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;; Military Processes
;; Access to and use of these products is governed by the GNU General
;; Public License <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html>. By using
;; these products, you agree to be bound by the terms of the GPL.
;; Authors: Jan Scheffczyk (jan.scheffczyk@gmx.net)
;; Adam Pease (apease [at] articulatesoftware [dot] com)
;; We ask that people using or referencing this work cite our primary paper:
;; Niles, I., and Pease, A. 2001. Towards a Standard Upper Ontology.
;; In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal
;; Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS-2001), Chris Welty and Barry
;; Smith, eds, Ogunquit, Maine, October 17-19, 2001. See also
;; http://www.ontologyportal.org
(subclass SpecialReconnaissance SpecialOperation)
(subclass SpecialReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation SpecialReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "These are reconnaissance and
surveillance actions conducted as a special operation in hostile,
denied, or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify
information of strategic or operational significance, employing
military capabilities not normally found in conventional forces. These
actions provide an additive capability for commanders and supplement
other conventional reconnaissance and surveillance actions. Even with
today's sophisticated long-range sensors and overhead platforms, some
information can be obtained only by visual observation or other
collection methods in the target area. SOF's highly developed
capabilities of gaining access to denied and hostile areas, worldwide
communications, and specialized aircraft and sensors enable SR against
targets inaccessible to other forces or assets. Activities within SR
include the following:
(1) Environmental Reconnaissance. These are operations conducted to
collect and report critical hydrographic, geological, and
meteorological information.
(2) Armed Reconnaissance. These are operations that involve locating
and attacking targets of opportunity, e.g., adversary materiel,
personnel, and facilities in assigned general areas or along assigned
LOCs. Armed reconnaissance is not conducted for the purpose of
attacking specific identified targets.
(3) Target and Threat Assessment. These are operations conducted to
detect, identify, locate, and assess a target to determine the most
effective employment of weapons. This type of operation might include
the assessment of the potential effects (to include collateral damage)
of a strike or an attack on a chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear, or toxic industrial material site.
(4) Poststrike Reconnaissance. These operations are undertaken for the
purpose of gathering information used to measure results of a
strike.")
(subclass EnvironmentalReconnaissance SpecialReconnaissance)
(documentation EnvironmentalReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "These are operations
conducted to collect and report critical hydrographic, geological, and
meteorological information.")
;; would like to express that the purpose of an ER is to gather some
;; special kind of information
;; (=>
;; (and
;; (instance ?SR SpecialReconnaissance)
;; (agent ?SR ?AGENT))
;; (hasPurpose ?SR
;; (containsInformation ?FORMULA)))
(subclass ArmedReconnaissance SpecialReconnaissance)
(documentation ArmedReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "These are operations that involve
locating and attacking targets of opportunity, e.g., adversary
materiel, personnel, and facilities in assigned general areas or along
assigned LOCs. Armed reconnaissance is not conducted for the purpose
of attacking specific identified targets.")
;; in an armed Reconnaissance hostile things may be attacked
;; It does not really make
;; sense to say that simply observing (reconnaissance) an enemy
;; confers the right to attack the enemy. Rather, observing an
;; enemy provides the *opportunity* for an attack. The right to
;; attack an enemy comes from some other "moral" source: the laws
;; of war, international law, religious precepts, etc. Further
;; changes are needed to this axiom.
(=>
(and
(instance ?AR ArmedReconnaissance)
(agent ?AR ?AGENT)
(patient ?AR ?HOSTILE)
(holdsDuring (WhenFn ?AR)
(enemy ?AGENT ?HOSTILE)))
(confersRight
(exists (?ATTACK)
(and
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(agent ?ATTACK ?AGENT)
(patient ?ATTACK ?HOSTILE)))
?AR
?AGENT))
(subclass TargetThreatReconnaissance SpecialReconnaissance)
(documentation TargetThreatReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "These are operations
conducted to detect, identify, locate, and assess a target to
determine the most effective employment of weapons. This type of
operation might include the assessment of the potential effects (to
include collateral damage) of a strike or an attack on a chemical,
biological, radiological, nuclear, or toxic industrial material
site.")
(subclass PoststrikeReconnaissance SpecialReconnaissance)
(documentation PoststrikeReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "These operations are
undertaken for the purpose of gathering information used to measure
results of a strike.")
;; the purpose of a PSR is to measure the result of a strike (attack)
(=>
(and
(instance ?PSR PoststrikeReconnaissance)
(patient ?PSR ?OBJ))
(exists (?ATTACK)
(and
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(patient ?ATTACK ?OBJ)
(earlier (WhenFn ?ATTACK) (WhenFn ?PSR)))))
(subclass UnconventionalWarfare SpecialOperation)
(subclass UnconventionalWarfare Helping)
(documentation UnconventionalWarfare EnglishLanguage "These are operations that
involve a broad spectrum of military and paramilitary operations,
normally of long duration, predominantly conducted through, with, or
by indigenous or surrogate forces who are organized, trained,
equipped, supported, and directed in varying degrees by an external
source. UW is unique in that it is a SO that can either be conducted
as part of a geographic combatant commander's overall theater
campaign, or as an independent, subordinate campaign.
When conducted independently, the primary focus of UW is on
political-military objectives and psychological objectives. UW
includes military and paramilitary aspects of resistance movements. UW
military activity represents the culmination of a successful effort to
organize and mobilize the civil populace against a hostile government
or occupying power. From the US perspective, the intent is to develop
and sustain these supported resistance organizations and to
synchronize their activities to further US national security
objectives. SOF units do not create resistance movements. They advise,
train, and assist indigenous resistance movements already in existence
to conduct UW and when required, accompany them into combat. When UW
operations support conventional military operations, the focus shifts
to primarily military objectives - however the political and
psychological implications remain. Operational and strategic staffs
and commanders must guard against limiting UW to a specific set of
circumstances or activities defined by either recent events or
personal experience. The most prevalent mistake is the belief that UW
is limited to guerrilla warfare or insurgency.")
;; in an UW we aid people of some area who are in a contest with
;; their government
(=>
(and
(instance ?UW UnconventionalWarfare)
(agent ?UW ?AGENT)
(patient ?UW ?POPULACE)
(or (member ?POPULACE (ResidentFn ?NATION))
(subCollection ?POPULACE (ResidentFn ?NATION))))
(exists (?CONTEST)
(and
(instance ?CONTEST Contest)
(agent ?CONTEST ?POPULACE)
(agent ?CONTEST (GovernmentFn ?NATION)))))
(subclass GuerrillaWarfare UnconventionalWarfare)
(documentation GuerrillaWarfare EnglishLanguage "These are military and paramilitary
operations conducted by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces in
adversary-held or hostile territory. It is the military aspect of an
insurgency or other armed resistance movement. Guerilla warfare
techniques can undermine the legitimacy of the existing government or
an occupying power as well as destroy, degrade, or divert military
capabilities.")
;; GW operations support paramilitary organizations
;; The problem with the rule below is that &%patient is an
;; extremely general CaseRole. One can imagine a given instance of
;; &%GuerrillaWarfare having multiple &%patients, not all of
;; which are necessarily instances of &%ParamilitaryOrganization.
;; This needs more work. One way to
;; remove ambiguity would be to define and use more different
;; instances of CaseRole.
(=>
(and
(instance ?GW GuerrillaWarfare)
(patient ?GW ?PATIENT))
(instance ?PATIENT ParamilitaryOrganization))
(subclass Subversion UnconventionalWarfare)
(documentation Subversion EnglishLanguage "These operations are designed to undermine
the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale
of a regime or nation. The clandestine nature of subversion dictates
that the underground elements perform the bulk of the activity.")
;; What is the definition of Subversion? (How could it be
;; differentiated from other types of UnconventionalWarfare?)
(subclass Sabotage UnconventionalWarfare)
(subclass Sabotage Damaging)
(documentation Sabotage EnglishLanguage "These are operations that involve an act or
acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national
defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or
attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war material,
premises, or utilities, to include human and natural
resources. Sabotage selectively disrupts, destroys, or neutralizes
hostile capabilities with a minimum expenditure of manpower and
materiel.")
(subclass IntelligenceActivities UnconventionalWarfare)
(subclass IntelligenceActivities Judging)
(documentation IntelligenceActivities EnglishLanguage "These activities assess areas
of interest ranging from political and military personalities to the
military capabilities of friendly and adversary forces. SOF perform
intelligence activities ranging from developing information critical
to planning and conducting operations, to assessing the capabilities
and intentions of indigenous and coalition forces.")
(subclass UnconventionalAssistedRecovery UnconventionalWarfare)
(subclass UnconventionalAssistedRecovery RecoveryOperation)
(documentation UnconventionalAssistedRecovery EnglishLanguage "These operations
consist of UW forces establishing and operating unconventional
assisted recovery mechanisms and unconventional assisted recovery
teams. UAR operations are designed to seek out, contact, authenticate,
and support military and other selected personnel as they move from an
adversary-held, hostile, or sensitive area to areas under friendly
control.")
(subclass Exfiltration UnconventionalWarfare)
(subclass Exfiltration Removing)
(documentation Exfiltration EnglishLanguage "The removal of personnel or units from
areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or
clandestine means.")
;; exfiltration is hidden from the enemy by some Pretending process
(=>
(and
(instance ?EF Exfiltration)
(agent ?EF ?AGENT))
(exists (?PRET)
(and
(instance ?PRET Pretending)
(agent ?PRET ?AGENT)
(patient ?PRET ?ENEMY)
(hasPurpose ?PRET
(believes ?ENEMY
(not
(exists (?EF0)
(equal ?EF0 ?EF))))))))
(subclass SpecialOperation MilitaryOperation)
(documentation SpecialOperation EnglishLanguage "Operations conducted in hostile,
denied, or politically sensitive environments to achieve military,
diplomatic, informational, and/or economic objectives employing
military capabilities for which there is no broad conventional force
requirement. These operations often require covert, clandestine, or
low visibility capabilities. Special operations are applicable across
the range of military operations. They can be conducted independently
or in conjunction with operations of conventional forces or other
government agencies and may include operations through, with, or by
indigenous or surrogate forces. Special operations differ from
conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk,
operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly
support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and
indigenous assets. Also called SO.")
;; special operations are conducted by special forces
(=>
(instance ?OP SpecialOperation)
(exists (?CONDUCTING ?SPFORCE)
(and
(instance ?CONDUCTING Guiding)
(patient ?CONDUCTING ?OP)
(agent ?CONDUCTING ?SPFORCE)
(instance ?SPFORCE SpecialOperationsForces))))
(subclass SpecialOperationsForces MilitaryOrganization)
(documentation SpecialOperationsForces EnglishLanguage "Those Active and Reserve
Component forces of the Military Services designated by the Secretary
of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped to
conduct and support special operations. Also called SOF. See also Air
Force special operations forces, Army special operations forces, naval
special warfare forces.")
;; special operations forces are designated by the Secretary of
;; Defense
(=>
(instance ?FORCES SpecialOperationsForces)
(exists (?DESIGNATING ?HUMAN)
(and
(instance ?DESIGNATING Designating)
(agent ?DESIGNATING ?HUMAN)
(attribute ?HUMAN SecretaryOfDefense)
(patient ?DESIGNATING ?FORCES))))
(subclass Designating Selecting)
(documentation Designating EnglishLanguage "&%Selecting &%Process, in which the agent
designates the patient in order to achive a special result (selects it
out of a larger body of entities), e.g., &%SpecialOperationsForces are
designated out of all branches of &%MilitaryService a &%Nation has.")
(subclass DirectAction SpecialOperation)
(subclass DirectAction ViolentContest)
(documentation DirectAction EnglishLanguage "These are short-duration strikes and
other small-scale offensive actions conducted as a special operation
in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments and which
employ specialized military capabilities to seize, destroy, capture,
exploit, recover, or damage designated targets. DA differs from
conventional offensive actions in the level of physical and political
risk, operational techniques, and the degree of discriminate and
precise use of force to achieve specific objectives. Activities within
DA include the following:
(1) Raids, Ambushes, and Direct Assaults. These are operations
designed to achieve specific, well-defined and often time-sensitive
results. They are sometimes beyond the effective strike capabilities
of conventional force elements. Such operations typically involve
attacks on critical targets, interdiction of LOCs or other target
systems, capturing designated personnel or material, or the seizure,
destruction, or neutralization of adversary facilities or
capabilities.
