, Abau is south and west,
Biaka is northwest. Comments: No schools. Some intermarriage with the Yale.
Lowland swamps. Hunter-gatherers. 300 feet.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 7. CamsaLanguage (KBH Colombia)
(instance CamsaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation CamsaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CamsaLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in &%Colombia. SIL code: KBH. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 4,022 (1998 Arango
and Sanchez). Region: Sibundoy Valley, Putumayo region. Alternate names:
KAMSA, COCHE, SIBUNDOY, KAMEMTXA, KAMSE, CAMENTSEA. Comments: Ruhlen and
others classify it as Equatorial. Literacy rate in first language: 40%.
Literacy rate in second language: 85%. Mountain slope. NT 1990.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 8. CayubabaLanguage (CAT Bolivia)
(instance CayubabaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation CayubabaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CayubabaLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Bolivia. SIL code: CAT. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: There may be
900 in the ethnic group (1991 W. H. Adelaar). Region: Beni Department, west
of Mamore River, north of Santa Ana. Alternate names: CAYUWABA, CAYUVAVA.
Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial. Bilingualism in
Spanish. The ethnic group speaks Spanish. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 9. GilyakLanguage (NIV Russia - Asia)
(instance GilyakLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation GilyakLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%GilyakLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Russia (Asia). SIL code: NIV. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 400 or
slightly more mother tongue speakers (1991) out of an ethnic population of
4,400 (1996 G.A.Otaina). 100 Amur speakers out of 2,000 population, 300
Sakhalin speakers out of 2,700 population (1995 M. Krauss). Region: Sakhalin
Island, many in Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, small numbers in Rybnoe,
Moskalvo, Chir-Unvd, Viakhtu, and other villages, and along the Amur River in
Aleevka village. Alternate names: NIVKH, NIVKHI. Dialects: AMUR, EAST SAKHALIN
GILYAK, NORTH SAKHALIN GILYAK. Comments: The Amur and East Sakhalin dialects
have difficult inherent intelligibility with each other. North Sakhalin is
between them linguistically. All members of the ethnic group are reported to
be bilingual or monolingual in Russian. Most speakers are older than 50 years.
The language has been written. Forced resettlement has weakened language use.
Some are scattered and without regular contact with other speakers. Endangered.
Taught through second grade in settlements at Nogliki and Nekrasovka. Not
taught at Amur. Fishermen, agriculturalists (recently).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 10. ItonamaLanguage (ITO Bolivia)
(instance ItonamaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation ItonamaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ItonamaLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Bolivia. SIL code: ITO. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: (110 in
ethnic group in 1969). Region: Beni Department and Itonamas River. Alternate
names: MACHOTO, SARAMO. Comments: Bilingualism in Spanish. Only a few speakers
25 years ago. Ruhlen classifies it as Paezan. Dictionary. Nearly extinct.
Bible portions 1967.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 11. KarkarYuriLanguage (YUJ Papua New Guinea)
(instance KarkarYuriLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation KarkarYuriLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KarkarYuriLanguage is a language
isolatespoken in &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: YUJ. ISO 639-2: paa. Population:
1,142 (1994 SIL). Region: Sandaun Province, Amanab District, along the Irian
Jaya border. Alternate names: YURI, KARKAR. Dialects: NORTH CENTRAL YURI,
AUIA-TARAUWI, USARI. Comments: No known relationships. SOV. Literacy rate in
first language: 25% to 50%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%.
Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. 100 to 700 meters.
NT 1994.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 12. KibiriLanguage (PRM Papua New Guinea)
(instance KibiriLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation KibiriLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KibiriLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: PRM. ISO 639-2: paa. Population: 1,100
(1977 SIL). Region: Gulf Province, Kikori District, near Aird Hills, on
several tributaries of Kikori River,villages of Tipeowo, Doibo, Paile,
Babaguina, Ero, and Wowa. Alternate names: POROME, POLOME. Dialects: AIRD
HILLS (KIBIRI), POROME. Comments: Unrelated to other languages in Gulf
Province. Different from Kairi, which is also called Kibiri. Literacy rate in
first language: 15% to 25%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 13. KoreanLanguage (KKN South Korea)
(instance KoreanLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation KoreanLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KoreanLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%SouthKorea. SIL code: KKN. ISO 639-1: ko. ISO 639-2: kor.
Population: 42,000,000 in South Korea (1986). Population: total all countries
78,000,000 (1999 WA). Region: Also spoken in 31 other countries including
American Samoa, Australia, Bahrain, Belize, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, China,
Germany, Guam, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, North, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritania,
Mongolia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands. Alternate names: HANGUOHUA,
HANGUK MAL. Dialects: SEOUL (KANGWONDO, KYONGGIDO), CH'UNGCH'ONGDO (NORTH
CH'UNGCH'ONG, SOUTH CH'UNGCH'ONG), KYONGSANGDO (NORTH KYONGSANGDO, SOUTH
KYONGSANGDO), CHOLLADO (NORTH CHOLLADO, SOUTH CHOLLADO), CHEJU ISLAND.
Comments: There is a difference of opinion among scholars as to whether or
not Korean is related to Japanese. Some scholars suggest that both languages
are possibly distantly related to Altaic. Dialect boundaries generally
correspond to provincial boundaries. Some dialects are not easily intelligible
with others (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). The suffix -do on dialect names
means 'province'. Comprehension of Standard Korean may be lower on Cheju
Island. National language. Grammar. SOV. Higher adult illiteracy is reported
on Cheju Island. Korean script (Hangul) used. The McCune-Reischauer system is
the official Roman orthography in South Korea used for maps and signs.
Buddhist, Christian. Bible 1911-1993. Also spoken in: China. (Language name:
KOREAN.) Population: 1,920,597 in China (1990 census). Comments: Considered
one of the main official nationalities. 'Chaoxian' is the name used in China.
High level of education. Radio programs. Agriculturalists. Buddhist,
Christian. Bible 1911-1993. See main entry under Korea, South. Also spoken in:
Japan. (Language name: KOREAN.) Population: 670,000 in Japan, .5% of the
population (1988). Comments: Bilingualism in Japanese. Buddhist, Christian.
Bible 1911-1993. Also spoken in: Korea, North. (Language name: KOREAN.)
Population: 20,000,000 in North Korea (1986). Dialects: HAMGYONGDO (NORTH
HAMGYONGDO, SOUTH HAMGYONGDO), P'YONG'ANDO (NORTH P'YONG'ANDO, SOUTH P'YONG'
ANDO), HWANGHAEDO. Comments: Dialect boundaries generally correspond to
provincial boundaries. Some dialects are not easily intelligible with others
(Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). National language. SOV. Korean script (Hangul).
Buddhist-Confucianist, Christian. Bible 1911-1993. Also spoken in: Thailand.
(Language name: KOREAN.) Comments: Buddhist, Christian. Bible 1911-1993.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 14. KutenaiLanguage (KUN Canada)
(instance KutenaiLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation KutenaiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KutenaiLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Canada. SIL code: KUN. ISO 639-2: kut. Population: 120 mother
tongue speakers in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Population: total both
countries 222. Region: Southeastern British Columbia. Alternate names:
KTUNAXA, KOOTENAI, KOOTENAY. Comments: Bilingualism in English. All speakers
are middle-aged or elderly. Columbia Lake Reserve EKCC is offering Kutenai as
a second language course (1991). Dictionary. Grammar. Also spoken in: USA.
