Compiling and Flashing (STM32)
Multiprotocol modules can be flashed with a precompiled firmware file (Option 1 and 2) or you can compile and upload your customized firmware using the Arduino IDE (Option 3).
These instructions are for the STM32 version of the Multiprotocol module. If you are Compling for the Arduino ATmega328p version of the Multiprotocol Module please go to the dedicated ATmega328 page.
- Tools Required
- Option 1 - Update firmware using precompiled binaries
- Option 2 - Flash from TX
- Option 3 - Compiling and updating firmware
Tools are only required if a multi module does not have a USB port, a working bootloader or an integrated FTDI adapter:
- The latest iRangeX IRX4+ modules most likely already have the USB Bootloader flashed on it. You therefore don't need the FTDI adapter below and don't need to open your module to flash it.
- The latest Jumper modules have an integrated FTDI appearing as a CP2102 device on the computer. You therefore don't need the FTDI adapter below and don't need to open your module to flash it.
- The Vantac MPM Lite module already has the USB Bootloader flashed on it. You therefore don't need the FTDI adapter below and don't need to open your module to flash it. Modules' bootloader however might not be booting everytime depending on the radio, if this is the case you need to upgrade it.
You are still unsure if your module can be flashed without tools or opening it? Here is how to quickly check:
- Power off the TX
- Connect a USB cable to the module, if the module does not have a USB port then you must open the module to flash it using an external FTDI
- Connect the cable to the PC and power on the the TX
- If the PC does not complain about a none working device being plugged then you are good to upgrade via USB directly without the need of any tools or opening the module.
Your multi module is not USB upgradable ready, here is what you need:
|3.3V USB-TTL Adapter||4-pin 2.54mm Serial Programming Header||4-pin 1mm Serial Programming header + cable||5-pin 1.25mm cable|
|All modules||DIY, Banggood 4-in-1, iRangeX IRX4/IRX4+/IRX4Lite, Jumper 4in1 1st gen||Vantac lite, URUAV lite||Jumper T16 internal module|
|(example ebay link)||(example ebay link)||(example ebay link)||(example ebay link)|
The USB-TTL adapter can be either FTDI or CH340G, as long as it works. It should have a switch or jumper to select 3.3V or 5V, which must be set to 3.3V.
The header needs to be soldered onto the board as indicated by the red rectangle:
|DIY Multiprotocol||Banggood 4-in-1||iRangeX IRX4 / IR4+||Jumper 4in1 1st gen|
|Vantac/URUAV Lite||iRangeX IRX4 Lite||Jumper T16 internal module|
Note: The Banggood STM32 and T16 internal modules most likely already has the header pin in place.
Option 1 - Update Firmware using Precompiled Binaries
If you don't need/want to customize the multi module firmware then you can use pre-compiled binaries available here.
STM32 Builds (file names beginning with 'Multi-STM_')
- All radio modules and protocols are included in all builds
- Files with TXFLASH in the name are built with a bootloader for flashing from a transmitter OR via the module's USB port (eg. Multi-STM_TXFLASH_INV-vX.X.X.XX.bin)
- Files with FTDI in the name are built without a bootloader for flashing using an FTDI adapter (eg. Multi-STM_FTDI_INV-vX.X.X.XX.bin)
- OpenTx/JumperTX version (files with OPENTX in the name) have the MULTI_TELEMETRY parameter enabled (eg. Multi-STM_TXFLASH_INV_OPENTX-vX.X.X.XX.bin or Multi-STM_FTDI_INV_OPENTX-vvX.X.X.XX.bin)
Flash-Multi is the recommended Windows utility for flashing pre-compiled firmware to any STM32-based Multiprotocol TX module. Firmware upload can be performed using the built-in USB connection or via an external FTDI adapter.
After a succesful flash your Module is now updated to the newer version firmware using the most common options. To change specific configured options you would need to use Option-3, Compile using Arduino IDE and your desired upload method.
Option 2 - Flash from TX
- If you don't need/want to customize the multi module firmware then you can use pre-compiled binaries available here.
- If you are compiling the firmware yourself in the Arduino environment with Option-3, do the following to export the binary:
- Click Sketch -> Export compiled Binary, or press Ctrl+Alt+S
- Locate the file named multi-stm-x.x.x.x.bin in the Multiprotocol source folder folder (x.x.x.x is the multi version)
- Follow the instructions here to upload the firmware using your radio
Option 3 - Compiling and Updating Firmware
Multiprotocol firmware can be compiled and flashed with your customized firmware using the Arduino IDE. The guide below will walk you through all the steps in many details, don't be afraid by the length it is in fact simple!