(2) Standoff Attacks. These are attacks by weapon systems or through
IO. Standoff attacks can be conducted by air, maritime, or by ground
platforms or units. When targets can be sufficiently damaged or
destroyed without the commitment of close-combat forces, these attacks
can be performed as independent actions.
(3) Terminal Attack Control and Terminal Guidance Operations. These
are actions to identify and precisely report the location of targets,
and with global positioning systems, laser designators, beacons, or
other means, conduct either terminal attack control (TAC) or terminal
guidance operations (TGO) to effectively engage them. TAC involves
actions to control the maneuver of and grant weapons release clearance
to attacking aircraft. TGO includes any electronic, mechanical, voice
or visual communication that provides approaching aircraft or weapons
additional information regarding a specific location or target. TAC
differs from TGO in that TAC includes the authority to clear aircraft
to release ordnance and TGO does not. Because of this, TAC requires
individuals to be qualified as joint terminal attack controllers, but
TGO does not.
(4) Recovery Operations. These are operations conducted to search for,
locate, identify, rescue, and return personnel, sensitive equipment,
or items critical to national security. SO recovery missions are
characterized by detailed planning, rehearsal, and thorough
intelligence analysis. These operations employ unconventional tactics
and techniques, clandestine search, possible indigenous assistance,
and the frequent use of ground combat elements.
(5) Precision Destruction Operations. These are operations in which
collateral damage must be minimized, requiring highly sophisticated
weapons and/or timed detonation of specific amounts of explosives
placed in exact locations to accomplish mission objectives. Precision
destruction operations can be conducted against targets where
precision-guided munitions cannot guarantee first strike success or
when the contents of a facility must be destroyed without damage to
that facility.
(6) Anti-Surface Operations. These are operations conducted against
adversary maritime surface targets, including combatants. These
include, but are not limited to, visit, board, search, and seizure
operations which are shipboarding operations to board and seize
cooperative, uncooperative, or hostile contacts of interest.")
(subclass DirectActionActivity MilitaryOperation)
(subclass DirectActionActivity ViolentContest)
(subclass DirectActionActivity Maneuver)
(documentation DirectActionActivity EnglishLanguage "The class of &%subProcesses of a
&%DirectAction.")
(=>
(instance ?ACT DirectActionActivity)
(exists (?DA)
(and
(instance ?DA DirectAction)
(subProcess ?ACT ?DA))))
(subclass Raid DirectActionActivity)
(documentation Raid EnglishLanguage "a sudden short attack. These are operations
designed to achieve specific, well-defined and often time-sensitive
results. They are sometimes beyond the effective strike capabilities
of conventional force elements. Such operations typically involve
attacks on critical targets, interdiction of LOCs or other target
systems, capturing designated personnel or material, or the seizure,
destruction, or neutralization of adversary facilities or
capabilities.")
(subclass DirectAmbush DirectActionActivity)
(subclass DirectAmbush Ambush)
(documentation DirectAmbush EnglishLanguage "&%Ambush conducted by some
&%MilitaryOrganization as part of a &%DirectAction. These are operations
designed to achieve specific, well-defined and often time-sensitive
results. They are sometimes beyond the effective strike capabilities of
conventional force elements. Such operations typically involve attacks on
critical targets, interdiction of LOCs or other target systems, capturing
designated personnel or material, or the seizure, destruction, or
neutralization of adversary facilities or capabilities.")
(subclass MilitaryAssault ViolentContest)
(subclass MilitaryAssault MilitaryOperation)
(documentation MilitaryAssault EnglishLanguage "close fighting during the culmination of a military attack.")
(subclass DirectAssault MilitaryAssault)
(subclass DirectAssault DirectActionActivity)
(documentation DirectAssault EnglishLanguage "a &%MilitaryAssault as part of a
&%DirectAction. These are operations designed to achieve specific,
well-defined and often time-sensitive results. They are sometimes beyond
the effective strike capabilities of conventional force elements. Such
operations typically involve attacks on critical targets, interdiction of
LOCs or other target systems, capturing designated personnel or material,
or the seizure, destruction, or neutralization of adversary facilities or
capabilities.")
(subclass StandoffAttack DirectActionActivity)
(subclass StandoffAttack Attack)
(documentation StandoffAttack EnglishLanguage "These are attacks by weapon systems or
through IO. Standoff attacks can be conducted by air, maritime, or by
ground platforms or units. When targets can be sufficiently damaged or
destroyed without the commitment of close-combat forces, these attacks
can be performed as independent actions.")
;; What does IO mean???
;; Weapons are used for attacks (GENERAL ATTACKS!) (What about IO??)
(subclass TerminalAttackControl DirectActionActivity)
(subclass TerminalAttackControl Classifying)
(subclass TerminalAttackControl Stating)
(documentation TerminalAttackControl EnglishLanguage "These are actions to identify
and precisely report the location of targets, and with global
positioning systems, laser designators, beacons, or other means,
conduct either terminal attack control (TAC) or terminal guidance
operations (TGO) to effectively engage them. TAC involves actions to
control the maneuver of and grant weapons release clearance to
attacking aircraft. TGO includes any electronic, mechanical, voice or
visual communication that provides approaching aircraft or weapons
additional information regarding a specific location or target. TAC
differs from TGO in that TAC includes the authority to clear aircraft
to release ordnance and TGO does not. Because of this, TAC requires
individuals to be qualified as joint terminal attack controllers, but
TGO does not.")
;; the purpose of a TerminalAttackControl is to report the location of
;; some target
(=>
(instance ?TA_CTRL TerminalAttackControl)
(hasPurpose ?TA_CTRL
(exists (?AGENT ?ATTACK ?LOCATION ?TARGET)
(and
(targetInAttack ?ATTACK ?TARGET)
(patient ?TA_CTRL ?TARGET)
(agent ?TA_CTRL ?AGENT)
(result ?TA_CTRL
(knows ?AGENT
(located ?TARGET ?LOCATION)))))))
;; the agent performing a TerminalAttackControl has permission to
;; attack the target
(=>
(and
(instance ?TA_CTRL TerminalAttackControl)
(agent ?TA_CTRL ?AGENT1)
(patient ?TA_CTRL ?TARGET))
(exists (?AGENT2)
(confersRight
(exists (?ATTACK)
(and
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(agent ?ATTACK ?AGENT2)
(patient ?ATTACK ?TARGET)))
?TA_CTRL
?AGENT2)))
(subclass TerminalGuidance DirectActionActivity)
(subclass TerminalGuidance Classifying)
(subclass TerminalGuidance Stating)
(subclass TerminalGuidance Locating)
(documentation TerminalGuidance EnglishLanguage "These are actions to identify
and precisely report the location of targets, and with global
positioning systems, laser designators, beacons, or other means,
conduct either terminal attack control (TAC) or terminal guidance
operations (TGO) to effectively engage them. TAC involves actions to
control the maneuver of and grant weapons release clearance to
attacking aircraft. TGO includes any electronic, mechanical, voice or
visual communication that provides approaching aircraft or weapons
additional information regarding a specific location or target. TAC
differs from TGO in that TAC includes the authority to clear aircraft
to release ordnance and TGO does not. Because of this, TAC requires
individuals to be qualified as joint terminal attack controllers, but
TGO does not.")
;; the purpose of a TerminalGuidance is to report the location of
;; some target
(=>
(instance ?TA_CTRL TerminalGuidance)
(hasPurpose ?TA_CTRL
(exists (?AGENT ?ATTACK ?LOCATION ?TARGET)
(and
(targetInAttack ?ATTACK ?TARGET)
(patient ?TA_CTRL ?TARGET)
(agent ?TA_CTRL ?AGENT)
(result ?TA_CTRL
(knows ?AGENT
(located ?TARGET ?LOCATION)))))))
;; the agent performing a TerminalGuidance has NO permission to
;; attack the target
(=>
(and
(instance ?TA_CTRL TerminalAttackControl)
(agent ?TA_CTRL ?AGENT1)
(patient ?TA_CTRL ?TARGET))
(not
(confersRight
(exists (?ATTACK)
(and
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(agent ?ATTACK ?AGENT2)
(patient ?ATTACK ?TARGET)))
?TA_CTRL
?AGENT2)))
(subclass RecoveryOperation DirectActionActivity)
(documentation RecoveryOperation EnglishLanguage "These are operations conducted to
search for, locate, identify, rescue, and return personnel, sensitive
equipment, or items critical to national security. SO recovery
missions are characterized by detailed planning, rehearsal, and
thorough intelligence analysis. These operations employ unconventional
tactics and techniques, clandestine search, possible indigenous
assistance, and the frequent use of ground combat elements.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?RO RecoveryOperation)
(patient ?RO ?TARGET))
(hasPurpose ?RO
(exists (?PROCESS)
(and
(patient ?PROCESS ?TARGET)
(instance ?PROCESS
(UnionFn Classifying
(UnionFn Pursuing
(UnionFn Discovering
(UnionFn Locating Returning)))))))))
(subclass Locating Discovering)
(documentation Locating EnglishLanguage "Discover the location of, determine the place
of, find by searching or examining.")
;; the purpose of locating something is to know its location
(=>
(and
(instance ?LOCATING Locating)
(patient ?LOCATING ?THING)
(agent ?LOCATING ?AGENT))
(hasPurpose ?LOCATING
(exists (?LOCATION)
(and
(instance ?LOCATION Region)
(knows ?AGENT
(located ?THING ?LOCATION))))))
(subclass PreciseDestruction DirectActionActivity)
(subclass PreciseDestruction Destruction)
(documentation PreciseDestruction EnglishLanguage "These are operations in which
collateral damage must be minimized, requiring highly sophisticated
weapons and/or timed detonation of specific amounts of explosives
placed in exact locations to accomplish mission objectives. Precision
destruction operations can be conducted against targets where
precision-guided munitions cannot guarantee first strike success or
when the contents of a facility must be destroyed without damage to
that facility.")
;; PreciseDestruction requires HighPrecisionWeapons
(=>
(and
(instance ?DESTR PreciseDestruction)
(agent ?DESTR ?AGENT))
(exists (?WEAPON)
(and
(possesses ?AGENT ?WEAPON)
(instrument ?DESTR ?WEAPON)
(instance ?WEAPON HighPrecisionWeapon))))
;; The goal is to have no damage of patients that are not the patients
;; of the Destruction. This is too strict, but how would we describe
;; minimization??
;; rework. Distinguish between objects targeted and objects
;; damaged/destroyed. In a PreciseDestruction event, the goal
;; (desire) is that no untargeted object be damaged.
(=>
(and
(instance ?DESTR PreciseDestruction)
(patient ?DESTR ?PATIENT))
(hasPurpose ?DESTR
(not
(exists (?DAMAGING)
(and
(instance ?DAMAGING Damaging)
(subProcess ?DAMAGING ?DESTR)
(patient ?DAMAGING ?DAMAGED)
(not
(equal ?PATIENT ?DAMAGED)))))))
(subclass HighPrecisionWeapon Weapon)
(documentation HighPrecisionWeapon EnglishLanguage "A &%Weapon with high precision,
designed to minimize collateral damage.")
;; We need some instances here at least!
;; the goal of a high precision weapon used in some process is to avoid collateral damage
;; rework. See above.
(=>
(and
(instance ?WEAPON HighPrecisionWeapon)
(instrument ?DESTR ?WEAPON)
(patient ?DESTR ?PATIENT))
(hasPurpose ?WEAPON
(not
(exists (?DAMAGING)
(and
(instance ?DAMAGING Damaging)
(subProcess ?DAMAGING ?DESTR)
(patient ?DAMAGING ?DAMAGED)
(not
(equal ?PATIENT ?DAMAGED)))))))
(subclass AntiSurfaceOperation DirectActionActivity)
(documentation AntiSurfaceOperation EnglishLanguage "These are operations conducted against
adversary maritime surface targets, including combatants. These
include, but are not limited to, visit, board, search, and seizure
operations which are shipboarding operations to board and seize
cooperative, uncooperative, or hostile contacts of interest.")