(Language name: KUTENAI.) Population: 102 speakers in USA (1990 census).
Alternate names: KTUNAXA, KOOTENAI. Comments: Bilingualism in English. All
speakers are elderly. Columbia Lake Reserve in Canada is offering a Kutenai
as a second language course (1991). See main entry under Canada.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 15. NihaliLanguage (NHL India)
(instance NihaliLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation NihaliLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NihaliLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%India. SIL code: NHL. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 5,000 (1987).
Region: Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa District, mainly around Temi (Tembi) village
in Nimar District, Maharashtra, Buldana, Akola, Amravati, Jalgaon districts,
12 hamlets around Toranmal. Alternate names: NIHAL, NAHALI, NAHAL, KALTO,
NAHALE. Comments: Nahale north of Amalwadi in Jalgaon District speak a
language similar to Ahirani (Indo-European). Nihali and Nahali may be
different languages. Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District have 25%
lexical similarity with Korku (Munda). Nahal near Toranmal have 51% to 73%
lexical similarity with several Bhil languages (Indo-European). They live in
or near Korku villages, and identify closely with the Korku. Investigation
needed: intelligibility with nearby Bhili languages, bilingual proficiency in
Korku (Munda), Hindi, Marathi. Tropical forest. Mountain slope.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 16. PankararuLanguage (PAZ Brazil)
(instance PankararuLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation PankararuLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PankararuLanguage is a language
isolate spoken in &%Brazil. SIL code: PAZ. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: Ethnic
group: 3,676 (1995 AMTB). Region: Pernambuco, Alagoas. Alternate names:
PANKARARA, PANKARU, PANCARU, PANCARE, PANKARAVU, PANKARORU. Comments:
Possibly related to Kiriri. Highly acculturated. Monolingual in Portuguese.
Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 17. PuelcheLanguage (PUE Argentina)
(instance PuelcheLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation PuelcheLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PuelcheLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Argentina. SIL code: PUE. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 5 or 6
speakers. Extinct in Chile. Region: Pampas. Alternate names: GENNAKEN, PAMPA,
NORTHERN TEHUELCHE. Comments: Distinct from Pehuenche dialect of Mapudungun.
Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 18. PuinaveLanguage (PUI Colombia)
(instance PuinaveLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation PuinaveLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PuinaveLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Colombia. SIL code: PUI. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 2,000 in
Colombia (1977 NTM). Population: total both countries 2,240. Region: Inirida
River and tributaries, Territory of Guainia. Also spoken in Venezuela.
Alternate names: PUINABE. Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as related
to Macu. Plains. NT 1964. Also spoken in: Venezuela. (Language name: PUINAVE.)
Population: 240 in Venezuela (1975 Gaceta Indigenista). Alternate names:
PUINARE. Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Macu. NT
1964.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 19. PurepechaLanguage (TSZ Mexico)
(instance PurepechaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation PurepechaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%PurepechaLanguage is a language
isolate spoken in &%Mexico. SIL code: TSZ. ISO 639-2: nai. Population:
120,000 (1990 census). Region: Michoacan. Alternate names: TARASCO, TARASCAN,
PHORHEPECHA, PORHE. Comments: Several varieties do not have functional
intelligibility with each other. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1969.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 20. SierraOccidentalPurepechaLanguage (PUA Mexico)
(instance SierraOccidentalLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation SierraOccidentalLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SierraOccidentalLanguage is a
language isolate spoken in &%Mexico. SIL code: PUA. ISO 639-2: nai.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Michoacan, western mountains,
Zamora on the northern edge, Los Reyes de Salgado on the southwestern corner,
Paracho on the eastern edge, including Pamatacuaro. Alternate names: WESTERN
HIGHLAND PUREPECHA, TARASCO, TARASCAN. Comments: All Purepecha varieties do
not have functional intelligibility with some other Purepecha: the western
mountain variety has 60% intelligibility with Patzcuaro.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 21. TicunaLanguage (TCA Peru)
(instance TicunaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation TicunaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TicunaLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Peru. SIL code: TCA. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 8,000 in Peru
(1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 24,000. Region: Northeastern
Amazon River region, from Chimbote in Peru to San Antonio do Ica in Brazil.
Also spoken in Brazil, Colombia. Alternate names: TIKUNA, TUKUNA. Comments:
SVO. Literacy rate in first language: 30% to 60%. Literacy rate in second
language: 25% to 50%. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1986. Also spoken
in: Brazil. (Language name: TICUNA.) Population: 12,000 in Brazil. Alternate
names: TIKUNA, TUKUNA, MAGUTA. Comments: NT 1986. Also spoken in: Colombia.
(Language name: TICUNA.) Population: 4,000 in Colombia. Alternate names:
TIKUNA, TUKUNA, TUCUNA. Comments: NT 1986.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 22. TolLanguage (JIC Honduras)
(instance TolLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation TolLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TolLanguage is a language isolate spoken in
&%Honduras. SIL code: JIC. ISO 639-2: cai. Population: 350 speakers (1997)
out of an ethnic group of 593 (1990 Educacion Comunitaria para la
Salud-Honduras). Also 19,000 ethnic Tolpan in the Department of Yoro,
including some speakers. Region: Montana de la Flor, northern Francisco
Morazan Department, north central Honduras. Alternate names: TOLPAN, JICAQUE,
XICAQUE. Comments: No distinct dialects. It may be distantly related to
Subtiaba of Nicaragua (extinct linguistically), Tlapaneco of Mexico, or the
Hokan languages. Varying degrees of bilingualism in Spanish, adult male
leaders are more fluent, women and children are more limited. Ethnic Tolpan
who do not speak Tol speak Spanish. All ages. SOV. Literacy rate in first
language: 5% to 10%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. Christian,
traditional religion. NT 1993.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 23. TrumaiLanguage (TPY Brazil)
(instance TrumaiLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation TrumaiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TrumaiLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Brazil. SIL code: TPY. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 78 (1995 AMTB).
Region: Xingu Park, source of Xingu River, villages along banks, Mato Grosso.
Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial. They are intermarrying
with speakers of other languages. They trade extensively with other groups.
Agriculturalists: manioc, peppers, beans.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 24. TuxaLanguage (TUD Brazil)
(instance TuxaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation TuxaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TuxaLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in &%Brazil. SIL code: TUD. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: Ethnic group: 900
(1995 AMTB). Region: Bahia, Pernambuco. Alternate names: TUSHA, TODELA.
Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial. People are monolingual
in Portuguese. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 25. WaraoLanguage (WBA Venezuela)
(instance WaraoLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation WaraoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%WaraoLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in &%Venezuela. SIL code: WBA. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 18,000 in Venezuela
(1993 UBS). Population: total all countries 18,000. Region: On the delta of
the Orinoco River, Delta Amacuro, Sucre, Monagas. Also spoken in Guyana,
Suriname. Alternate names: GUARAUNO, GUARAO, WARRAU. Comments: All ages. NT
1974. Also spoken in: Guyana. (Language name: WARAO.) Population: A few
speakers in Guyana out of 4,700 in the ethnic group (1990 J. Forte). Alternate
names: WARAU, WARRAU, GUARAO, GUARAUNO. Comments: Bilingualism in Guyanese.
In Guyana only the older people speak the language. NT 1974. Also spoken in:
Suriname. (Language name: WARAO.) Population: A very small number of
individuals in Suriname. Alternate names: WARRAU, GUARAO, GUARAUNO. Comments:
Bilingualism in Guyanese. All speakers in Suriname are elderly. NT 1974.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 26. YaleLanguage (NCE Papua New Guinea)
(instance YaleLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation YaleLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%YaleLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: NCE. ISO 639-2: paa. Population: 600 (1991
SIL). Region: Sandaun Province, Amanab District, west of Namia. Kwomtari is
north, Abau is south, Busa is southwest, Biaka is west, Anggor and Amanab are
northwest. 6 villages. Alternate names: NAGATMAN, NAGATIMAN, YARE, YADE.
Comments: 2 very similar dialects. Most men up to 35 years old have routine
proficiency in Tok Pisin. There is some intermarriage with the Busa.
'Nagatman' is a corrupted name of 1 village, not a language name. SOV.
Literacy rate in first language: 5% to 15%. Literacy rate in second language:
15% to 25%. Tropical forest. Sago swamps. Hunter-gatherers, some cultivation:
sugar cane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, taro. 300 feet.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 27. YamanaLanguage (YAG Chile)
(instance YamanaLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation YamanaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%YamanaLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Chile. SIL code: YAG. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 3 women speakers
(Anne Chapmen), who are married to Spanish men and raised their children as
Spanish speakers (1990 A. Salas and A. Valencia). Region: Patagonia, Isla
Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. Extinct in Argentina. Alternate
names: YAGHAN, YAGAN, TEQUENICA, HAUSI KUTA. Comments: Tovar (1961) says it
was closest to Qawasqar, and had some relationship to Ona. Earlier there were
up to five dialects. Bilingualism in Spanish. Speakers from 56 to 70 years old
(1990). One report says that there are still speakers near the Beagle Canal
Naval Base in Chile. Their name for their language is 'Hausi Kuta.'
Dictionary. Nearly extinct. Bible portions 1881-1886.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 28. YuchiLanguage (YUC USA)
(instance YuchiLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation YuchiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%YuchiLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: YUC. ISO 639-2: nai. Population: 12 to 19
fluent speakers (1997), out of 1,500 population (1977 SIL). Region: Among
Creek people in east central Oklahoma. Alternate names: UCHEAN. Comments:
Bilingualism in English. All speakers are middle-aged or older. Dictionary.
Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 29. YuracareLanguage (YUE Bolivia)
(instance YuracareLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation YuracareLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%YuracareLanguage is a language isolate
spoken in &%Bolivia. SIL code: YUE. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 500 to 2,500
speakers (1991 Adelaar) including 3,000 in the ethnic group (1996 NTM).
Region: Beni and Cochabamba departments, scattered primarily along the
Chapare River. Alternate names: YURA. Dialects: MANSINYO, SOLOTO. Comments:
Bible portions 1956-1965.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 30. ZuniLanguage (ZUN USA)
(instance ZuniLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation ZuniLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ZuniLanguage is a language isolate spoken
in the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: ZUN. ISO 639-2: zun. Population: 6,413
speakers (1980 census). Region: New Mexico, south of Gallup. Alternate names:
ZUNI. Comments: Includes 31 monolinguals (1980). Speakers were 85.5% of the
population below 18 years of age, 6.2% above 18 (1980). Children are being
raised speaking the language (1998). Vigorous. Literacy rate in first
language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 75% to 100%. Bible
portions 1941-1970.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; d. MIXED LANGUAGES (8 Languages)
;; MixedLanguage
(subclass MixedLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation MixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%MixedLanguage is a &%SpokenHumanLanguage
that combines grammar and lexical items from two or more languages to create
a new language that is essentially a linguistic mixture.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; CAKCHIQUEL-QUICHE MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass ChakchiquelQuicheMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation ChakchiquelQuicheMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%ChakchiquelQuicheMixedLanguage is a &%MixedLanguage that combines the
grammars and lexicons of a &%ChakchiquelGroupLanguage and a
&%QuicheAchiLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. ChakchiquelQuicheLanguage (CKZ Guatemala)
(instance ChakchiquelQuicheLanguage ChakchiquelQuicheMixedLanguage)
(documentation ChakchiquelQuicheLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ChakchiquelQuicheLanguage is a
&%ChakchiquelQuicheMixedLanguage of &%Guatemala. SIL code: CKZ. ISO 639-2:
mis. Population 2,000 (1998 SIL). Region: Santiago, Sacatepaquez, Santa Maria
Cauque aldea. Alternate names: CAUQUE MIXED LANGUAGE. Comments: Speakers came
from the Quiche area in the colonial period. Older speakers show a base of
Quiche. Speakers are fully bilingual in South Central Cakchiquel and becoming
bilingual in Spanish. 30 and above. The language is changing to become more
like &%SouthCentralCakchiquel.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; CHINESE-TIBETAN-MONGOLIAN MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass ChineseTibetanMongolianMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation ChineseTibetanMongolianMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%ChineseTibetanMongolianMixedLanguage is a &%MixedLanguage that combines the
grammars and lexicons of a &%ChineseLanguage dialect, the &%TibetanLanguage,
and the &%MongolianLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. WutunhuaLanguage (WUH China)
(instance WutunhuaLanguage ChineseTibetanMongolianMixedLanguage)
(documentation WutunhuaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%WutunhuaLanguage is a
&%ChineseTibetanMongolianMixedLanguage of &%China. SIL code: WUH. ISO 639-2:
mis. Population: 2,000 (1995). Region: Eastern Qinghai Province, Huangnan
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Tongren County, Longwu township, Upper and
Lower Wutun villages and Jiangchama village. Alternate names: WUTUN. Comments:
Reported to be a variety of Chinese heavily influenced by Tibetan or perhaps
a Tibetan language undergoing relexification with Chinese forms. Also
described as Chinese which converged to an agglutinative language, using only
Chinese material, towards Tibetan-Mongolian. Neighboring Tibetans refer to
the Wutun people as 'Sanggaixiong', meaning 'center of the lion'. Known for
their paintings of Buddha. Some consider themselves members of the Tu
nationality, others Han Chinese. SOV, adjectives follow nouns, adverbials
precede predicate, case and number marked on nouns, prenasalized consonants,
11 different syllable-final consonants, tone and stress have low functional
load, most words polysyllabic, 60% Chinese, 20% Tibetan vocabulary with the
rest having mixed Chinese and Tibetan elements. Agriculturalists.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; FRENCH-CREE MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass FrenchCreeMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation FrenchCreeMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%FrenchCreeMixedLanguage is a
&%MixedLanguage that combines the grammars and lexicons of the
&%FrenchLanguage and the &%CreeLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. MichifLanguage (CRG USA)
(instance MichifLanguage FrenchCreeMixedLanguage)
(documentation MichifLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MichifLanguage is a
&%FrenchCreeMixedLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: CRG. ISO 639-2:
mis. Population: 390 speakers in USA (1990 census). Population total both
countries: 390 or more. Region: Turtle Mountain Reservation, North Dakota.
