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Pomm-project Foundation


Foundation is a light, fast and versatile PHP PostgreSQL database framework. It can either be used on its own (to replace a DBAL for example) or to build a more complex model manager. It is the first stone of Pomm project version 2.

Foundation manages relations between a database connection and clients through sessions. It consists of several classes to configure, open, deal with and close sessions.

  • Pomm is the service class, it registers session builders and caches spawned sessions.
  • SessionBuilder configures and builds sessions.
  • Session holds clients and poolers and the connection.
  • Client abstract class that implements ClientInterface. Instances are session’s clients.
  • ClientPooler abstract class that implements ClientPoolerInterface. They manage clients in sessions.

This complexity is at first glance hidden. If one wants to open a connection, send a query and get converted results, it is as simple as:


$pomm = new Pomm(['my_database' => ['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host:port/db_name']]);

$result = $pomm['my_database']  // ← note 1
    ->getQueryManager()         // ← note 2
    ->query('select * from my_table where my_field = $*', ['some value'])
    ;                           // ↑ note 3

if ($result->isEmpty()) {
    printf("There are no results with the given parameter.\n");
} else {
    foreach ($result as $row) { // ← note 4
            "field1 = '%s', field2 = '%s'.\n",
            $row['field1'],     // ← note 5
            $row['field2'] === true ? 'OK' : 'NO'
note 1:This returns a session using a session builder.
note 2:This returns the default query_manager client using the QueryManagerPooler.
note 3:Issue the parametrized query and return a ConvertedResultIterator.
note 4:Traverse the result as an array and fetch rows.
note 5:Access field result. Those results are converted to a PHP equivalent type (see Converter pooler).

Pomm service

Pomm service is an interface to easily declare and build sessions through session builders.

Using session builders

It is possible to declare session builders either using Pomm’s class constructor or the addBuilder method:


$pomm = new Pomm(['first_db' => ['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host/first_db']]);
$pomm->addBuilder('second_db', new MySessionBuilder(['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host/second_db']));

It is often more practical to declare all sessions configuration from the constructor directly even if the builder is a custom class:


$pomm = new Pomm(
        'first_db' =>
                'dsn' =>  'pgsql://user:pass@host/first_db'
        'second_db' =>
                'dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host/second_db',
                'class:session_builder' => '\Project\MySessionBuilder',
                'pomm:default' => true,

Each session builder has a name. This name is important, it represents a configuration and is not coupled with the DSN. This is particularly useful when an application has to switch from a database to another with the same configuration.

Spawning sessions

The easiest way to get a session from the service is to use the ArrayAccess implementation:


$session = $pomm['first_db'];

// this is strictly equivalent to

$session = $pomm->getSession('first_db');

The getSession($name) method checks if a session using this session builder has already been created. If yes, it is returned, otherwise a new one is created using the createSession($name). This last method creates a new session every time it is called. This implies a new database connection will be used.

Default sessions

Sometimes session names are not that important (especially if there is only one session), in this case it is possible to use Pomm’s default session mechanism. It will use the first first declared one:


$pomm = new Pomm(
        'first_db' =>
                'dsn' =>  'pgsql://user:pass@host/first_db'

$session = $pomm->getDefaultSession(); // return a `first_db` session

This still applies when several session builders are declared. It is still possible to explicitly declare a session builder as being the default one by setting the pomm::default configuration setting to true.

Context dependent configuration

Session builders do configure session but in some cases, configuration options may be context dependent like development options or production options. This kind of configuration occurs directly in Pomm service passing anonymous functions:

$pomm->addPostConfiguration('first_db', function($session) { /* … */ });

When the session is created, the post-configuration functions are launched and the session is returned.

Session builders management

Pomm provides several methods to manage session builders:

  • addBuilder($builder_name, VanillaSessionBuilder $builder)
  • hasBuilder($name)
  • removeBuilder($name)
  • getBuilder($name)
  • getSessionBuilders()

Session builder

Session builders are meant to configure and instantiate sessions. It is possible to use them on their own without Pomm service.

use PommProject\Foundation\Session\SessionBuilder;

$session = (new SessionBuilder(['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host/db_name']))

The session builder shown above creates blank sessions with no poolers registered. Foundation provides a functional builder with all poolers registered and a dedicated session class:

use PommProject\Foundation\SessionBuilder; // ← different session builder

$session = (new SessionBuilder(['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host/db_name']))


There are several ways to set the configuration:


$session_builder = new SessionBuilder(
        'dsn'   => 'pgsql://user:pass@host:port/db_name',
        'param' => 'value',
$session_builder->addParameter('my_parameter', 'my_value');

In a more general way, SessionBuilder class is made to be extended by a project-dedicated session builder class. It is then possible to overload the getDefaultConfiguration() method. It keeps the class configurable with a custom default configuration.