;; targets of AntiSurfaceOperations are objects located on the Water
(=>
(and
(instance ?ASO AntiSurfaceOperation)
(patient ?ASO ?TARGET)
(holdsDuring (WhenFn ?ASO)
(located ?TARGET ?LOCATION)))
(instance ?LOCATION WaterArea))
(subclass ReconnaissanceOperation MilitaryOperation)
(subclass ReconnaissanceOperation Investigating)
(documentation ReconnaissanceOperation EnglishLanguage "A mission undertaken to
obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information
about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or
to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or
geographic characteristics of a particular area. Also called RECON.")
;; the purpose of a Reconnaissance operation is that the agent
;; knows the information that the Reconnaissance is all about
(=>
(and
(instance ?SR ReconnaissanceOperation)
(agent ?SR ?AGENT)
(instance ?PROP Proposition))
(hasPurpose ?SR
(knows ?AGENT ?PROP)))
;; a Reconnaissance is not conducted for attack
(=>
(and
(instance ?SR ReconnaissanceOperation)
(agent ?SR ?AGENT))
(not
(hasPurpose ?SR
(exists (?ATTACK ?HOSTILE)
(and
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(agent ?ATTACK ?AGENT)
(patient ?ATTACK ?HOSTILE))))))
(subclass ReconnaissanceByFire ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation ReconnaissanceByFire EnglishLanguage "A method of reconnaissance in
which fire is placed on a suspected enemy position to cause the enemy
to disclose a presence by movement or return of fire.")
;; ReconnaissanceByFire involves attacking the enemy
(=>
(and
(instance ?RbF ReconnaissanceByFire)
(agent ?RbF ?AGENT))
(exists (?ATTACK ?HOSTILE)
(and
(patient ?RbF ?HOSTILE)
(subProcess ?ATTACK ?RbF)
(instance ?ATTACK Attack)
(agent ?ATTACK ?AGENT)
(patient ?ATTACK ?HOSTILE))))
(subclass ReconnaissanceInForce ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation ReconnaissanceInForce EnglishLanguage "An offensive operation designed
to discover and/or test the enemy's strength or to obtain other
information.")
(subclass AirReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation AirReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "The acquisition of information by
employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles.")
;; aircrafts are used for air Reconnaissance
(=>
(instance ?AR AirReconnaissance)
(exists (?AIRCRAFT)
(and
(instance ?AIRCRAFT Aircraft)
(instrument ?AR ?AIRCRAFT))))
(subclass AirPhotographicReconnaissance AirReconnaissance)
(documentation AirPhotographicReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "The obtaining of
information by air photography, divided into three types: a. Strategic
photographic reconnaissance b. Tactical photographic reconnaissance
and c. Survey/cartographic photography-air photography taken for
survey/ cartographical purposes and to survey/cartographic standards
of accuracy. It may be strategic or tactical.")
;; an APR involves taking pictures from the target
(=>
(and
(instance ?APR AirPhotographicReconnaissance)
(agent ?APR ?AGENT)
(patient ?APR ?HOSTILE))
(exists (?PHOTOGRAPHING)
(and
(instance ?PHOTOGRAPHING Photographing)
(subProcess ?PHOTOGRAPHING ?APR)
(agent ?PHOTOGRAPHING ?AGENT)
(patient ?PHOTOGRAPHING ?HOSTILE))))
(subclass AmphibiousReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation AmphibiousReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "An amphibious landing
conducted by minor elements, normally involving stealth rather than
force of arms, for the purpose of securing information, and usually
followed by a planned withdrawal.")
;; amphibic vehicles are used for amphibious Reconnaissance
(=>
(instance ?AR AmphibiousReconnaissance)
(exists (?AMPHCRAFT)
(and
(instance ?AMPHCRAFT AmphibiousVehicle)
(instrument ?AR ?AMPHCRAFT))))
;; AmphibiousReconnaissance involves landing
(=>
(and
(instance ?AR AmphibiousReconnaissance)
(agent ?AR ?AGENT))
(exists (?LANDING)
(and
(subProcess ?LANDING ?AR)
(instance ?LANDING LandingWaterLand)
(agent ?LANDING ?AGENT))))
(subclass AmphibiousReconnaissanceUnit MilitaryForce)
(documentation AmphibiousReconnaissanceUnit EnglishLanguage "A unit organized,
equipped, and trained to conduct and support amphibious reconnaissance
missions. An amphibious reconnaissance unit is made up of a number of
amphibious reconnaissance teams.")
;; the purpose of ARUs is to conduct AmphibiousReconnaissance
(=>
(instance ?ARU AmphibiousReconnaissanceUnit)
(hasPurpose ?ARU
(exists (?AR)
(and
(instance ?AR AmphibiousReconnaissance)
(agent ?AR ?ARU)))))
(subclass LandingWaterLand Translocation)
(documentation LandingWaterLand EnglishLanguage "The act of coming to land after a voyage.")
(=>
(instance ?LAND LandingWaterLand)
(exists (?REGION ?WATERTRANS)
(and
(instance ?REGION LandArea)
(destination ?LAND ?REGION)
(subProcess ?WATERTRANS ?LAND)
(instance ?WATERTRANS WaterTransportation))))
(subclass ContactReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation ContactReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "Locating isolated units out of
contact with the main force.")
(subclass RadarReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation RadarReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "Reconnaissance by means of radar
to obtain information on enemy
activity and to determine the nature of terrain.")
;; RadarReconnaissance uses Radar
(=>
(instance ?RR RadarReconnaissance)
(exists (?RADAR)
(and
(instrument ?RR ?RADAR)
(instance ?RADAR Radar))))
(subclass Patrol ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation Patrol EnglishLanguage "A detachment of ground, sea, or air forces sent
out for the purpose of gathering information or carrying out a
destructive, harassing, mopping-up, or security mission. See also
combat air patrol.")
(subclass ElectronicReconnaissance ReconnaissanceOperation)
(documentation ElectronicReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "The detection, location,
identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic
radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation, reconnaissance.")
(subclass RadiationMeasure ConstantQuantity)
(documentation RadiationMeasure EnglishLanguage "Measurement of the radiation of some
object")
(instance Rad UnitOfMeasure)
(instance Rad CompositeUnitOfMeasure)
(documentation Rad EnglishLanguage "A unit of absorbed ionizing radiation equal to 100
ergs per gram of irradiated material.")
(=>
(equal ?MEASURE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER Rad))
(instance ?MEASURE RadiationMeasure))
(=>
(and
(equal ?MEASURE (MeasureFn ?NUMBER Rad))
(measure ?OBJ ?MEASURE))
(absorbedDose ?OBJ ?MEASURE))
(subrelation absorbedDose measure)
(instance absorbedDose BinaryPredicate)
(domain absorbedDose 1 Object)
(domain absorbedDose 2 RadiationMeasure)
(documentation absorbedDose EnglishLanguage "The amount of energy imparted by nuclear
(or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material. The unit
is the rad.")
;; maybe we should add something here about the maximum radiation
;; humans/animals/... can stand ...
(subclass ExternalAgency MilitaryOrganization)
(documentation ExternalAgency EnglishLanguage "Some external agancy involved with the
Military, say CIA, NSA and the like (my own idea!).")
(instance JointStaff GroupOfPeople)
(instance JointStaff MilitaryOrganization)
(documentation JointStaff EnglishLanguage "The staff under the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff as provided for in the National Security Act of 1947,
as amended by the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense
Reorganization Act of 1986. The Joint Staff assists the Chairman and,
subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Chairman and
the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in carrying out their
responsibilities. Also called JS. ")
(instance DirectorJS Position)
(subAttribute DirectorJS MilitaryCommander)
(=>
(attribute ?H DirectorJS)
(member ?H JointChiefsOfStaff))
(leaderPosition JointStaff ChairmanJCS)
(leaderPosition JointStaff DirectorJS)
(documentation DirectorJS EnglishLanguage "The director of the Joint Staff.")
(instance JointChiefsOfStaff GroupOfPeople)
(instance JointChiefsOfStaff MilitaryOrganization)
(documentation JointChiefsOfStaff EnglishLanguage "The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a
grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the
armed services in the United States armed forces. Similar organisations,
sometimes known as Chiefs of Staff Committees (COSCs) in the British
Commonwealth, are common in other nations. (from Wikipedia)")
(instance ChairmanJCS Position)
(=>
(attribute ?H ChairmanJCS)
(member ?H JointChiefsOfStaff))
(leaderPosition JointChiefsOfStaff ChairmanJCS)
(documentation ChairmanJCS EnglishLanguage "The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff.")
(subclass JointPublication Text)
(documentation JointPublication EnglishLanguage "A publication containing joint
doctrine that is prepared under the direction and authority of the
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and applies to all US military
forces. Also called JP.")
;; A joint publication is managed (directed, authorized) by the
;; Chairman of the JCS
(=>
(instance ?PUB JointPublication)
(exists (?MANAGING ?H)
(and
(instance ?MANAGING Managing)
(attribute ?H ChairmanJCS)
(agent ?MANAGING ?H)
(patient ?MANAGING ?PUB))))
;; A joint publication applies (rules) to all US military
(=>
(and
(instance ?PUB JointPublication)
(containsInformation ?PUB ?CONTENT)
(authors ?JORG ?PUB))
(exists (?ORG)
(and
(subOrganization ?ORG USMilitary)
(confersObligation ?CONTENT ?JORG ?ORG))))
(instance USMilitary MilitaryOrganization)
(militaryOfArea USMilitary UnitedStates)
(documentation USMilitary EnglishLanguage "All Military of the United States.")
(subclass AboveTheLine JointPublication)
(documentation AboveTheLine EnglishLanguage "The upper level publications in the
hierarchy of joint publications which includes capstone, keystone, and
other key joint doctrine publications that the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff signs and are intended to be used by combatant
commanders, subunified commanders, joint task force commanders,
Service Chiefs, and Joint Staff directors.")
;; AboveTheLine documents are signed by the Chairman of the JCS
(=>
(instance ?PUB AboveTheLine)
(exists (?SIGNING ?H)
(and
(instance ?SIGNING SigningAnAgreement)
(attribute ?H ChairmanJCS)
(agent ?SIGNING ?H)
(patient ?SIGNING ?PUB))))
(subclass BelowTheLine JointPublication)
(disjoint AboveTheLine BelowTheLine)
(documentation BelowTheLine EnglishLanguage "The lower level publications in the
hierarchy of joint publications that are signed by the Director, Joint
Staff and contain specific mission-area guidance for the joint
community. Included in this level are reference publications and those
describing joint personnel, intelligence support, operations, logistic
support, planning, and command, control, communications, and computer
systems support.")
;; BelowTheLine documents are signed by the Director of the JS
(=>
(instance ?PUB BelowTheLine)
(exists (?SIGNING ?H)
(and
(instance ?SIGNING SigningAnAgreement)
(attribute ?H DirectorJS)
(agent ?SIGNING ?H)
(patient ?SIGNING ?PUB))))
(subclass Doctrine Text)
(documentation Doctrine EnglishLanguage "Fundamental principles by which the military
forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national
objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in
application.")
(subclass MultinationalDoctrine Doctrine)
(documentation MultinationalDoctrine EnglishLanguage "Fundamental principles that
guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated
action toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating
nations.")
;; MultinationalDoctrines involve multiple nations
(=>
(instance ?PUB MultinationalDoctrine)
(exists (?NATION1 ?NATION2)
(and
(agent ?PUB ?NATION1)
(agent ?PUB ?NATION2)
(instance ?NATION1 Nation)
(instance ?NATION2 Nation)
(not
(equal ?NATION1 ?NATION2)))))
(subclass JointDoctrine JointPublication)
(subclass JointDoctrine Doctrine)
(documentation JointDoctrine EnglishLanguage "Fundamental principles that guide the
employment of US military forces in coordinated action toward a common
objective. Joint doctrine contained in joint publications also
includes terms, tactics, techniques, and procedures. It is
authoritative but requires judgment in application")
(subclass ChairmanPublication Text)
(disjoint ChairmanPublication JointDoctrine)
(partition ChairmanPublication ChairmanInstruction ChairmanManual)
(documentation ChairmanPublication EnglishLanguage "A publication by the Chairman of
the JCS, subsuming instructions and manuals.")