Alternate names: FRENCH CREE, MITCHIF. Comments: Closest to Plains Cree.
Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or older.
Dictionary. Also spoken in: Canada. (Language name: MICHIF.) Alternate
names: FRENCH CREE, METIS. Comments: Closest to Plains Cree. Several
varieties. Bilingualism in English. Most or all speakers are middle-aged or
older. Grammar. Formerly buffalo hunters.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; GERMAN-YIDDISH-ROMANI-ROTWELSCH MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass GermanYiddishRomaniRotwelschMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation GermanYiddishRomaniRotwelschMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%GermanYiddishRomaniRotwelschMixedLanguage is a &%MixedLanguage that combines
the grammars and lexicons of the &%GermanLanguage, the &%YiddishLanguage, the
&%RomaniLanguage, and the &%RotwelschLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. YenicheLanguage (YEC Germany)
(instance YenicheLanguage GermanYiddishRomaniRotwelschMixedLanguage)
(documentation YenicheLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%YenicheLanguage is a
&%GermanYiddishRomaniRotwelschMixedLanguage of &%Germany. SIL code: YEC. ISO
639-2: mis. Population: No estimate available. Region: Also spoken in Austria,
France, Netherlands, Switzerland. Alternate names: JENISCH, YENISHE, GERMAN
TRAVELLERS. Comments: German with a heavy cryptolectal lexical influsion from
Rotwelsch, Yiddish, Romani, and Hebrew. The first language of some (The
Carrier Pidgin 1977). A blend language of certain urban nomadic groups. Not
Gypsies. Possibly arose as a result of those who were dispossessed because of
the Hanseatic laws (I. Hancock). They are a distinct ethnic group.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; PARE-CUSHITIC MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass PareCushiticMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation PareCushiticMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%PareCushiticMixedLanguage is a
&%MixedLanguage that combines the grammars and lexicons of the &%PareLanguage
and a &%CushiticLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. MbuguLanguage (MHD Tanzania)
(instance MbuguLanguage PareCushiticMixedLanguage)
(documentation MbuguLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MbuguLanguage is a
&%PareCushiticMixedLanguage of &%Tanzania. SIL code: MHD. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: 32,000 (1987). Region: Eastern Province in Usambara. Alternate
names: MA'A, MBOUGOU, VAMA'A, WA MAATHI, KIBWYO. Comments: People call
themselves 'Va-Ma'a'. A hybrid language, Bantu inflectional (prefix and
concord) system with Cushitic vocabulary. Derivational morphemes are Bantu and
Cushitic (or non-Bantu). The Bantu influence is from Pare (Shambaa).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; RUSSIAN-ALEUT MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass RussianAleutMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation RussianAleutMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%RussianAleutMixedLanguage is a
&%MixedLanguage that combines the grammars and lexicons of the
&%RussianLanguage and an &%AleutLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. MednyjAleutLanguage (MUD Russia - Asia)
(instance MednyjAleutLanguage RussianAleutMixedLanguage)
(documentation MednyjAleutLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MednyjAleutLanguage is a
&%RussianAleutMixedLanguage of &%Russia (Asia). SIL code: MUD. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: 10 (1995 M. Krauss). Region: Copper Island, Komandor Islands.
Alternate names: MEDNY, COPPER, COPPER ISLAND ALEUT, ATTUAN, COPPER ISLAND
ATTUAN, CREOLIZED ATTUAN. Comments: Bilingualism in Russian. Aleut is taught
in school until the fourth grade. Most ethnic group members in Russia speak
Russian as mother tongue. From 1820 to 1840 dozens of Aleut families were
brought from various islands to the Komandor Islands. Until the 1960s there
were two villages on Bering and Medny islands. From the 1950s to the 1980s
children were sent by the state to boarding schools. Christian. Nearly
extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SPANISH-QUECHUA MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass SpanishQuechuaMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation SpanishQuechuaMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%SpanishQuechuaMixedLanguage is
a &%MixedLanguage that combines the grammars and lexicons of the
&%SpanishLanguage and the &%QuechuaLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. MediaLenguaLanguage (MUE Ecuador)
(instance MediaLenguaLanguage SpanishQuechuaMixedLanguage)
(documentation MediaLenguaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MediaLenguaLanguage is a
&%SpanishQuechuaMixedLanguage of &%Ecuador. SIL code: MUE. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: 1,000 first and second language speakers (1999 Peter Bakker).
Region: A few villages. Comments: Has a Quechua grammatical system and a
Spanish vocabulary.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ZULU-BANTU MIXED LANGUAGE (1 Language)
(subclass ZuluBantuMixedLanguage MixedLanguage)
(documentation ZuluBantuMixedLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%ZuluBantuMixedLanguage is a
&%MixedLanguage that combines the grammars and lexicons of the &%ZuluLanguage
and a &%BantuLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. CamthoLanguage (CMT South Africa)
(instance CamthoLanguage ZuluBantuMixedLanguage)
(documentation CamthoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CamthoLanguage is a
&%ZuluBantuMixedLanguage of &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: CMT. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Soweto, Johannesburg, urban
settings. Alternate names: ISICAMTHO, ISCAMTHO. Comments: A development in the
1980s from the original Tsotsitaal, and sometimes called 'Tsotsitaal'. Also
described as a basically Zulu or Sotho language with heavy codeswitching and a
lot of English and Afrikaans content morphemes. Mainly used by young people.
Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; e. PIDGIN LANGUAGES (17 Languages)
;; PidginLanguage
(subclass PidginLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation PidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%PidginLanguage is not the native language
of anyone but is used as an auxiliary or supplemental language between two
mutually unintelligible speech communities. Pidgins are reduced languages,
characterized by having a limited vocabulary and a simple grammar which serve
to satisfy basic communication needs. Historically these languages have
primarily arisen in trade centers and plantations (with slaves from different
language backgrounds), areas where large groups of people lacking a common
language need to communicate. By definition, a pidgin has no native speakers,
it is always a person's second (or more) language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; AMERINDIAN PIDGIN LANGUAGES (3 Languages)
;; AmerindianPidginLanguage
(subclass AmerindianPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation AmerindianPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%AmerindianPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage based on an Amerindian language.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. ChinookWawaLanguage (CRW Canada)
(instance ChinookWawaLanguage AmerindianPidginLanguage)
(documentation ChinookWawaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ChinookWawaLanguage is an
&%AmerindianPidginLanguage of &%Canada. SIL code: CRW. ISO 639-2: chn.
Population: Population total both countries 100 speakers, all over 50 years
old (1962 Chafe). Region: British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate
names: CHINOOK JARGON, CHINOOK PIDGIN. Comments: Bilingualism in English.