Configuration options

The dsn is the only mandatory parameter expected by the builder but more parameters can be passed:

  • connection:configuration (array)
  • dsn (string) mandatory
  • class:session (string) default: \PommProject\Foundation\Session\Session

The connection:configuration parameter contains a hashmap of postgresql settings (see postgresql documentation). The default settings are the following:

  • bytea_output (string) default: hex
  • intervalstyle (string) default: ISO_8601
  • datestyle (string) default: ISO
  • standard_conforming_strings (string) default: true

dsn is the only mandatory parameter, it is used to connect to the Postgresql database. The syntax is the following:



Note:The Pgsql library is sensible to environment variables PGHOST PGPORT (see the documentation). When using PHP from the command line (or the built-in web server), theses variables will have an impact if they are not overridden by some of the DSN’s parameters.
Note:The host part may be a path on the local file system surrounded by the ! character. When this is the case, the Unix socket present in the given directory is used to connect to the database.

Session customization

The SessionBuilder class is made to be extended. Foundation package incidentally proposes two session builders:

  • PommProject\Foundation\Session\SessionBuilder blank session builder.
  • PommProject\Foundation\SessionBuilder builder with Foundation clients and poolers loaded and configured.

It is encouraged to create a project-dedicated session builder that extends one of these classes. Several methods are available to change a session builder behavior:

getDefaultConfiguration:Overrides default configuration. The core default configuration is the connection:configuration parameter. Be aware it will break the default converter system if discarded.
preConfigure():Change the configuration just before a session is instantiated.
postConfigure($session):Place where default session poolers and clients are registered into a brand new session.
createSession():If a custom session class is to be instantiated.
createClientHolder():If a custom session holder is to be used from within the session.
initializeConverterHolder():Customize the converter holder. Remember all sessions created by the builder will have this converter holder whatever their DSN.
createConnection():How to create a Connection instance based on the configuration.

Converter holder

The converter holder is a special configuration setting. It holds all the converters and is cloned when passed as parameter to the converter pooler. A pre-configured customized converter holder can be passed as parameter to the session builder’s constructor:


$session_builder = new SessionBuilder(
    ['dsn' => 'pgsql://user:pass@host:port/db_name'],
    new MyConverterHolder()

The initializeConverterHolder() method is used internally to register default PostgreSQL types converters, use it to add your own default converters. The ConverterHolder instance is passed as reference. Remember, this converter holder will be used for all sessions created by the builder whatever their DSN. If a database specific converter is to be registered, the best place for it might be the postConfigure method, dealing directly with the converter pooler.


Session is the keystone of the Foundation package. It provides a connection API to clients. To be able to do this, clients must register to the session using the registerClient(ClientInterface) method. The session adds the client in the client pool. In exchange, it injects itself in the client using the initialize(Session) method (see Client). Starting from this, the client can use the connection and other clients.

Clients are accessed using the getClient($type, $identifier) method. If no clients match the corresponding type and identifier, null is returned. This can be a problem because the Client must then be instantiated and registered to the Session. This is the role of the client poolers (aka poolers). Poolers are, in a way, clients manager for a given type. Not all types need a pooler, for example, the fixture clients type manage database test structures and data. They are here to create tables and types needed by tests on startup and to drop them on shutdown. Alternatively, the prepared query pooler takes the SQL query as client identifier. If the given query has already been performed, it is re used. Otherwise, a new statement is prepared and then executed. When the connection goes down, all statements are deallocated.

Some clients may use clients from different types using their respective poolers. For example, the PreparedQueryManager client uses the query manager pooler and then the converter pooler.

There are several ways to access clients and poolers using the session:

getClient($type, $identifier):return the asked client if it exists, null otherwise.
getClientUsingPooler($type, $identifier):ask for a client using a client pooler.

There is a shortcut for the last method:


$client = $session->getType($identifier);

// strictly equivalent to
$client = $session->getClientUsingPooler($type, $identifier);

// which is the same as
$client = $session


A client is a bit of work with the database. They should be as simple as possible and as reliable as possible. They work together through session and poolers.