;; A Chairman publication is managed (directed, authorized) by the
;; Chairman of the JCS
(=>
(instance ?PUB ChairmanPublication)
(exists (?MANAGING ?H)
(and
(instance ?MANAGING Managing)
(attribute ?H ChairmanJCS)
(agent ?MANAGING ?H)
(patient ?MANAGING ?PUB))))
;; Chairman publication documents are signed by the Chairman of the
;; JCS
(=>
(instance ?PUB ChairmanPublication)
(exists (?SIGNING ?H)
(and
(instance ?SIGNING SigningAnAgreement)
(attribute ?H ChairmanJCS)
(agent ?SIGNING ?H)
(patient ?SIGNING ?PUB))))
(subclass ChairmanInstruction ChairmanPublication)
(documentation ChairmanInstruction EnglishLanguage "A replacement document for all
types of correspondence containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff policy and guidance that does not involve the employment of
forces. An instruction is of indefinite duration and is applicable to
external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. It
remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or otherwise
canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructions, unlike
joint publications, will not contain joint doctrine. Terminology used
in these publications will be consistent with JP 1-02. Also called
CJCSI.")
(subclass ChairmanManual ChairmanPublication)
(documentation ChairmanManual EnglishLanguage "A document containing detailed
procedures for performing specific tasks that do not involve the
employment of forces. A manual is of indefinite duration and is
applicable to external agencies or both the Joint Staff and external
agencies. It may supplement a Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
instruction or stand alone and remains in effect until superseded,
rescinded, or otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff manuals, unlike joint publications, will not contain joint
doctrine. ")
;; what is the formal difference between ChairmanManual and
;; ChairmanInstruction, except that the former is more detailed and
;; may supplement the latter??
(subclass Capstone AboveTheLine)
(subclass Capstone JointDoctrine)
(disjoint Capstone Keystone)
(documentation Capstone EnglishLanguage "The top group of joint doctrine publications
in the hierarchy of joint publications. Capstone publications link
joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of other
government agencies, alliances, and coalitions.")
(subclass Keystone AboveTheLine)
(subclass Keystone JointDoctrine)
(documentation Keystone EnglishLanguage "Joint doctrine publications that establish
the doctrinal foundation for a series of joint publications in the
hierarchy of joint publications. Keystone publications are provided
for joint personnel support, intelligence support, operations,
logistic support, plans, and command, control, communications, and
computer systems support series publications.")
(subclass JointTest JointPublication)
(documentation JointTest EnglishLanguage "A proposed publication produced for the
purpose of field-testing an emergent concept that has been validated
through the Joint Experimentation Program or a similar joint
process. Also called JTP.")
(subclass PsychologicalOperation MilitaryOperation)
(documentation PsychologicalOperation EnglishLanguage "These are planned operations
that convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences
to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and
ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups,
and individuals. The purpose of PSYOP is to induce or reinforce
foreign attitudes and behaviors favorable to the JFC's
objectives. Planning and employment considerations include:
(1) Force Multiplier. PSYOP are among the most effective nonlethal
weapons available to a commander. It can reduce casualties on both
sides by reducing the morale and combat effectiveness of the
adversary, creating dissent and disaffection within their ranks,
encouraging surrenders or defections, promoting disobedience, or
inducing a lack of support for a hostile regime within a civilian
populace.
(2) Combatant Commander Responsibilities. Each geographic combatant
commander is responsible for conducting PSYOP programs in
peacetime. Such efforts are designed to create a favorable image of
the friendly government, of the United States, and of the Armed Forces
of the United States, encourage support for democratic institutions,
human rights, regional stability, and counterdrug activities, and
assist a HN in explaining and publicizing humanitarian and civic
action projects to local citizens. When used as part of an integrated
theater strategy or strategic information operation, PSYOP can reduce
the probability of conflict, reduce the damage if conflict does occur,
and speed the transition to normality in the postconflict phase.
(3) PSYOP Applications. Taking advantage of their language and culture
skills, in-depth knowledge of the region, and understanding of
interagency operations, SOF provide the geographic combatant commander
with a broad range of PSYOP capabilities to be employed independently
or in support of a larger theater campaign. These capabilities include
the following:
(a) Developing, Producing, Distributing, and Disseminating. PSYOP
units design, develop, and produce programs. They distribute and
disseminate products that support tactical, operational, and strategic
goals.
(b) Coordinating and Directing PSYOP Programs. PSYOP support national
policy goals with programs developed for and approved by higher
authority. PSYOP personnel coordinate with the chain of command to
ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the program.
(c) Producing PSYOP Studies and Estimates. PSYOP personnel produce and
maintain studies and estimates for the commander. They advise
supported commanders on the expected psychological impacts of their
courses of action (COAs). They identify the adversary PSYOP effort and
the susceptibilities of friendly forces.
(d) Support Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW), Civilian Internee (CI), and
Dislocated Civilian (DC) Operations. PSYOP support can dispel rumors,
create dialogue and pacify or indoctrinate EPWs, CIs, or DCs to
minimize violence, facilitate efficient camp operations, and ensure
safe and humane conditions persist.
(e) Providing Support to HN Assistance Operations. During CMO, PSYOP
personnel may work with CA or conventional units to promote civic
action projects either by or in support of the host government.
(f) Employ Tactical PSYOP. Tactical PSYOP forces, with augmentation,
are capable of providing all functions of PSYOP, on a limited scale,
to component commands within a designated area of operations (AO).
(4) PSYOP Support to Information Operations. PSYOP are a core
capability of IO. PSYOP activities are integrated into IO plans and
synchronized with IO objectives and themes. Mission-type orders and
decentralized execution can give PSYOP forces considerable autonomy to
conduct tactical operations within established IO guidance. For
additional information on PSYOP, see JP 3-53, Doctrine for Joint
Psychological Operations.
")
;; the purpose of a PSYOP is to influence others such that they are
;; not enemies of the agent and are in favour of the measures taken by
;; the agent of the PSYOP
(=>
(and
(instance ?PSYOP PsychologicalOperation)
(agent ?PSYOP ?AGENT)
(patient ?PSYOP ?TARGET))
(hasPurpose ?PSYOP
(exists (?PROCESS ?RESULT)
(and
(agent ?PROCESS ?TARGET)
(result ?PROCESS ?RESULT)
(desires ?AGENT ?RESULT)))))
(subclass DevelopPrograms PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass DevelopPrograms Creation)
(documentation DevelopPrograms EnglishLanguage "(a) Developing, Producing,
Distributing, and Disseminating. PSYOP units design, develop, and
produce programs. They distribute and disseminate products that
support tactical, operational, and strategic goals.")
(=>
(instance ?DP DevelopPrograms)
(exists (?PROGRAM)
(and
(result ?DP ?PROGRAM)
(instance ?PROGRAM PublicProgram))))
(subclass DistributeProducts PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass DistributeProducts Giving)
(documentation DistributeProducts EnglishLanguage "(a) Developing, Producing,
Distributing, and Disseminating. PSYOP units design, develop, and
produce programs. They distribute and disseminate products that
support tactical, operational, and strategic goals.")
(subclass DisseminateProducts PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass DisseminateProducts Disseminating)
(documentation DisseminateProducts EnglishLanguage "(a) Developing, Producing,
Distributing, and Disseminating. PSYOP units design, develop, and
produce programs. They distribute and disseminate products that
support tactical, operational, and strategic goals.")
(subclass ProduceStudies PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass ProduceStudies Creation)
(documentation ProduceStudies EnglishLanguage "Producing PSYOP Studies and
Estimates. PSYOP personnel produce and maintain studies and estimates
for the commander. They advise supported commanders on the expected
psychological impacts of their courses of action (COAs). They identify
the adversary PSYOP effort and the susceptibilities of friendly
forces.")
(=>
(instance ?PS ProduceStudies)
(exists (?STUDY)
(and
(result ?PS ?STUDY)
(instance ?STUDY Report))))
(subclass SupportEPW PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass SupportEPW Helping)
(documentation SupportEPW EnglishLanguage "PSYOP support can dispel rumors, create
dialogue and pacify or indoctrinate EPWs, CIs, or DCs to minimize
violence, facilitate efficient camp operations, and ensure safe and
humane conditions persist.")
;; a SupportEPW operation hels prisoners of war
(=>
(and
(instance ?S SupportEPW)
(patient ?S ?P))
(attribute ?P PrisonerOfWar))
(subclass SupportCI PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass SupportCI Helping)
(documentation SupportCI EnglishLanguage "PSYOP support can dispel rumors, create
dialogue and pacify or indoctrinate EPWs, CIs, or DCs to minimize
violence, facilitate efficient camp operations, and ensure safe and
humane conditions persist.")
;; a SupportCI operation helps civilian internees
(=>
(and
(instance ?S SupportCI)
(patient ?S ?P))
(attribute ?P CivilianInternee))
(subclass SupportDC PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass SupportDC Helping)
(documentation SupportDC EnglishLanguage "PSYOP support can dispel rumors, create
dialogue and pacify or indoctrinate EPWs, CIs, or DCs to minimize
violence, facilitate efficient camp operations, and ensure safe and
humane conditions persist.")
;; a SupportDC operation helps dislocated civilians
(=>
(and
(instance ?S SupportDC)
(patient ?S ?P))
(attribute ?P DislocatedCivilian))
(subclass SupportHNAssistance PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass SupportHNAssistance Helping)
(documentation SupportHNAssistance EnglishLanguage "Providing Support to HN Assistance
Operations. During CMO, PSYOP personnel may work with CA or
conventional units to promote civic action projects either by or in
support of the host government.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?SHN SupportHNAssistance)
(experiencer ?SHN ?HN)
(instance ?HN HostNation))
(exists (?OP)
(and
(instance ?OP MilitaryOperation)
(instance ?OP Helping)
(experiencer ?OP ?HN)
(patient ?SHN ?OP))))
(subclass TacticalPSYOP PsychologicalOperation)
(documentation TacticalPSYOP EnglishLanguage "Employ Tactical PSYOP. Tactical PSYOP
forces, with augmentation, are capable of providing all functions of
PSYOP, on a limited scale, to component commands within a designated
area of operations (AO).")
(instance areaOfOperation BinaryPredicate)
(instance areaOfOperation AsymmetricRelation)
(instance areaOfOperation PartialValuedRelation)
(domain areaOfOperation 1 Region)
(domain areaOfOperation 2 MilitaryOperation)
(documentation areaOfOperation EnglishLanguage "An operational area defined by the
joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do
not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force
commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to
accomplish their missions and protect their forces. Also called
AO. See also area of responsibility, joint operations area, joint
special operations area.")
;; the area of operation comprises the region where a military operation is located
(=>
(and
(instance ?OP MilitaryOperation)
(eventLocated ?OP ?REGION)
(instance ?REGION Region))
(areaOfOperation ?REGION ?OP))
(subclass SupportIO PsychologicalOperation)
(subclass SupportIO Helping)
(documentation SupportIO EnglishLanguage "PSYOP Support to Information
Operations. PSYOP are a core capability of IO. PSYOP activities are
integrated into IO plans and synchronized with IO objectives and
themes. Mission-type orders and decentralized execution can give PSYOP
forces considerable autonomy to conduct tactical operations within
established IO guidance. For additional information on PSYOP, see JP
3-53, Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?SIO SupportIO)
(patient ?SHN ?OP))
(instance ?OP InformationOperation))
(subclass HostNation Nation)
(documentation HostNation EnglishLanguage "A nation that receives the forces and/or
supplies of allied nations, coalition partners, and/or NATO
organizations to be located on, to operate in, or to transit through
its territory. Also called HN")
;; host nations receive military forces
(=>
(instance ?HN HostNation)
(exists (?GETTING ?FORCES ?OTHERNATION ?MILITARY)
(and
(instance ?OTHERNATION Nation)
(instance ?MILITARY MilitaryForce)
(militaryOfArea ?MILITARY ?OTHERNATION)
(subOrganization ?FORCES ?MILITARY)
(not
(equal ?HN ?OTHERNATION))
(not
(enemy ?HN ?OTHERNATION))
(instance ?GETTING Getting)
(agent ?GETTING ?HN)
(patient ?GETTING ?FORCES)
(instance ?FORCES MilitaryForce)
(located ?FORCES ?HN))))
(subclass PublicProgram OrganizationalProcess)
(documentation PublicProgram EnglishLanguage "From WordNet synset: a system of
projects or services intended to meet a public need. Examples: he
proposed an elaborate program of public works, working mothers rely on
the day care program.")