Formerly used along the Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska, between Indian
and white, and between speakers of different languages. All speakers are now
probably scattered. Nearly extinct. Bible portions 1912. Also spoken in: USA.
(Language name: CHINOOK WAWA.) Population: 17 speakers in USA (1990 census).
Alternate names: CHINOOK JARGON, CHINOOK PIDGIN, TSINUK WAWA. Comments:
Consists mainly of words from Chinook, with a large admixture of words from
Nootka, Canadian French, and English. Bilingualism in English. Formerly used
widely during the 19th century between Indian and white, and between speakers
of different languages. Trade language. Nearly extinct. Bible portions 1912.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. DelawarePidginLanguage (DEP USA)
(instance DelawarePidginLanguage AmerindianPidginLanguage)
(documentation DelawarePidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%DelawarePidginLanguage is an
&%AmerindianPidginLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: DEP. ISO 639-2:
crp. Region: Middle Atlantic region. Comments: Widely used in the 17th century
between Algonquians and Europeans as a second language. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. MobilianLanguage (MOD USA)
(instance MobilianLanguage AmerindianPidginLanguage)
(documentation MobilianLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MobilianLanguage is an
&%AmerindianPidginLanguage of the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: MOD. ISO 639-2:
crp. Population: No fluent speakers left. Region: Lower Mississippi River
valley area, south central USA. Alternate names: MOBILIAN JARGON. Comments:
Muskogean based pidgin, formerly used as lingua franca. Loan words from
Spanish, English, French, Creek, Alabama-Koasati, Choctaw, Chickasaw. Became
extinct about 100 years ago. OSV. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ENGLISH-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
;; EnglishBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass EnglishBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation EnglishBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%EnglishBasedPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage based on the &%EnglishLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ATLANTIC ENGLISH-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage EnglishBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "An
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage is an &%EnglishBasedPidginLanguage that
has evolved in areas near the &%AtlanticOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. LiberianEnglishLanguage (LIR Liberia)
(instance LiberianEnglishLanguage AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation LiberianEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%LiberianEnglishLanguage is an
&%AtlanticEnglishBasedPidginLanguage of &%Liberia. SIL code: LIR. ISO 639-2:
cpe. Population (1,500,000 second language users, 1984 census). Alternate
names: LIBERIAN PIDGIN ENGLISH. Dialects: KRU PIDGIN ENGLISH. Comments:
Regional dialects. Used as a second language for communication between
different language groups. As different from Standard English as is Sierra
Leone Krio. Repidginized from American Black English of the 1800's (J. Holm).
Trade language. Radio programs.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; PACIFIC ENGLISH-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage EnglishBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A
&%PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage is an &%EnglishBasedPidginLanguage that
has evolved in areas near the &%PacificOcean.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. ChinesePidginEnglishLanguage (CPE Nauru)
(instance ChinesePidginEnglishLanguage PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation ChinesePidginEnglishLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%ChinesePidginEnglishLanguage is a &%PacificEnglishBasedPidginLanguage of
&%Nauru. SIL code: CPE. ISO 639-2: cpe. Population: No estimate available.
Comments: Currently spoken.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; FRENCH-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; FrenchBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass FrenchBasedPidginLanguage RomanceBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation FrenchBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%FrenchBasedPidginLanguage is a
&%RomanceBasedPidginLanguage based on the &%FrenchLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. TayBoiLanguage (TAS Viet Nam)
(instance TayBoiLanguage FrenchBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation TayBoiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%TayBoiLanguage is a
&%FrenchBasedPidginLanguage of &%VietNam. SIL code: TAS. ISO 639-2: cpf.
Region: Was used in the major ports of French Indo-China. Alternate names: TAY
BOY, ANNAMITE FRENCH, VIETNAMESE PIDGIN FRENCH. Comments: Developed beginning
in 1862. Influences from Vietnamese, French, English, Javanese, and Portuguese.
It was used between French and Vietnamese until 1954, and in lower levels of
administration, in the military, and by police. No longer spoken (1981 Wurm
and Hattori). Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; HAUSA-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (2 Languages)
;; HausaBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass HausaBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation HausaBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%HausaBasedPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage based on the &%HausaLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. BarikanchiLanguage (BXO Nigeria)
(instance BarikanchiLanguage HausaBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation BarikanchiLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BarikanchiLanguage is a
&%HausaBasedPidginLanguage of &%Nigeria. SIL code: BXO. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: Used in military barracks.
Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. GibanawaLanguage (GIB Nigeria)
(instance GibanawaLanguage HausaBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation GibanawaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%GibanawaLanguage is a
&%HausaBasedPidginLanguage of &%Nigeria. SIL code: GIB. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Sokoto State, Jega LGA, near the
Dukawa. Alternate names: GEMBANAWA, GIMBANAWA, JEGA. Comments: Hausa-speaking
Fulani. The largest group in Jega LGA. They use Gibanawa as a contact
language. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; IHA-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; IhaBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass IhaBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation IhaBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%IhaBasedPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage based on the &%IhaLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. IhaPidginLanguage (IHB Indonesia - Irian Jaya)
(instance IhaPidginLanguage IhaBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation IhaPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%IhaPidginLanguage is an
&%IhaBasedPidginLanguage of &%Indonesia (Irian Jaya). SIL code: IHB. ISO
639-2: crp. Population: No estimate available. Region: Bomberai Peninsula, far
west end around Fak Fak and north. Comments Trade language. Second language
only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; MALAY-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; MalayBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass MalayBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation MalayBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%MalayBasedPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage based on the &%MalayLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. BroomePerlingLuggerPidginLanguage (BPL Australia)
(instance BroomePerlingLuggerPidginLanguage MalayBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation BroomePerlingLuggerPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The
&%BroomePerlingLuggerPidginLanguage is a &%MalayBasedPidginLanguage of
&%Australia. SIL code: BPL. ISO 639-2: crp. Population (40 to 50 speakers,
mainly Aborigines). Region: Broome, Lombardinie, Beagle Bay, La Grange, One
Arm Point, Derby. Alternate names: BROOM CREOLE, KOEPANG TALK, MALAY TALK,
JAPANESE PIDGIN ENGLISH. Comments: Used as a lingua franca on pearling boats
to communicate between Malays, Japanese, Chinese, and Aborigines. Some
Japanese and Aboriginal creole or pidgin English words. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; MASCOIAN-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; MascoianBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass MascoianBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation MascoianBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%MascoianBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on the &%MascoianLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. MaskoyPidginLanguage (MHH Paraguay)
(instance MaskoyPidginLanguage MascoianBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation MaskoyPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%MaskoyPidginLanguage is a
&%MascoianBasedPidginLanguage of &%Paraguay. SIL code: MHH. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Puerto Victoria. Comments:
Bilingualism in Paraguayan Guarani. A mixed language formerly used in a
tannin factory with Lengua, Sanapana, Angaite, Guana, and Toba-Maskoy
influences. Speakers are reported to have returned to former areas and
languages, or to Guarani-speaking rural areas. Different from Toba-Maskoy.
Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; MOTU-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; MotuBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass MotuBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation MotuBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%MotuBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on the &%MotuLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. HiriMotuLanguage (POM Papua New Guinea)
(instance HiriMotuLanguage MotuBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation HiriMotuLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HiriMotuLanguage is a
&%MotuBasedPidginLanguage of &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: POM. ISO 639-1: ho.
ISO 639-2: hmo. Population: Interethnic second language speakers: 120,000
(1989 J. Holm). Very few mother tongue speakers (T. Dutton 1992). Region:
Central Province, in and around Port Moresby area, also throughout Oro,
Central, Gulf, and part of Milne Bay provinces, some in Western Province.
Alternate names: POLICE MOTU, PIDGIN MOTU, HIRI. Dialects: AUSTRONESIAN HIRI
MOTU, PAPUAN HIRI MOTU. Comments: Linguistically a pidginization of True Motu.
Also influenced by English, Tok Pisin, and Polynesian languages. Speakers of
Hiri Motu cannot understand Motu. There are phonological and grammatical
differences. 90% lexical similarity with Motu. Papuan Hiri Motu is more
widespread and considered as the standard. Official language. Dictionary.
Literacy rate in first language: Less than 5%. Bible 1994.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ONIN-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; OninBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass OninBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation OninBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%OninBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on the &%OninLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. OninPidginLanguage (ONX Indonesia - Irian Jaya)
(instance OninPidginLanguage OninBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation OninPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%OninPidginLanguage is an
&%OninBasedPidginLanguage of &%Indonesia (Irian Jaya). SIL code: ONX. ISO
639-2: crp. Population: No estimate available. Region: Onin Peninsula.
Comments: Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ROMANCE-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; RomanceBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass RomanceBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation RomanceBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%RomanceBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on a &%RomanceLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. LinguaFrancaLanguage (PML Tunisia)
(instance LinguaFrancaLanguage RomanceBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation LinguaFrancaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%LinguaFrancaLanguage is a
&%RomanceBasedPidginLanguage of &%Tunisia. SIL code: PML. ISO 639-2: crp.
Region: Tunisia, Dodecanese Islands west bank, Greece, Cyprus, other major
Mediterranean ports. Alternate names: PETIT MAURESQUE, FERENGHI, SABIR,
'AJNABI, ALJAMIA. Comments: Lexicon from Italian and Provencal. An earlier
version may have been a pidginized Latin. On the Barbary Coast of North Africa
in 1578, its lexicon came from Spanish and Portuguese. In Algeria in the
1830s, it drew increasingly from French, and later became the nonstandard
French of that area. It may also have influenced other pidgins. There is a
report of a present-day variety on the Aegean Islands, used as a pidgin in the
southeastern Mediterranean region, to have mainly Arabic syntax, and
vocabulary which is 65% to 70% Italian, 10% Spanish, and other Catalan,
French, Ladino, and Turkish words. Documented in Djerba, Tunisia in 1353.
Dictionary. Coastal. Craftsmen, urban workers. sea level. Christian, Sunni
Muslim. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; SWAHILI-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on the &%SwahiliLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. SettlaLanguage (STA Zambia)
(instance SettlaLanguage SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation SettlaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%SettlaLanguage is a
&%SwahiliBasedPidginLanguage of &%Zambia. SIL code: STA. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: No estimate available. Region: May also be in Kenya. Alternate
names: KISETTLA, KISETLA. Comments: A 'despised' pidgin (M. Adler 1977.50).
Limited vocabulary and grammar. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; ZULU-BASED PIDGIN LANGUAGES (1 Language)
;; ZuluBasedPidginLanguage
(subclass ZuluBasedPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation ZuluBasedPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "A &%ZuluBasedPidginLanguage is
a &%PidginLanguage based on the &%ZuluLanguage.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. FanagoloLanguage (FAO South Africa)
(instance FanagoloLanguage ZuluBasedPidginLanguage)
(documentation FanagoloLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%FanagoloLanguage is a
&%ZuluBasedPidginLanguage of &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: FAO. ISO 639-2: crp.
Population: Several hundred thousand speakers (1975 Reinecke). Region: Also
spoken in DRC, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Alternate names: 'FANAKALO',
'FANEKOLO', 'KITCHEN KAFFIR', 'MINE KAFFIR', PIKI, ISIPIKI, 'ISIKULA', LOLOLO,
ISILOLOLO, PIDGIN BANTU, BASIC ZULU, SILUNGUBOI. Comments: The dialect in
Zambia is called 'Cikabanga', that in Zimbabwe is called 'Chilapalapa.' About
70% of the vocabulary comes from Zulu, 24% from English, 6% from Afrikaans.
Used widely in towns and gold, diamond, coal, and copper mining areas.
Originated in the 19th century. 'Fanagolo' and most or all other names are
pejorative. Trade language. Dictionary. Second language only. Also spoken in:
Zambia. (Language name: FANAGOLO.) Population: Several hundred speakers (1975
Reinecke). Alternate names: 'FANAKALO', 'FANEKOLO', PIKI, ISIPIKI, LOLOLO,
ISILOLOLO, PIDGIN BANTU, BASIC ZULU, 'KITCHEN KAFFIR', 'MINE KAFFIR',
'ISIKULA'. Dialects: CIKABANGA. Comments: Influenced by Bemba in Zambia.
Rejected by most Africans because it was imported from Zimbabwe and South
Africa by Europeans who did not want Africans to learn English (Adler 1977).
Trade language. Second language only. Also spoken in: Zimbabwe. (Language
name: FANAGOLO.) Population: Several hundred thousand speakers (1975 Reinecke).
Alternate names: 'FANAKALO', 'FANEKOLO', PIKI, ISIPIKI, LOLOLO, ISILOLOLO,
PIDGIN BANTU, 'KITCHEN KAFFIR', 'MINE KAFFIR', 'ISIKULA'. Dialects:
CHILAPALAPA. Comments: About 70% of the vocabulary comes from Zulu, 24% from
English, 6% from Afrikaans. Influenced by Shona in Zimbabwe. Used widely in
towns and mining areas. Trade language. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; OTHER PIDGINS (1 Language)
;; 1. NdyukaTrioPidginLanguage (NJT Suriname)
(instance NdyukaTrioPidginLanguage PidginLanguage)
(documentation NdyukaTrioPidginLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%NdyukaTrioPidginLanguage is a
&%PidginLanguage of &%Suriname. SIL code: NJT. ISO 639-2: crp. Population: No
estimate available. Region: Southern Suriname, upper Tapanahonij River.
