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Firmware version check

To check firmware version you can use:

dmidecode -s bios-version

In case dmidecode is not installed use following command:

For Debian-based distributions:

apt-get install dmidecode

For FreeBSD:

pkg install -y dmidecode

For NetBSD:

pkg_add dmidecode

APUx firmware flashing

To flash firmware image to APUx SPI install (or use system with already installed) flashrom.

For Debian-based distributions you can install flashrom by simply:

sudo apt-get install flashrom

For FreeBSD you can install flashrom by:

pkg install -y flashrom

For NetBSD:

pkg_add flashrom

You can also use minimal distributions with already installed flashrom like TinyCoreLinux.

coreboot.rom flashing

flashrom -w coreboot.rom -p internal -c "MX25L1605A/MX25L1606E/MX25L1608E"
flashrom -w coreboot.rom -p internal


To update the firmware and keep the runtime configuration unchanged please use the following command:

flashrom -p internal -w apuX_v4.14.0.2.rom --fmap -i COREBOOT

The persistent runtime configuration works only when migrating from versions v4.14.0.1 and later. The feature is not yet supported on apu1. Flashrom version needs to be v1.1 or newer.

A full power cycle is required after flashing. If it is not possible (e.g. remote firmware upgrade), when flashing coreboot v4.9.0.4 or newer a full reset can be forced with the following commands after using flashrom. For older firmware versions please refer to

setpci -s 18.0 6c.L=10:10
pciconf -w pci0:24:0 0x6c 0x580ffe10
pcictl pci0 read -d 24 -f 0 0x6c
# verify that you see 580ffe00
pcictl pci0 write -d 24 -f 0 0x6c 0x580ffe10

After that reboot as usual. Platform will turn off for 3-5 seconds. Note that there are parts of the platform which cannot be reset with this approach. A full power cycle is strongly suggested when possible.

Motherboard mismatch warning

When you update firmware and try to flash image to apu board, motherboard mismatch warning can be yielded. It is known issue related to SMBIOS table entries. Since v4.6.7 in mainline and v4.0.15 in legacy, part number entry is in shorter (correct) form. Therefore, if you update to those version (or newer) a warning will appear. To flash BIOS correctly, just add -p internal:boardmismatch=force flag. Entire flashing command should look like this:

flashrom -w coreboot.rom -p internal:boardmismatch=force

Developer tricks

To automate firmware update while developing copy ssh keys to target machine:

cat ~/.ssh/ | ssh root@ 'cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys'

Then you can use below command to flash APU2 recently built changes:

APU2_IP= && ssh root@$APU2_IP remountrw && \
scp build/coreboot.rom root@$APU2_IP:/root && \
ssh root@$APU2_IP flashrom -w /root/coreboot.rom -p internal \
&& ssh root@$APU2_IP reboot

Flashrom known problems

If flashrom tells you /dev/mem mmap failed: Operation not permitted:

  • Most common at the time of writing is a Linux kernel option, CONFIG_IO_STRICT_DEVMEM, that prevents even the root user from accessing hardware from user-space. Try again after rebooting with iomem=relaxed in your kernel command line.
  • Some systems with incorrect memory reservations (e.g. E820 map) may have the same problem even with CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM. In that case iomem=relaxed in the kernel command line may help too.

You can set iomem=relaxed via Grub by appending to file /etc/default/grub this line:


Then run following commad:

grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Finally reboot

APU firmware updater for OPNsense

You can use a script to update the firmware on an OPNsense firewall.

  • Login via SSH to your OPNsense firewall.
  • Copy the script where you want it.
  • Make the script executable using chmod +x
  • Set the correct type, e.g. TYPE="apu2".
  • Set the desired version, e.g. VERSION="".
  • Execute the script ./