;; public programs are intended to aid the public
(=>
(and
(instance ?PP PublicProgram)
(experiencer ?PP ?PUBLIC))
(hasPurpose ?PP
(exists (?HELPING)
(and
(instance ?HELPING Helping)
(experiencer ?HELPING ?PUBLIC)
(instance ?PUBLIC Public)))))
;; KJN: Moving this notion of 'The Public' to MILO
;;(subclass Public GroupOfPeople)
;;(documentation Public EnglishLanguage "a body of people sharing some common interest;
;;example: the reading public.")
;; the members of a Public have common interests
;;(=>
;; (holdsDuring ?T1
;; (and
;; (member ?AGENT1 Public)
;; (member ?AGENT2 Public)
;; (not
;; (equal ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2))))
;; (exists (?INTEREST)
;; (holdsDuring ?T1
;; (and
;; (desires ?AGENT1 ?INTEREST)
;; (desires ?AGENT2 ?INTEREST)))))
(subclass Helping SocialInteraction)
(documentation Helping EnglishLanguage "From WordNet: give help or assistance, be of
service. Examples: Everyone helped out during the earthquake. Can you
help me carry this table? She never helps around the house.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?HELPING Helping)
(agent ?HELPING ?AGENT)
(result ?HELPING ?RESULT))
(exists (?PATIENT)
(and
(or
(patient ?HELPING ?PATIENT)
(experiencer ?HELPING ?PATIENT))
(wants ?PATIENT ?RESULT))))
(subclass Proliferation Increasing)
(documentation Proliferation EnglishLanguage "WN: a rapid increase in number
(especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons)")
(subclass ProliferationWMD Proliferation)
(documentation ProliferationWMD EnglishLanguage "A rapid increase the number of WMD,
especially the number possessed by different countries or groups.")
(subclass CounterproliferationWMD CounterOperation)
(subclass CounterproliferationWMD RecoveryOperation)
(documentation CounterproliferationWMD EnglishLanguage "Counterproliferation (CP) of
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). CP refers to actions taken to
locate, seize, destroy, render safe, capture, or recover WMD. Major
objectives of CP are to prevent the acquisition of WMD and their
delivery systems, roll back proliferation where it has occurred, deter
the use of WMD and their delivery systems, and adapt US military
forces and planning to operate against the threats posed by WMD and
their delivery systems. The continued spread of WMD technology can
foster regional unrest and provide terrorist organizations with new
and potent weapons. The core capabilities of CP include counterforce,
active defense, passive defense, and consequence management. SOF focus
on counterforce tasks and conduct CP missions as special operations by
covert, clandestine, or low visibility means. For more details on CP,
see JP 3-40, Joint Doctrine for Counterproliferation Operations.")
;; CP should prevent Proliferation of WMD
(=>
(and
(instance ?CO CounterproliferationWMD)
(agent ?CO ?AGENT))
(exists (?ENEMY ?OP)
(and
(enemy ?AGENT ?ENEMY)
(agent ?OP ?ENEMY)
(instance ?OP ProliferationWMD)
(hasPurpose ?CO
(prevents ?CO ?OP)))))
(instance PeaceState SubjectiveAssessmentAttribute)
(documentation PeaceState EnglishLanguage "WN: the state prevailing during the absence of war.")
(instance WarState SubjectiveAssessmentAttribute)
(documentation WarState EnglishLanguage "a legal state created by a declaration of war and ended
by official declaration during which the international rules of war apply,
war was declared in November but actual fighting did not begin until the following spring")
;; peace is the opposite of war
(contraryAttribute PeaceState WarState)
;; war state holds during War
(=>
(and
(instance ?WAR War)
(agent ?WAR ?A))
(holdsDuring (WhenFn ?WAR)
(attribute ?A WarState)))
;; add the following definitions to Military.kif
;; KJN: Moving this to Merge.kif
;;(subclass MilitaryProcess OrganizationalProcess)
;; military forces are agents of military processes
(=>
(instance ?OP MilitaryProcess)
(exists (?FORCE)
(and
(agent ?OP ?FORCE)
(instance ?FORCE MilitaryForce))))
(subclass OperationPlanning MilitaryOperation)
(subclass OperationPlanning Planning)
(documentation OperationPlanning EnglishLanguage "The Process of _planning_ a military
operation. This involves military personell. The result of the
planning process is a an _OperationPlan_")
(=>
(and
(instance ?EVENT OperationPlanning)
(result ?EVENT ?CBO)
(instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?INFO))
(instance ?INFO OperationPlan))
(=>
(and
(instance ?PLAN OperationPlan)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?PLAN)
(instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
(result ?EVENT ?CBO))
(instance ?EVENT OperationPlanning))
(subclass OperationPlan Plan)
(documentation OperationPlan EnglishLanguage "Any plan, except for the Single
Integrated Operational Plan, for the conduct of military
operations. Plans are prepared by combatant commanders in response to
requirements established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
and by commanders of subordinate commands in response to requirements
tasked by the establishing unified commander. Operation plans are
prepared in either a complete format (OPLAN) or as a concept plan
(CONPLAN). The CONPLAN can be published with or without a timephased
force and deployment data (TPFDD) file. (a) OPLAN --- An operation
plan for the conduct of joint operations that can be used as a basis
for development of an operation order (OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the
forces and supplies required to execute the combatant commander's
strategic concept and a movement schedule of these resources to the
theater of operations. The forces and supplies are identified in TPFDD
files. OPLANs will include all phases of the tasked operation. The
plan is prepared with the appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD
files as described in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System manuals containing planning policies, procedures, and
formats. Also called OPLAN. (b) CONPLAN --- An operation plan in an
abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or
alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains
the combatant commander's strategic concept and those annexes and
appendixes deemed necessary by the combatant commander to complete
planning. Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated
and TPFDD files are not prepared. (c) CONPLAN with TPFDD --- A
CONPLAN with TPFDD is the same as a CONPLAN except that it requires
more detailed planning for phased deployment of forces. Also called
CONPLAN.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?PLAN OperationPlan)
(instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?PLAN)
(instance ?OP MilitaryOperation)
(result ?OP ?CBO))
(represents ?PLAN ?OP))
(=>
(and
(instance ?PLANNING OperationPlanning)
(agent ?PLANNING ?COMMANDER))
(or
(and
(instance ?COMMANDER CombatantCommander)
(exists (?REQUEST ?CHAIRMAN)
(and
(instance ?REQUEST Requesting)
(agent ?REQUEST ?CHAIRMAN)
(attribute ?CHAIRMAN ChairmanJCS)
(causes ?REQUEST ?PLANNING))))
(and
(instance ?COMMANDER SubunifiedCommander)
(exists (?REQUEST ?COMMANDERSUPER ?MILITARY)
(and
(instance ?REQUEST Requesting)
(agent ?REQUEST ?COMMANDERSUPER)
(attribute ?COMMANDERSUPER MilitaryCommander)
(subordinatePosition ?MILITARY ?COMMANDER ?COMMANDERSUPER)
(instance ?MILITARY MilitaryForce)
(causes ?REQUEST ?PLANNING))))))
(subclass CONPLAN OperationPlan)
(disjoint OPLAN CONPLAN)
(documentation CONPLAN EnglishLanguage "An operation plan in an abbreviated format
that would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it
into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the combatant commander's
strategic concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed necessary by
the combatant commander to complete planning. Generally, detailed
support requirements are not calculated and TPFDD files are not
prepared.")
(subclass CONPLANwithTPFDD CONPLAN)
(documentation CONPLANwithTPFDD EnglishLanguage "A CONPLAN with TPFDD is the same as a
CONPLAN except that it requires more detailed planning for phased
deployment of forces. Also called CONPLAN.")
;; I assume that a CONPLAN with TPFDD includes TPFDD files and is
;; consistent with them
(=>
(instance ?CONPLANwithTPFDD CONPLANwithTPFDD)
(exists (?CBO)
(and
(instance ?CBO TPFDDFile)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?CONPLANwithTPFDD))))
(subclass TPFDD Proposition)
(documentation TPFDD EnglishLanguage "The Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System database portion of an operation plan, it contains time-phased
force data, non-unitrelated cargo and personnel data, and movement
data for the operation plan, including the following: (a) In-place
units (b) Units to be deployed to support the operation plan with a
priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the port
of debarkation (c) Routing of forces to be deployed (d) Movement
data associated with deploying forces (e) Estimates of
non-unit-related cargo and personnel movements to be conducted
concurrently with the deployment of forces and (f) Estimate of
transportation requirements that must be fulfilled by common-user lift
resources as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by
assigned or attached transportation resources. Also called TPFDD. See
also time-phased force and deployment data maintenance, time-phased
force and deployment data refinement, time-phased force and deployment
list.")
(subclass TPFDDFile ReferenceBook)
(documentation TPFDDFile EnglishLanguage "A file containing information about TPFDD")
(=>
(instance ?FILE TPFDDFile)
(and
(containsInformation ?FILE ?TPFDD)
(instance ?TPFDD TPFDD)))
(subclass OperationOrder Ordering)
(documentation OperationOrder EnglishLanguage "A directive issued by a commander to
subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated
execution of an operation. Also called OPORD.")
;; an operation order is issued from a commander to a subordinate commander
(=>
(instance ?ORDER OperationOrder)
(exists (?SUPERIORCOMMANDER ?SUBORDINATECOMMANDER)
(and
(agent ?ORDER ?SUPERIORCOMMANDER)
(origin ?ORDER ?SUPERIORCOMMANDER)
(destination ?ORDER ?SUBORDINATECOMMANDER)
(instance ?SUPERIORCOMMANDER MilitaryCommander)
(instance ?SUBORDINATECOMMANDER MilitaryCommander)
(subordinatePosition ?MILITARY ?SUBORDINATECOMMANDER ?SUPERIORCOMMANDER)
(instance ?MILITARY MilitaryForce))))
;; an operation order has the purpose to coordinate a military
;; operation
(=>
(and
(instance ?ORDER OperationOrder)
(instance ?OPERATION MilitaryOperation))
(hasPurpose ?ORDER
(coordinates ?ORDER ?OPERATION)))
;; operation orders need a planning process and a plan
(=>
(instance ?ORDER OperationOrder)
(exists (?PLAN ?PLANNING)
(and
(instance ?PLAN OPLAN)
(instance ?PLANNING OperationPlanning)
(result ?PLANNING ?PLAN)
(causes ?PLANNING ?ORDER)
(refers ?PLAN ?ORDER))))
(domain coordinates 1 Process)
(domain coordinates 2 Process)
(instance coordinates BinaryPredicate)
(instance coordinates PartialOrderingRelation)
(documentation coordinates EnglishLanguage "(coordinates ?PROCESS1 ?PROCESS2) means that ?PROCESS1 coordinates ?PROCESS2")
;; if some process coordinates another process then there must be some
;; cooperation in which both processes participate
; Axiom is good but causes predicate variable explosion
; (=>
; (coordinates ?P1 ?P2)
; (exists (?COOPERATION ?REL1 ?REL2)
; (and
; (instance ?COOPERATION Cooperation)
; (instance ?REL1 CaseRole)
; (?REL1 ?COOPERATION ?P1)
; (instance ?REL2 CaseRole)
; (?REL2 ?COOPERATION ?P2))))
(subclass JointOperation MilitaryOperation)
(subclass JointOperation Cooperation)
(documentation JointOperation EnglishLanguage "A general term to describe military
actions conducted by joint forces or by Service forces in
relationships (e.g., support, coordinating authority) which, of
themselves, do not create joint forces.")