Comments: Formerly used until the 1960s by the Ndyuka and Trio and Wayana
peoples for trading. Increasing travel by the Indians to the coast at that
time cut back on that trade, and also gave some of them opportunity to use
Sranan in contact with the Ndyuka. Many Ndyuka men in their 30s or older now
do not know it. Scarcely used at all now. Trade language. Second language
only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; f. UNCLASSIFIED LANGUAGES (96 Languages)
;; UnclassifiedLanguage
(subclass UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage SpokenHumanLanguage)
(documentation UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage EnglishLanguage "An &%UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage is
a &%SpokenHumanLanguage of unknown relationship to other
&%SpokenHumanLanguages.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 1. AariyaLanguage (AAR India)
(instance AariyaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AariyaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AariyaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%India. SIL code: AAR. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: No estimate available. Region: Madhya Pradesh.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 2. AbishiraLanguage (ASH Peru)
(instance AbishiraLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AbishiraLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AbishiraLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Peru. SIL code: ASH. ISO 639-2: sai. Population:
In 1925 there were 55 to 75 speakers. Region: Puerto Elvira on Lake Vacacocha
on the Napo River. Alternate names: ABIQUIRA, AUISHIRI, AGOUISIRI, AVIRXIRI,
ABIGIRA, IXIGNOR, VACACOCHA, TEQURACA. Comments: Distinct from Aushiri (M. R.
Wise SIL 1987). Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 3. AgavotaguerraLanguage (AVO Brazil)
(instance AgavotaguerraLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AgavotaguerraLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AgavotaguerraLanguage is a
language of unknown classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: AVO. ISO 639-2:
sai. Population: 100 (1986 SIL). Region: Mato Grosso, Xingu Park, between the
Curisevo and Culuene rivers, near the Kuikuro. Alternate names: AGAVOTOKUENG,
AGAVOTOQUENG. Comments: May be Arawakan, related to Waura and Yawalapiti.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 4. AguanoLanguage (AGA Peru)
(instance AguanoLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AguanoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AguanoLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Peru. SIL code: AGA. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: In 1959
there were 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga who did not use Aguano but
were members of the ethnic group. Region: Lower Huallaga and upper Samiria
rivers, the right bank tributary of the Maranon River. Alternate names:
UGUANO, AGUANU, AWANO, SANTA CRUCINO. Comments: Ruhlen says this is the same
as Chamicuro (1987, personal communication). Chamicuro speakers say they were
not the same, but the Aguano spoke Quechua (M. R. Wise SIL 1987, personal
communication). Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 5. AmeraxLanguage (AEX USA)
(instance AmeraxLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AmeraxLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AmeraxLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from the &%UnitedStates. SIL code: AEX. ISO 639-2: nai.
Population: No estimate available. Comments: Spoken by Neo-Muslims in prisons.
Reported to not have mother tongue speakers. It may have Arabic influences (J
M. Cowan 1990). Muslim. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 6. AmikoanaLanguage (AKN Brazil)
(instance AmikoanaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AmikoanaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AmikoanaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: AKN. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: A few. Region: Northern Amapa.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 7. AndhLanguage (ANR India)
(instance AndhLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation AndhLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%AndhLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%India. SIL code: ANR. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 80,000
(1991 IMA). Region: Maharashtra, Nanded, Parbhani, Yeotmal districts, Andhra
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: ANDHA, ANDHI. Comments: A Scheduled
Tribe in India. People speak Marathi as mother tongue. Investigation needed:
bilingual proficiency in Marathi. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%.
Cultivation. Hindu (1981 census).(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 8. BeothukLanguage (BUE Canada)
(instance BeothukLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation BeothukLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BeothukLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Canada. SIL code: BUE. ISO 639-2: nai. Region:
Newfoundland. Alternate names: BEOTHUC, BETHUCK, BETHUK, NEWFOUNDLAND, RED
INDIANS. Comments: The theory that it was an Algonquian language is not
accepted by all Algonquianists. Became extinct in 1829. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 9. BetafLanguage (BFE Indonesia - Irian Jaya)
(instance BetafLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation BetafLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BetafLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Indonesia (Irian Jaya). SIL code: BFE. ISO 639-2: paa.
Population: 400 (1973 R. Sterner SIL). Region: North coast area east of Sarmi,
Jayapura Kabupaten, Pantai Timur Kecamatan.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 10. BeteLanguage (BYF Nigeria)
(instance BeteLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation BeteLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BeteLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Nigeria. SIL code: BYF. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: Few
speakers out of 3,000 population (1992). Region: Taraba State, Takum LGA, Bete
town, at the foot of Bete mountain. Comments: Reported to have been close to
Lufu and Bibi. The language is dying out. The people now speak Jukun. 6
subgroups: Aphan (Afan), Ruke, Osu, Agu, Botsu, Humiyan. Formerly had land
disputes with the Tiv. Christian, traditional religion. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 11. BhatolaLanguage (BTL India)
(instance BhatolaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation BhatolaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BhatolaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%India. SIL code: BTL. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: No
estimate available. Region: Madhya Pradesh.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 12. BungLanguage (BQD Cameroon)
(instance BungLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation BungLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%BungLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Cameroon. SIL code: BQD. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 3
(1995 Bruce Connell). Region: Near the Kwanja language. Comments: It may have
been a form of Kwanja. No one uses the language any longer. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 13. CaguaLanguage (CBH Colombia)
(instance CaguaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CaguaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CaguaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Colombia. SIL code: CBH. ISO 639-2: sai. Comments:
Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 14. CallawallaLanguage (CAW Bolivia)
(instance CallawallaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CallawallaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CallawallaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Bolivia. SIL code: CAW. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: 10 or 20 (1995 estimate SIL). Region: Highlands and high valleys,
eastern Andes north of La Paz, Charazani area north of Lake Titicaca.
Alternate names: CALLAHUAYA. Comments: Their language seems to have Quechua
affixes and syntactic patterns, but distinctive roots from a dialect of the
extinct Puquina language (Girault 1990). Bilingualism in North Bolivia
Quechua, Aymara, Spanish. Women and children do not speak Callawalla, but
speak Spanish, North Bolivia Quechua, or Aymara. Spoken only by the men. A
special language used by the herb doctors of the Inca emperors, they continue
as herb doctors. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 15. CandoshiShapraLanguage (CBU Peru)
(instance CandoshiShapraLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CandoshiShapraLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CandoshiShapraLanguage is a
language of unknown classification from &%Peru. SIL code: CBU. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: 3,000 (1981 SIL). Region: Morona, Pastaza, Huitoyacu and Chapuli
rivers. Alternate names: KANDOSHI, CANDOSHI, CANDOXI, MURATO. Dialects:
CHAPARA (SHAPRA), KANDOASHI. Comments: May be distantly related to Arawakan,
probably not Jivaroan. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 88.5%, 1
10%, 2 1%, 3 .5%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Strong preference for Candoshi. Dictionary. SOV.
Literacy rate in first language: 10% to 30%. Literacy rate in second language:
15% to 25%. NT 1979-1993.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 16. CanichanaLanguage (CAZ Bolivia)
(instance CanichanaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CanichanaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CanichanaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Bolivia. SIL code: CAZ. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: There may be 500 in the ethnic group (1991 Adelaar). Region:
Lowlands. Alternate names: KANICHANA. Comments: Said to be of the Tucanoan
family. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 17. CarabayoLanguage (CBY Colombia)
(instance CarabayoLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CarabayoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CarabayoLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Colombia. SIL code: CBY. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: 150 estimate. Region: Amazonas Department, half way between the
San Bernardo and Pure rivers. 3 long houses, at least. Alternate names:
'AMAZONAS MACUSA'. Comments: The name 'Macusa' or 'Macu' means 'savage', and
is arbitrarily applied to uncontacted groups.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 18. CentuumLanguage (CET Nigeria)
(instance CentuumLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CentuumLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CentuumLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Nigeria. SIL code: CET. ISO 639-2: mis. Population:
Small (1992 Crozier and Blench). Region: Bauchi State, Balanga LGA, Cham town,
among the Dijim. Alternate names: CEN TUUM. Comments: Older people. The Dijim
call the people 'Jalabe' or 'Jaabe.' Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 19. ChakLanguage (CKH Myanmar)
(instance ChakLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation ChakLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ChakLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Myanmar. SIL code: CKH. ISO 639-2: mis. Population:
Population: total both countries 910 or more. Region: Most in Arakan Blue
Mts., Myanmar. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Comments: Distinct from Chakma.