Install the Arduino IDE
- Download and install the Arduino IDE. The currently supported Arduino version is 1.8.9, available for Windows, Mac OSX and Linux (64-bit)
- It is recommended to upgrade Java to the latest version
Download the Multiprotocol source and open the project
- Download the zip file with the Multiprotocol module source code from here and unzip and copy the source code folder Multiprotocol to a location of your choosing, or
- Clone the project using Git or Github Desktop, then
- Double-click the Multiprotocol.ino file in the Multiprotocol folder to open the project in the Arduino IDE
Install the Multi 4-in-1 board
- Follow these instructions to install the Multi 4-in-1 STM32 Board in the Arduino IDE
Configure the Arduino IDE
- Under Tools -> Board select Multi 4-in-1 (STM32FC103)
- Under Tools -> Debug Option select None
Configure the firmware
Make any changes you require to the firmware.
The STM32 module has more than enough flash space for all the available protocols so, unlike the Atmega328p-based module, it is not necessary to disable unused protocols.
You can still disable protocols if you wish, and you may also enable or disable other optional Multiprotocol features.
Verify the firmware
To check that the program will compile correctly and fit in the STM32 click Sketch -> Verify/Compile, or press Ctrl+R.
If there are errors, carefully read it, go to the line number indicated and correct your typo.
If there are no errors and you see output like this:
Sketch uses 68564 bytes (52%) of program storage space. Maximum is 131072 bytes. Global variables use 4064 bytes (19%) of dynamic memory, leaving 16416 bytes for local variables. Maximum is 20480 bytes.
You can proceed to the next step.
Connect the module
Ensure that you installed the necessary drivers.
If your Multiprotocol module has a USB port, connect it to the computer. With the drivers installed your computer should detect the module as a COM port. If the device appears correctly (check in Device Manager) you can proceed to the next step and upload the firmware. If not, you will need to flash your module one time using a USB-to-serial adapter (also known as an FTDI adapter).
Note: Some modules require external power in order for the USB port to work. If your module does not power on with USB power alone, install it in the transmitter and switch the transmitter on. It is generally safe for the module to recieve power from both USB and the transmitter.
It is strongly recommended that you power your module from the transmitter when flashing it using a USB-to-serial adapater. This ensures that the module cannot be inadvertently supplied with 5V, which will damage the RF modules. This guide assumes that you will follow that advice, and instructs you to leave the V+ pin on the USB-to-TTL adapter disconnected. You may choose to ignore that advice at your own risk!
The wiring for the USB-to-TTL adapter is:
- USB-to-TTL TX pin <-> Module RX pin
- USB-to-TTL RX pin <-> Module TX pin
- USB-to-TTL GND pin <-> Module GND pin
- USB-to-TTL VC pin <-> Not Connected
It is critical to ensure that the USB-to-TTL adapter is set to 3.3V.
|DIY Multiprotocol||Banggood 4-in-1||iRangeX IRX4|
|Jumper 4-in-1 1st gen||Jumper T16 internal module|
- Put the module in the transmitter
- Connect the USB-to-TTL adapter to the module as described above
- Plug the USB-to-TTL adapter into the PC
- In the Arduino IDE click Tools -> Port and choose the COM port which matches the USB-to-TTL adapter
In order to flash the bootloader the BOOT0 jumper must be installed connecting BOOT0 to 3.3V. The location of BOOT0 varies by hardware module.
|Vantac/URUAV Lite||iRangeX IRX4 Lite||Jumper T16 internal module|
|Brdige the two pins next to the usb port labelled with Boot0||Brdige the two indicated pins||Bridge BOOT0 and +3.3V in RED on the cabling|
- If on Linux, ensure you have permissions to access serial interfaces as described here
- Install the BOOT0 jumper as described above.
- Switch on the transmitter
Upload the firmware
- In the Arduino IDE click Sketch -> Upload, or press Ctrl+U
- Multiprotocol code version
- STM32 version
- TX type
- Using PPM or Serial, if using er9x or ersky9x the version in use
- Different led status (multimodule and model)
- Explanation of the behavior and reproduction steps