(subclass JointForces MilitaryOrganization)
(documentation JointForces EnglishLanguage "A general term applied to a force composed
of significant elements, assigned or attached, of two or more Military
Departments operating under a single joint force commander. See also
joint force commander.")
;; a joint operation is carried out by forces of different military
;; departments assuming that military department means military
;; service
;; participating forces in a joint operation are under the command of
;; the commander of the joint operation
(=>
(and
(instance ?JOINT JointForces)
(subOrganization ?FORCE1 ?JOINT)
(subOrganization ?FORCE2 ?JOINT)
(not
(equal ?FORCE1 ?FORCE2))
(leaderPosition ?JOINT ?JOINTCOMMANDER))
(and
(leaderPosition ?FORCE1 ?JOINTCOMMANDER)
(leaderPosition ?FORCE2 ?JOINTCOMMANDER)))
;; commanders of the participating forces are subordinate to the joint
;; commander
(=>
(and
(instance ?JOINT JointForces)
(subOrganization ?FORCE1 ?JOINT)
(leaderPosition ?FORCE1 ?COMMANDER1)
(leaderPosition ?JOINT ?JOINTCOMMANDER))
(subordinatePosition ?JOINT ?COMMANDER1 ?JOINTCOMMANDER))
;; TODO: do not know how to specify the difference between joint
;; operation planning and joint operation planning process
(subclass JointOperationPlanning OperationPlanning)
(documentation JointOperationPlanning EnglishLanguage "Planning for contingencies that
can reasonably be anticipated in an area of responsibility or joint
operations area of the command. Planning activities exclusively
associated with the preparation of operation plans, operation plans in
concept format, campaign plans, and operation orders (other than the
Single Integrated Operational Plan) for the conduct of military
operations by the combatant commanders in response to requirements
established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint
operation planning is coordinated at the national level to support
Secretary of Defense Contingency Planning Guidance, strategic
requirements in the National Military Strategy, and emerging
crises. As such, joint operation planning includes mobilization
planning, deployment planning, employment planning, sustainment
planning, and redeployment planning procedures. Joint operation
planning is performed in accordance with formally established planning
and execution procedures. See also contingency plan, execution
planning, implementation planning, Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System, joint operation planning process. ")
(subclass OPLAN OperationPlan)
(documentation OPLAN EnglishLanguage "An operation plan for the conduct of joint
operations that can be used as a basis for development of an operation
order (OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the forces and supplies required to
execute the combatant commander's strategic concept and a movement
schedule of these resources to the theater of operations. The forces
and supplies are identified in TPFDD files. OPLANs will include all
phases of the tasked operation. The plan is prepared with the
appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD files as described in the
Joint Operation Planning and Execution System manuals containing
planning policies, procedures, and formats. Also called OPLAN. ")
(=>
(and
(instance ?OPLAN OPLAN)
(represents ?OPLAN ?OP)
(instance ?OP MilitaryOperation)
(subProcess ?OPSUB ?OP))
(represents ?OPLAN ?OPSUB))
(=>
(instance ?OPLAN OPLAN)
(exists (?CBO)
(and
(instance ?CBO TPFDDFile)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?OPLAN))))
;; joint operation plans are the result of a joint operation planning
;; process
(=>
(and
(instance ?PLANNING JointOperationPlanning)
(result ?PLANNING ?CBO)
(instance ?CBO ContentBearingObject)
(containsInformation ?CBO ?INFO))
(instance ?INFO OPLAN))
;; a joint operation plan represents a joint operation
(=>
(instance ?PLAN OPLAN)
(exists (?OP)
(and
(represents ?PLAN ?OP)
(instance ?OP JointOperation))))
(instance JOPES ComputerProgram)
(documentation JOPES EnglishLanguage "A system that provides the foundation for
conventional command and control by national- and combatant
command-level commanders and their staffs. It is designed to satisfy
their information needs in the conduct of joint planning and
operations. Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES)
includes joint operation planning policies, procedures, and reporting
structures supported by communications and automated data processing
systems. JOPES is used to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization,
deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment activities
associated with joint operations. Also called JOPES. See also joint
operation planning, joint operations.")
(subclass JOPESManual ReferenceBook)
(documentation JOPESManual EnglishLanguage "A manual for &%JOPES")
(=>
(instance ?MANUAL JOPESManual)
(and
(containsInformation ?MANUAL ?JOPES)
(instance ?JOPES JOPES)))
(subclass InformationOperation MilitaryOperation)
(documentation InformationOperation EnglishLanguage "Actions taken to affect adversary
information and information systems while defending one's own
information and information systems. Also called IO. See also
defensive information operations, information, offensive information
operations, operation. ")
(subclass DefensiveInformationOperation InformationOperation)
(documentation DefensiveInformationOperation EnglishLanguage "The integration and
coordination of policies and procedures, operations, personnel, and
technology to protect and defend information and information
systems. Defensive information operations are conducted through
information assurance, physical security, operations security,
counter-deception, counter-psychological operations,
counterintelligence, electronic warfare, and special information
operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate,
and relevant information access while denying adversaries the
opportunity to exploit friendly information and information systems
for their own purposes. See also counterintelligence, electronic
warfare, information assurance, information operations, information
system, offensive information operations, operations security;
physical security, special information operations.")
;; the purpose of a DIO is to hide information from enemies
(=>
(and
(instance ?DIO DefensiveInformationOperation)
(agent ?DIO ?AGENT)
(enemy ?AGENT ?ENEMY)
(desires ?ENEMY
(knows ?ENEMY ?FORMULA))
(desires ?AGENT
(not
(knows ?ENEMY ?FORMULA))))
(hasPurpose ?DIO
(not
(knows ?ENEMY ?FORMULA))))
(subclass OffensiveInformationOperation InformationOperation)
(subclass OffensiveInformationOperation Investigating)
(documentation OffensiveInformationOperation EnglishLanguage "The integrated use of
assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually
supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers to
achieve or promote specific objectives. These capabilities and
activities include but are not limited to operations security,
military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare,
physical attack and/or destruction, and special information
operations, and could also include computer network attack. See also
computer network attack, defensive information operations, electronic
warfare, information operations, intelligence, military deception,
operations security, psychological operations, special information
operations.")
(subclass ForeignInternalDefense MilitaryOperation)
(subclass ForeignInternalDefense Helping)
(documentation ForeignInternalDefense EnglishLanguage "These are operations that
involve participation by civilian and military agencies of a
government in any of the action programs taken by another government
or other designated organization, to free and protect its society from
subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Both conventional and SOF
units have a role and capability to conduct FID missions. SOF's
primary role in this interagency activity is to assess, train, advise,
and assist HN military and paramilitary forces with the tasks that
require their unique capabilities. The goal is to enable these forces
to maintain the HN's internal stability, to counter subversion and
violence in their country, and to address the causes of
instability. Internal stability forms the shield behind which a
nation-building campaign can succeed. Successful FID missions can lead
to strategic successes for US foreign policy. FID activities include
the following:
(1) HN Military Assistance. These are operations that train HN
military individuals and units in tactical employment, sustainment,
and integration of land, air, and maritime skills, provide advice and
assistance to military leaders, and provide training on tactics,
techniques, and procedures required to protect the HN from subversion,
lawlessness, and insurgency, and develop indigenous individual,
leader, and organizational skills.
(2) Population Security. These are operations that strengthen
population security by providing supervision of tactical operations
conducted by HN military units to neutralize and destroy insurgent
threats, isolate insurgents from the civil population, and protect the
civil population. As a subset of FID, designated SOF units may also
train select HN forces to perform counterterrorist missions. For more
details on FID, see JP 3-07.1, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and
Procedures for Foreign Internal Defense (FID).")
;; In an FID the military of some nation helps another nation
;; (HostNation) in maintaining stability
(=>
(and
(instance ?FID ForeignInternalDefense)
(agent ?FID ?MIL)
(militaryOfArea ?MIL ?NATION))
(exists (?HN ?MAINTAIN)
(and
(experiencer ?FID ?HN)
(instance ?HN HostNation)
(not
(equal ?HN ?NATION))
(instance ?MAINTAIN Maintaining)
(agent ?MAINTAIN ?HN))))
;; An FID should induce a learning process for some HN military
;; organization or other HN military force
(=>
(and
(instance ?FID ForeignInternalDefense)
(agent ?FID ?MIL)
(experiencer ?FID ?HN))
(hasPurpose ?FID
(exists (?ORG ?LEARNING)
(and
(instance ?LEARNING Learning)
(experiencer ?LEARNING ?ORG)
(agent ?LEARNING ?MIL)
(or
(militaryOfArea ?ORG ?HN)
(and
(instance ?ORG MilitaryForce)
(located ?ORG ?HN)))))))
(subclass HNMilitaryAssistance ForeignInternalDefense)
(documentation HNMilitaryAssistance EnglishLanguage "These are operations that train
HN military individuals and units in tactical employment, sustainment,
and integration of land, air, and maritime skills, provide advice and
assistance to military leaders, and provide training on tactics,
techniques, and procedures required to protect the HN from subversion,
lawlessness, and insurgency, and develop indigenous individual,
leader, and organizational skills.")
(subclass PopulationSecurity ForeignInternalDefense)
(documentation PopulationSecurity EnglishLanguage "These are operations that
strengthen population security by providing supervision of tactical
operations conducted by HN military units to neutralize and destroy
insurgent threats, isolate insurgents from the civil population, and
protect the civil population. As a subset of FID, designated SOF units
may also train select HN forces to perform counterterrorist
missions. For more details on FID, see JP 3-07.1, Joint Tactics,
Techniques, and Procedures for Foreign Internal Defense (FID).")
(subclass CounterTerrorism CounterOperation)
(documentation CounterTerrorism EnglishLanguage "These are operations that include the
offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to
terrorism. SOF's role and additive capability is to conduct offensive
measures within DOD's overall combatting terrorism efforts. SOF
conduct CT missions as special operations by covert, clandestine, or
low visibility means. SOF's activities within CT include, but are not
limited to, intelligence operations, attacks against terrorist
networks and infrastructures, hostage rescue, recovery of sensitive
material from terrorist organizations, and non-kinetic activities
aimed at the ideologies or motivations that spawn terrorism.
(1) Intelligence Operations. These are operations to collect, exploit,
and report information on terrorist organizations, personnel, assets,
and/or activities. SOF have the capability to conduct these operations
in an overt, covert, and/or clandestine manner.
(2) Network and Infrastructure Attacks. These are operations that
involve preemptive strikes against terrorist organizations with the
objective of destroying, disorganizing, or disarming terrorist
organizations before they can strike targets of national interest.
(3) Hostage or Sensitive Materiel Recovery. These are operations
conducted to rescue hostages and/or recover sensitive materiel from
terrorist control, requiring capabilities not normally found in
conventional military units. The safety of the hostages and preventing
destruction of the sensitive materiel are essential mission
requirements.
(4) Non-Kinetic Activities. These are actions that are focused on
defeating the ideologies or motivations that spawn terrorism by
non-kinetic means. These could include, but are not limited to, PSYOP,
IO, CA operations, UW and/or FID.")
;; CounterTerrorism has the purpose to prevent Terrorism
(=>
(and
(instance ?CO CounterTerrorism)
(agent ?CO ?AGENT))
(exists (?ENEMY ?OP)
(and
(enemy ?AGENT ?ENEMY)
(agent ?OP ?ENEMY)
(instance ?OP Terrorism)
(hasPurpose ?CO
(prevents ?CO ?OP)))))
(subclass CTIntelligenceOperation CounterTerrorism)
(subclass CTIntelligenceOperation OffensiveInformationOperation)
(documentation CTIntelligenceOperation EnglishLanguage "Intelligence Operations. These
are operations to collect, exploit, and report information on
terrorist organizations, personnel, assets, and/or activities. SOF
have the capability to conduct these operations in an overt, covert,
and/or clandestine manner.")
(subclass CTNwInfraAttack CounterTerrorism)
(subclass CTNwInfraAttack Attack)
(documentation CTNwInfraAttack EnglishLanguage "Network and Infrastructure
Attacks. These are operations that involve preemptive strikes against
terrorist organizations with the objective of destroying,
disorganizing, or disarming terrorist organizations before they can
strike targets of national interest.")