All clients must implement ClientInterface. Because a part of this implementation is always the same, it is possible to either extend PommProject\Foundation\Client\Client or to use PommProject\Foundation\Client\ClientTrait. (The Client abstract class just uses the ClientTrait). The interface defines 4 methods to be implemented:

getClientType():Return client type, not implemented in ClientTrait.
getClientIdentifier():Return client identifier, not implemented in ClientTrait.
initialize(Session):When the client is registered by the session, the session injects itself in the client using this method.
shutdown():If things are to be done before connection is going down.

Client pooler

A client pooler manages clients of a given type. Its role is to return a client or throw an exception otherwise.

All client poolers must implement ClientPoolerInterface. It is possible to easily implement this either by extending ClientPooler or using ClientPoolerTrait (the abstract class uses the trait). The interface defines three methods:

getPoolerType():Return the type of clients managed by this pooler, not implemented in ClientPoolerTrait.
register(Session):When the pooler is registered to the session, the session injects itself in the pooler using this method.
getClient($identifier):Method called to fetch a client using this pooler.

Because most poolers behave the same way, the ClientPoolerTrait add methods to work like the following. When a client is requested:

  1. Retrieve the client from the session’s client holder.
  2. If null is returned, it launches createClient($identifier) method.
  3. If the client cannot be created, an exception must be thrown.
  4. Return the client.

Default client poolers

Here is a comprehensive list of the poolers registered by default with PommProject\Foundation\SessionBuilder.

Converter pooler


Responsible of proposing converter clients. If a client is not found, it checks in the converter holder if the given type has a converter. If yes, it wraps the converter in a ConverterClient and registers it to the session. There are as many ConverterClient as registered types but they can share the same converter instances.

This way, it is possible to add custom converters or converters for database specific types like composite types. The best place to do that is in a Session builder’s postConfigure(Session) method:

function postConfigure(Session $session)
        ->addTypeToConverter('my_schema.latlong', 'Point') // ← convert a domain of point
        ->registerConverter('Hstore', new PgHstore(), ['public.hstore']) // ← register Hstore converter

Even though the converters coming with Foundation cover a broad range of PostgreSQL’s types, it is possible to write custom converters as long as they implement ConverterInterface. Be aware that the format of the data coming from Postgres may be configuration dependent (dates, money, number etc.). Default converters fit the default configuration set in the Session builder.

Inspector pooler


This pooler calls the PommProject\Foundation\Inspector\Inspector client by default. It is possible to specify another client class as identifier, the pooler will try to instantiate it.

The inspector proposes methods to get information about database structure (schemas, tables, fields etc.).

Listener pooler


A Listener is a class that can hold anonymous functions that are triggered when the listener receives a notification with the listener’s name.

Foundation owns a basic event dispatcher mechanism.


    ->attachAction(function($event_name, $data, $session) { // do something })

To trigger the attached functions, the listener pooler proposes a notify(array, mixed) method. The first argument is an array of event names and the second is the data payload to be sent. Albeit simple, this mechanism is powerful since all attached functions have access to the session hence all the poolers.

There is also a method to notify all clients:


    ->notify('*', $some_data)

Observer pooler


Observer pooler aims at leveraging the LISTEN/NOTIFY mechanism in PostgreSQL. An observer client can be used to listen to PostgreSQL events sent with the NOTIFY SQL command. It is possible to ask the observer either to send back the event payload if any or to throw a NotificationException when a notification is caught.

Prepared query pooler


This pooler prepares statements if they do not already exist and executes them with parameters:

    ->getPreparedQuery('select * from my_table where some_field = $*')

It returns a ResultHandler instance with raw results. (see Query manager pooler).

Query manager pooler


The query manager pooler returns a traversable iterator (see result iterators) on converted results. The default client is a simple parametrized query but Foundation also comes with a prepared query manager:

$result = $session
    ->query('select * from my_table where some_field = $*', ['some_content'])

If no client class is provided, the default PommProject\Foundation\QueryManager\SimpleQueryManager is used. By default, parameters are passed as-is to the driver. It is somehow possible to explicitely declare the type of some or all the parameters in the query. The query manager will then use the converter pooler to convert them in a Postgresql format.

use PommProject\Foundation\Converter\Type\Point;

// Are there open bike stations around me ?
$result = $session
        "select station_id, public_name, available_slots
        from bike_station b
        where b.coordinates <@ circle($*::point, $*) and b.status = any($*::varchar[])",
        [new Point($position), $radius, ['full', 'reduced']]

The example above shows how to pass simple but also complex parameters like geomtric types and arrays.