Tropical forest. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Also spoken in:
Bangladesh. (Language name: CHAK.) Population: 909 in Bangladesh (1981
census). Comments: Distinct from Chakma. Tropical forest. Agriculturalists.
Traditional religion.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 20. ChipiajesLanguage (CBE Colombia)
(instance ChipiajesLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation ChipiajesLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ChipiajesLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Colombia. SIL code: CBE. ISO 639-2: sai.
Comments: A Saliba last name. Many Guahibo have that last name. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 21. CholonLanguage (CHT Peru)
(instance CholonLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CholonLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CholonLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Peru. SIL code: CHT. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: 1 or 2
speakers left (1986). Region: Valley of the Huallaga River from Tingo Maria
to Valle. Alternate names: TINGANESES, SEEPTSA. Comments: Ruhlen says it is
Andean. Many speak Quechua. Nearly extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 22. CoximaLanguage (KOX Colombia)
(instance CoximaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation CoximaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%CoximaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Colombia. SIL code: KOX. ISO 639-2: sai. Alternate
names: KOXIMA. Comments: Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 23. DosoLanguage (DOL Papua New Guinea)
(instance DosoLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation DosoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%DosoLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%PapuaNewGuinea. SIL code: DOL. ISO 639-2: paa.
Population: 700 (1973 D. Shaw). Region: Western Province, Aramia River and
Wawoi Falls areas, near the Kamula. Comments: A separate language from
Kamula.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 24. GailLanguage (GIC South Africa)
(instance GailLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation GailLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%GailLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%SouthAfrica. SIL code: GIC. ISO 639-2: mis. Population:
Used by an estimated 20,000 as second or third language. Region: Mainly in
Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Bloemfontein, and Port Elizabeth.
Comments: In Johannesburg it is more English based, in Pretoria more Afrikaans
based. Reported to be related to Polari in the United Kingdom. The first
language of users is English or Afrikaans. An in-group language among some
people. Second language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 25. HaitianVodounCultureLanguage (HVC Haiti)
(instance HaitianVodounCultureLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation HaitianVodounCultureLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HaitianVodounCultureLanguage
is a language of unknown classification from &%Haiti. SIL code: HVC. ISO
639-2: mis. Population: No estimate available. Alternate names: LANGAY, LANGAJ.
Comments: Used for religion, song, dance. It uses some Haitian creole words,
and others which may have African or American Indian influence. Second
language only.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 26. HibitoLanguage (HIB Peru)
(instance HibitoLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation HibitoLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HibitoLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Peru. SIL code: HIB. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: In
1851 there were 500. Region: Bobonaje River, tributary of Jelache, tributary
of Huayabamba, coming into Huallaga on the left side. Alternate names: JIBITO,
CHIBITO, ZIBITO, IBITO, XIBITA. Comments: Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 27. HimarimaLanguage (HIR Brazil)
(instance HimarimaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation HimarimaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HimarimaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: HIR. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: Small. Region: Amazonas, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 28. HwlaLanguage (HWL Togo)
(instance HwlaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation HwlaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%HwlaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Togo. SIL code: HWL. ISO 639-2: mis. Population: 31,719
(1983 Togo Linguistic Atlas). Region: Unknown region. Comments: Bilingualism
in Ewe, French. May be the same as Hwe in Togo or Xwla-Gbe in Benin. Literacy
rate in first language: Below 1%. Traditional religion.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 29. IapamaLanguage (IAP Brazil)
(instance IapamaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation IapamaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%IapamaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: IAP. ISO 639-2: sai. Population: No
estimate available. Region: Border region of Para and Amapa. Comments:
Existence uncertain.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 30. ImeraguenLanguage (IME Mauritania)
(instance ImeraguenLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation ImeraguenLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%ImeraguenLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Mauritania. SIL code: IME. ISO 639-2: mis.
Population: 120 (1967 Gerteiny). Region: Near Nouakchott, the region
stretching from Cape Timiris to Nouadhibou. Alternate names: IMRAGUEN.
Comments: The language is reported to be a variety of Hassaniyya structured
on an Azer (Soninke) base. Vassals to important Hassan tribes, especially the
Oulad Bou Sba. Reported to be remnants of the Bafours. They use nets for
fishing. Coastal. Fishermen.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 31. KaimbeLanguage (QKQ Brazil)
(instance KaimbeLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KaimbeLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KaimbeLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: QKQ. ISO 639-2: sai. Population:
(1,100 to 1,400 in ethnic group, 1986 SIL). Region: Bahia. Comments: Ethnic
group now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 32. KambaLanguage (QKZ Brazil)
(instance KambaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KambaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KambaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: QKZ. ISO 639-2: sai. Population:
(2,000 in ethnic group, 1986 SIL). Region: Mato Grosso do Sul, near Corumba.
Alternate names: CAMBA. Comments: May have been Tupi. Ethnic group came from
Bolivia, and now speak Spanish. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 33. KambiwaLanguage (QKH Brazil)
(instance KambiwaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KambiwaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KambiwaLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: QKH. ISO 639-2: sai. Population:
(1,108 in ethnic group, 1995 SIL). Region: Pernambuco. Comments: Ethnic group
now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 34. KapinawaLanguage (QKP Brazil)
(instance KapinawaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KapinawaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KapinawaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: QKP. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: (354 in ethnic group, 1995 AMTB). Region: Pernambuco. Comments:
Ethnic group now speaks Portuguese. Extinct.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 35. KaraLanguage (KAH Central African Republic)
(instance KaraLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KaraLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KaraLanguage is a language of unknown
classification from the &%CentralAfricanRepublic. SIL code: KAH. ISO 639-2:
mis. Population: 4,800 (1996). Region: Birao Subprefecture. Alternate names:
FER, DAM FER, FERTIT. Comments: Different from Gula (Kara of Sudan). Muslim.(extract from http://www.ethnologue.com/)")
;; 36. KarahawyanaLanguage (XKH Brazil)
(instance KarahawyanaLanguage UnclassifiedSpokenLanguage)
(documentation KarahawyanaLanguage EnglishLanguage "The &%KarahawyanaLanguage is a language of
unknown classification from &%Brazil. SIL code: XKH. ISO 639-2: sai.
Population: 40 (1995 SIL). Region: Amazonas, near the Waiwai. Comments:
Probably Cariban. Today some live with the Waiwai and some near the
Hixkaryana, and speak those lang