(subclass CTHostageMaterielRecovery CounterTerrorism)
(subclass CTHostageMaterielRecovery RecoveryOperation)
(documentation CTHostageMaterielRecovery EnglishLanguage "Hostage or Sensitive
Materiel Recovery. These are operations conducted to rescue hostages
and/or recover sensitive materiel from terrorist control, requiring
capabilities not normally found in conventional military units. The
safety of the hostages and preventing destruction of the sensitive
materiel are essential mission requirements.")
(subclass CTNonKineticActivity CounterTerrorism)
(subclass CTNonKineticActivity PsychologicalOperation)
(documentation CTNonKineticActivity EnglishLanguage "Non-Kinetic Activities. These are
actions that are focused on defeating the ideologies or motivations
that spawn terrorism by non-kinetic means. These could include, but
are not limited to, PSYOP, IO, CA operations, UW and/or FID.")
(subclass CounterTerrorismStrategy OperationPlan)
(documentation CounterTerrorismStrategy EnglishLanguage "WN: a strategy intended to
prevent or counter terrorism.")
;; CounterTerrorismStrategies are plans for CounterTerrorism operations
(=>
(and
(instance ?STRAT CounterTerrorismStrategy)
(instance ?PLANNING OperationPlanning)
(result ?PLANNING ?STRAT))
(exists (?CT)
(and
(patient ?PLANNING ?CT)
(instance ?CT CounterTerrorism))))
(subclass Terrorism ViolentContest)
(documentation Terrorism EnglishLanguage "WN: the calculated use of violence (or
threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that
are political or religious or ideological in nature, this is done
through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear.")
;; Terrorism is conducted by TerroristOrganizations and vice versa
(=>
(instance ?X TerroristOrganization)
(exists (?EV)
(and
(instance ?EV Terrorism)
(agent ?EV ?X))))
(=>
(instance ?EV Terrorism)
(exists (?X)
(and
(agent ?EV ?X)
(instance ?X TerroristOrganization))))
(subclass TerroristAttack Attack)
(documentation TerroristAttack EnglishLanguage "Specific Attacks as part of Terrorism like Carbombings.")
;; terrorist attacks are subprocesses of Terrorism
(=>
(instance ?TA TerroristAttack)
(exists (?T)
(and
(instance ?T Terrorism)
(subProcess ?TA ?T))))
;; Terrorism contains TerroristAttacks
(=>
(instance ?T Terrorism)
(exists (?TA)
(and
(instance ?TA TerroristAttack)
(subProcess ?TA ?T))))
(instance Terrorist SocialRole)
(documentation Terrorist EnglishLanguage "WN: a radical who employs terror as a
political weapon, usually organizes with other terrorists in small
cells, often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities.")
;; terrorists are members of TerroristOrganizations
(=>
(attribute ?PERSON Terrorist)
(exists (?TO)
(and
(instance ?TO TerroristOrganization)
(member ?PERSON ?TO))))
;; members of TerroristOrganizations are Terrorists
(=>
(and
(instance ?TO TerroristOrganization)
(member ?PERSON ?TO))
(attribute ?PERSON Terrorist))
;; some specific TerroristAttacks
;; CarBombing is defined in the terroristAttackTypes.kif ontology
;; KJN: Commenting this out for now. A CarBombing MAY be a TerroristAttack, but it
;; is not necessarily one.
;;(subclass CarBombing TerroristAttack)
;; TODO: other TerroristAttacks and Attacks that MAY be
;; TerroristAttacks but are not necessarily
(subclass CounterOperation MilitaryOperation)
(documentation CounterOperation EnglishLanguage "All measures to prevent operations
from the enemy.")
;; the purpose of a counter operation is to prevent enemy operations
(=>
(and
(instance ?CO CounterOperation)
(agent ?CO ?AGENT))
(exists (?ENEMY ?OP)
(and
(enemy ?AGENT ?ENEMY)
(agent ?OP ?ENEMY)
(hasPurpose ?CO
(prevents ?CO ?OP)))))
(subclass CounterReconnaissance CounterOperation)
(documentation CounterReconnaissance EnglishLanguage "All measures taken to prevent
hostile observation of a force, area, or place.")
;; the purpose of a CounterReconnaissance operation is to prevent
;; enemy Reconnaissance operations
(=>
(and
(instance ?CO CounterReconnaissance)
(agent ?CO ?AGENT))
(exists (?ENEMY ?OP)
(and
(enemy ?AGENT ?ENEMY)
(agent ?OP ?ENEMY)
(instance ?OP ReconnaissanceOperation)
(hasPurpose ?CO
(prevents ?CO ?OP)))))
(subclass CivilAffairsOperation JointOperation)
(documentation CivilAffairsOperation EnglishLanguage "Civil Affairs Operations
(CAO). These consist of CA activities and other tasks conducted by CA
to support commanders conducting CMO.
(1) Commanders have an inherent responsibility to maintain proper,
prudent and lawful relations with the indigenous population,
authorities, and government within their operational areas. These
relations are facilitated through CMO.
(2) Specialized CMO support is provided by CA personnel assigned as
staff who plan, coordinate, and oversee CMO while implementation is
performed by other elements of the joint force (i.e., other SOF,
engineers, health services support, transportation, military police,
security, and maneuver units).
(3) CA support to CMO enhances military effectiveness by focusing
efforts to minimize civilian interference with military operations and
limit the adverse impact of military operations on civilian
populations and resources. CA give commanders the capability to
coordinate and provide disaster relief and humanitarian assistance to
meet the life-sustaining needs of a civilian population.
(4) CA activities include, when directed and by operational necessity,
establishing and conducting a military government or civil
administration within operational areas until civilian authority or
government can be restored or transitioned to other appropriate
authorities. These activities are planned and conducted by CA and
involve application of functional specialty expertise in civil sector
disciplines normally the responsibility of civil government (see
Figure II-3).
(5) CA operations are predominantly joint, interagency, and
multinational in nature and are conducted through or with indigenous
populations, authorities and institutions, international
organizations, and NGOs. For more detailed information on CMO and CA
activities, see JP 3-57, Joint Doctrine for Civil- Military
Operations, and JP 3-57.1, Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs.
")
;; CAOs must be consistent with the regional law of the area where
;; they are conducted
(=>
(and
(instance ?CAO CivilAffairsOperation)
(located ?CAO ?NATION)
(instance ?NATION Nation)
(instance ?LAW
(RegionalLawFn ?NATION))
(realization ?CAO ?CONTENT))
(consistent ?LAW ?CONTENT))
;; CAOs involve both military and non-military agents
(=>
(instance ?CAO CivilAffairsOperation)
(exists (?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)
(and
(agent ?CAO ?AGENT1)
(agent ?CAO ?AGENT2)
(not
(equal ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2))
(instance ?AGENT1 MilitaryOrganization)
(not
(instance ?AGENT2 MilitaryOrganization)))))
(subclass CivilMilitaryOperation JointOperation)
(documentation CivilMilitaryOperation EnglishLanguage "The activities of a commander
that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between
military forces, governmental and nongovernmental civilian
organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in a
friendly, neutral, or hostile operational area in order to facilitate
military operations, to consolidate and achieve operational US
objectives. Civil-military operations may include performance by
military forces of activities and functions normally the
responsibility of the local, regional, or national government. These
activities may occur prior to, during, or subsequent to other military
actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other
military operations. Civilmilitary operations may be performed by
designated civil affairs, by other military forces, or by a
combination of civil affairs and other forces. Also called CMO. See
also civil affairs, operation.")
;; civil military operations involve both military and non-military
;; agents
(=>
(instance ?CAO CivilMilitaryOperation)
(exists (?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)
(and
(agent ?CAO ?AGENT1)
(agent ?CAO ?AGENT2)
(not
(equal ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2))
(instance ?AGENT1 MilitaryOrganization)
(not
(instance ?AGENT2 MilitaryOrganization)))))
(subAttribute CivilAffairsAgreement Contract)
(documentation CivilAffairsAgreement EnglishLanguage "An agreement that governs the
relationship between allied armed forces located in a friendly country
and the civil authorities and people of that country. See also civil
affairs.")
;; civil affairs agreements are closed between civil and military
;; agents of non-enemy nations
(=>
(and
(instance ?CAA CivilAffairsAgreement)
(partyToAgreement ?AGENT_MIL_THIS ?CAA)
(instance ?AGENT_MIL_THIS MilitaryOrganization)
(militaryOfArea ?AGENT_MIL_THIS ?NATION_THIS)
(instance ?NATION_THIS Nation)
(located ?AGENT_MIL_THIS ?NATION_FRIENDLY)
(instance ?NATION_FRIENDLY Nation))
(and
(not
(equal ?NATION_THIS ?NATION_FRIENDLY))
(not
(enemy ?NATION_THIS ?NATION_FRIENDLY))
(exists (?AGENT_FRIENDLY)
(and
(located ?AGENT_FRIENDLY ?NATION_FRIENDLY)
(partyToAgreement ?AGENT_FRIENDLY ?CAA)
(not
(instance ?AGENT_FRIENDLY MilitaryOrganization))))))
;; agents of a civil agreement are no enemies
(=>
(and
(instance ?CAA CivilAffairsAgreement)
(partyToAgreement ?AGENT1 ?CAA)
(partyToAgreement ?AGENT2 ?CAA))
(not
(enemy ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)))
(subclass CivilAffairs MilitaryForce)
(documentation CivilAffairs EnglishLanguage "Designated Active and Reserve component
forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to
conduct civil affairs activities and to support civil-military
operations. Also called CA. See also civil affairs activities;
civil-military operations.")
;; civil affairs (forces) guide civil affairs activities and
;; civil-military operations
(=>
(instance ?CA CivilAffairs)
(hasPurpose ?CA
(exists (?GUIDING ?OP_ACT)
(and
(instance ?GUIDING Guiding)
(patient ?GUIDING ?OP_ACT)
(agent ?CA ?GUIDING)
(or
(instance ?OP_ACT CivilMilitaryOperation)
(instance ?OP_ACT CivilAffairsActivity))))))
(subclass CivilAffairsActivity MilitaryOperation)
(documentation CivilAffairsActivity EnglishLanguage "Activities performed or supported
by civil affairs that (1) enhance the relationship between military
forces and civil authorities in areas where military forces are
present, and (2) involve application of civil affairs functional
specialty skills, in areas normally the responsibility of civil
government, to enhance conduct of civil-military operations. See also
civil affairs, civil-military operations.")