Adding custom poolers and clients

Poolers and clients must implement ClientPoolerInterface and ClientInterface respectively. To make this process easier, it is somehow possible to extend the ClientPooler that uses the ClientPoolerTrait (or to use this trait directly). It will make custom class to work in a given way when a client is requested:

  1. If the client exists, it is fetched from the pool and returned (getClient($identifier) and getClientFromPool($identifier)).
  2. If the client does not exist, it is created, registered to the session and returned (createClient($identifier))

The methods above can of course be overloaded. The only methods let to the developer are:

getPoolerType():That returns the client type handled by this pooler.
createClient($identifier):How to create a client of this type.

Result iterators

basic usage

There are two kinds of iterators that can be used with Pomm:

ResultIterator:Implements all the methods for \SeekableIterator, \Countable and \JsonSerializable interfaces. It just returns the raw results as they are fetched from the driver.
ConvertedResultIterator:It extends ResultIterator but uses the converter pooler (see Converter pooler) to convert data to a PHP representation. This is the one used by default by the query managers.

These iterators do fetch data lazily, this means rows are fetched on demand. This presents significant advantages in terms of performances and memory consumption. Furthermore, Pomm’s iterators are scrollable which means they are seek-able and they can be traversed several times.

$results = $session
    ->query("select generate_series(1, $*::int4) as a_number", [10])
    // ↑ generates from 1 to 10 (passed as parameter)

$results->get(0); // returns ["a_number" => 1];
$results->get(9); // returns ["a_number" => 10];

try {
} catch (\OutOfBoundsException $e) {
    // index starts from 0

foreach ($results as $index => $result) { // traverse results
    printf("Result %02d => %d\n", $index, $result['a_number']);

Expanding iterators

Even though iterators are lazy, it is possible to fetch all the results in one step and store them in memory.

extract():Simple dump an array of rows like PDO::fetchAll().
slice($column_name):return a one dimension array of the values stored in this result’s column.

Since the iterators implement the \JsonSerializable interface it is possible to simply export them in the JSON format by calling json_encode($iterator).

Other methods

Result iterators also propose handy methods

current():Return the row pointed by the current cursor’s position in the result. This is used most of the time to extract a row in single result query like SELECT count(*) FROM ….
count():Returns the number of rows of the result. Required by the \Countable interface.
isEmpty():Returns if the result set is empty (no results) or not.
isFirst:If the result is not empty, it returns true if the iterator points on the first result. This is sometimes interesting if the iterator is traversed in the view (html templates or so) to add table informations prior to the first line.
isLast():If the result is not empty, it returns true if the iterator points on the last result. (see isFirst).
isOdd():Returns true if the current cursor position is not divisible by two. Handy to easily change the background color of a result set a row on two.
isEven():Opposite of isOdd().

Where: the condition builder

Basic usage

Pomm comes with a dedicated class to build SQL conditions dynamically: the Where class. It use is pretty straightforward:

use PommProject\Foundation\Where;
$sql = "SELECT * FROM a_table WHERE :condition"
$where = new Where();
strtr($sql, [':condition' => $where]); // … WHERE true

$where->andWhere('a is null');
strtr($sql, [':condition' => $where]); // … WHERE a is null

strtr($sql, [':condition' => $where]); // … WHERE a is null AND b

$where->orWhere('not c');
strtr($sql, [':condition' => $where]); // … WHERE (a is null AND b) OR not c

The example above shows how it deals with operator precedence. For convenience, it is possible to directly pass a Where class as argument to the andWhere and orWhere methods:

$where = new Where('a is not null');
$where->orWhere(Where::create('b')->andWhere('not c'));
// a is not null OR (b AND not c)

Dealing with parameters

Most of the time, condition clauses do rely on external parameters. The Where clause allows them to be attached to the condition they belong to so they can be passed in the right order to a query method:

$where = Where::create("status = $*", [$parameter1])
    ->andWhere("amount > $*", [$parameter2])

$sql = strtr(
    "select … from a_table where :condition",
        ':condition' => $where,

$results = $session
    ->query($sql, $where->getValues())

There are special clauses to handle the SQL IN operator:

$where = Where::createWhereIn("status",
// status IN ($*, $*, …, $*)

There is obviously a complementary createWhereNotIn method.