;; civil affairs activities are sub processes of CAOs
(subProcess CivilAffairsActivity CivilAffairsOperation)
;; civil affairs activities are performed by civil affairs
(=>
(instance ?CAA CivilAffairsActivity)
(exists (?CA)
(and
(agent ?CAA ?CA)
(instance ?CA CivilAffairs))))
;; civil affairs activities guide civil military operations
(=>
(instance ?CAA CivilAffairsActivity)
(hasPurpose ?CAA
(exists (?GUIDING ?OP)
(and
(instance ?GUIDING Guiding)
(patient ?GUIDING ?OP_ACT)
(instance ?OP CivilMilitaryOperation)))))
;; civil affairs activities involve both military and non-military
;; agents
(=>
(instance ?CAA CivilAffairsActivity)
(exists (?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)
(and
(agent ?CAA ?AGENT1)
(agent ?CAA ?AGENT2)
(not
(equal ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2))
(instance ?AGENT1 MilitaryOrganization)
(not
(instance ?AGENT2 MilitaryOrganization)))))
(instance AbortedFn BinaryFunction)
(domain AbortedFn 1 Agent)
(domain AbortedFn 2 Process)
(range AbortedFn Process)
(documentation AbortedFn EnglishLanguage "(AborteFn ?AGENT ?PROCESS) is the &%Process
?PROCESS after it has gotten aborted by the &%Agent ?AGENT")
(=>
(instance ?X
(AbortedFn ?A ?P))
(exists (?T)
(and
(holdsDuring ?T
(desires ?A
(exists (?PR)
(and
(instance ?PR ?P)
(agent ?PR ?A)))))
(earlier ?T (WhenFn ?X)))))
(instance AbortedMissionFn BinaryFunction)
(domain AbortedMissionFn 2 MilitaryOperation)
(range AbortedMissionFn MilitaryOperation)
(subrelation AbortedMissionFn AbortedFn)
(documentation AbortedMissionFn EnglishLanguage "(AborteMissionFn ?AGENT ?OP) is the
&%MilitaryOperation ?OP after it has gotten aborted by the &%Agent
?AGENT")
;; the cause of the aborting is not an action of someone who is the
;; enemy of the agent performing the actual mission
(=> (and (instance ?ABORTED
(AbortedMissionFn ?A ?MISSION))
(causes ?ACTION ?ABORTED)
(agent ?ACTION ?OTHER_A)
(agent ?MISSION ?THIS_A))
(not (enemy ?OTHER_A ?THIS_A)))
(domain enemy 1 Agent)
(domain enemy 2 Agent)
(instance enemy ObjectAttitude)
(instance enemy SymmetricRelation)
(subrelation enemy inScopeOfInterest)
(documentation enemy EnglishLanguage "Marks two &%Agents that are enemies of each
other")
(=>
(enemy ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)
(dislikes ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2))
(instance Enemy SocialRole)
(instance Enemy ContestAttribute)
(documentation Enemy EnglishLanguage "Anyone considered hostile by someone else")
(=>
(enemy ?AGENT1 ?AGENT2)
(and
(believes ?AGENT1
(attribute ?AGENT2 Enemy))
(believes ?AGENT2
(attribute ?AGENT1 Enemy))))
(=>
(attribute ?P Enemy)
(exists (?AGENT)
(enemy ?AGENT ?P)))
(instance AbortedLaunchFn BinaryFunction)
(domain AbortedLaunchFn 2 TakingOff)
(range AbortedLaunchFn TakingOff)
(subrelation AbortedLaunchFn AbortedFn)
(documentation AbortedLaunchFn EnglishLanguage "(AborteLaunchFn ?AGENT ?TAKEOFF) is
the &%TakingOff ?TAKEOFF after it has gotten aborted by the &%Agent
?AGENT. To discontinue aircraft takeoff or missile launch.")
;; further consequences?
;; some thoughts: abort launch if object still on ground then it will
;; stay on ground abort launch if object is in the air then object
;; destroyed or it will eventually hit the ground
(subclass Evacuation IntentionalProcess)
(documentation Evacuation EnglishLanguage "Emergency evacuation is the movement of
persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a
disastrous event (see also Evacuation). Examples are the evacuation of
a building due to a bomb threat or fire and the evacuation of a
district because of a flood or bombardment or an evacuation from a
city due to a Hurricane. In situations involving hazardous materials
or possible contamination, evacuees may be decontaminated prior to
being transported out of the contaminated area. (from Wikipedia)")
;; evacuating includes leaving the origin
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(origin ?EV ?OR)
(destination ?EV ?D))
(exists (?L)
(and
(instance ?L Translocation)
(subProcess ?L ?EV)
(destination ?L ?D)
(origin ?L ?OR))))
;; evacuating takes place because the situation at the origin is
;; considered dangerous
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(origin ?EV ?OR)
(agent ?EV ?A))
(exists (?P)
(and
(instance ?P Process)
(geographicSubregion ?OR
(WhereFn ?P
(BeginFn
(WhenFn ?EV))))
(causes ?P ?EV)
(believes ?A
(attribute ?P Dangerous)))))
;; evacuation involves people only
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(experiencer ?EV ?H))
(instance ?H Human))
;; all agents of evacuation are cognitive agents
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(agent ?EV ?H))
(instance ?H CognitiveAgent))
;; evacuation includes movements of at least part of the agents to the
;; evacuation origin
;; Notice that the transport of agents is not necessarily a subProcess
;; of the evacuation
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(origin ?EV ?O)
(agent ?EV ?A))
(exists (?T ?TA)
(and
(instance ?T Transportation)
(destination ?T ?O)
(or
(subOrganization ?TA ?A)
(member ?TA ?A)
(equal ?TA ?A))
(or
(agent ?T ?TA)
(patient ?T ?TA)))))
;; evacuation includes securing the evacuation origin
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(origin ?EV ?O)
(agent ?EV ?A))
(exists (?M ?MA)
(and
(instance ?M Maintaining)
(eventLocated ?M ?O)
(subProcess ?M ?EV)
(or
(subOrganization ?MA ?A)
(member ?MA ?A)
(equal ?MA ?A))
(agent ?M ?MA))))
;; evacuation involves treating evacuees
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(experiencer ?EV ?P)
(agent ?EV ?A))
(exists (?M ?MA)
(and
(instance ?M TherapeuticProcess)
(subProcess ?M ?EV)
(or
(subOrganization ?MA ?A)
(member ?MA ?A)
(equal ?MA ?A))
(agent ?M ?MA)
(experiencer ?M ?P))))
;; evacuees must be classified
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(agent ?EV ?A)
(experiencer ?EV ?P))
(exists (?C ?CA)
(and
(instance ?C Classifying)
(subProcess ?C ?EV)
(experiencer ?C ?P)
(or
(subOrganization ?CA ?A)
(member ?CA ?A)
(equal ?CA ?A))
(agent ?C ?CA))))
;; evacuation includes withdrawal of all agents
(=>
(and
(instance ?EV Evacuation)
(agent ?EV ?A)
(origin ?EV ?O))
(exists (?T ?TA)
(and
(instance ?T Translocation)
(subProcess ?T ?EV)
(origin ?T ?O)
(or
(experiencer ?T ?TA)
(agent ?T ?TA))
(or
(subOrganization ?TA ?A)
(member ?TA ?A)
(equal ?TA ?A)))))
(subclass Demonstration PoliticalProcess)
(documentation Demonstration EnglishLanguage "A demonstration is the public display of
the common opinion of a group of people, whether members of the
public, a sector of the community, or an activist group. Topics of
demonstrations often deal with politics, economics, and society, or
the issues related to it. Thus, such an opinion is demonstrated to be
public and significant by gathering in a crowd, usually at a symbolic
place or date, associated with that opinion. If a demonstration is
targeted against a certain nation, the demonstration would take place
infront of the embasy of the nation in question. Demonstrations can be
used to show an opinion in protest or as a criticism of a public issue
or a perceived grievance or social injustice. First Amendment of the
United States Constitution specifically allows demonstrations and the
freedom of assembly as part of a measure to facilitate the redress of
such grievances. (from Wikipedia)")
;; people demonstrate
(=>
(and
(instance ?D Demonstration)
(agent ?D ?A))
(or
(instance ?A Human)
(instance ?A GroupOfPeople)))
;; demonstrating people share common opinions
(=>
(and
(instance ?D Demonstration)
(agent ?D ?G)
(member ?A1 ?G)
(member ?A2 ?G))
(exists (?P)
(and
(believes ?A1 ?P)
(believes ?A2 ?P))))
;; format and termFormat statements for MilitaryProcesses.kif
(format EnglishLanguage absorbedDose "%1 has %n absorbed a dose of radiation equal to %2")
(format EnglishLanguage areaOfOperation "%1 is %n the operational area for %2")
(format EnglishLanguage coordinates "%1 %n{doesn't} coordinate%p{s} %2")
(format EnglishLanguage AbortedFn "the process %2 aborted by %1")
(format EnglishLanguage AbortedMissionFn "the military operation %2 aborted by %1")
(format EnglishLanguage enemy "%1 and %2 are %n enemies of each other")
(format EnglishLanguage AbortedLaunchFn "the launch %2 aborted by %1")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SpecialReconnaissance "special reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage EnvironmentalReconnaissance "environmental reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ArmedReconnaissance "armed reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TargetThreatReconnaissance "target threat reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PoststrikeReconnaissance "post-strike reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage UnconventionalWarfare "unconventional warfare")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage GuerrillaWarfare "guerrilla warfare")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Subversion "subversion")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Sabotage "sabotage")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage IntelligenceActivities "intelligence activity")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage UnconventionalAssistedRecovery "unconventional assisted recovery")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Exfiltration "exfiltration")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SpecialOperation "special operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SpecialOperationsForces "special operations force")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Designating "designating")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DirectAction "direct action")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DirectActionActivity "direct action activity")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Raid "raid")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DirectAmbush "direct ambush")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage MilitaryAssault "military assault")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DirectAssault "direct assault")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage StandoffAttack "standoff attack")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TerminalAttackControl "terminal attack control")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TerminalGuidance "terminal guidance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage RecoveryOperation "recovery operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Locating "locating")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PreciseDestruction "precise destruction")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage HighPrecisionWeapon "high precision weapon")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AntiSurfaceOperation "anti-surface operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ReconnaissanceOperation "reconnaissance operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ReconnaissanceByFire "reconnaissance by fire")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ReconnaissanceInForce "reconnaissance in force")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AirReconnaissance "air reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AirPhotographicReconnaissance "air photographic reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AmphibiousReconnaissance "amphibious reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AmphibiousReconnaissanceUnit "amphibious reconnaissance unit")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage LandingWaterLand "landing")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ContactReconnaissance "contact reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage RadarReconnaissance "radar reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Patrol "patrol")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ElectronicReconnaissance "electronic reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage RadiationMeasure "measure of radiation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Rad "rad")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ExternalAgency "external agency")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointStaff "Joint Staff")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DirectorJS "Director of the Joint Staff")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChairmanJCS "Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointChiefsOfStaff "Joint Chiefs of Staff")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointPublication "Joint Publication")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage USMilitary "United States military")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AboveTheLine "above the line")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage BelowTheLine "below the line")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Doctrine "doctrine")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage MultinationalDoctrine "multinational doctrine")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointDoctrine "joint doctrine")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChairmanPublication "chairman publication")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChairmanInstruction "chairman instruction")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChairmanManual "chairman manual")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Capstone "capstone publication")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Keystone "keystone publication")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointTest "joint test")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PsychologicalOperation "psychological operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DevelopPrograms "program development")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DistributeProducts "product distribution")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DisseminateProducts "product dissemination")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ProduceStudies "producing studies")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SupportEPW "supporting prisoners of war")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SupportCI "supporting civilian internees")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SupportDC "supporting dislocated civilians")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SupportHNAssistance "supporting host nation assistance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TacticalPSYOP "tactical psychological operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage SupportIO "support operation for information operations")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage HostNation "host nation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PublicProgram "public program")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Public "public")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Helping "helping")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Proliferation "proliferation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ProliferationWMD "WMD proliferation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CounterproliferationWMD "WMD counter-proliferation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PeaceState "at peace")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage WarState "at war")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage OperationPlanning "operation planning")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage OperationPlan "operation plan")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CONPLAN "CONPLAN")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CONPLANwithTPFDD "CONPLAN with TPFDD")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TPFDD "time-phased force and deployment data")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TPFDDFile "time-phased force and deployment data file")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage OperationOrder "operation order")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointOperation "joint operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointForces "joint forces")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JointOperationPlanning "joint operation planning")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage OPLAN "OPLAN")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JOPES "Joint Operation Planning and Execution System")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage JOPESManual "Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Manual")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage InformationOperation "information operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage DefensiveInformationOperation "defensive information operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage OffensiveInformationOperation "offensive information operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ForeignInternalDefense "foreign internal defense")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage HNMilitaryAssistance "host nation military assistance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage PopulationSecurity "population security")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CounterTerrorism "counter-terrorism")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CTIntelligenceOperation "counter-terrorism intelligence operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CTNwInfraAttack "counter-terrorism network and infrastructure attack")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CTHostageMaterielRecovery "counter-terrorism hostage or materiel recovery operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CTNonKineticActivity "counter-terrorism non-kinetic activity")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CounterTerrorismStrategy "counter-terrorism strategy")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Terrorism "terrorism")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage TerroristAttack "terrorist attack")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CarBombing "car bombing")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CounterOperation "counter operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CounterReconnaissance "counter-reconnaissance")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CivilAffairsOperation "civil affairs operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CivilMilitaryOperation "civil military operation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CivilAffairsAgreement "civil affairs agreement")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CivilAffairs "civil affairs")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage CivilAffairsActivity "civil affairs activity")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Enemy "enemy")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Evacuation "evacuation")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Demonstration "demonstration")