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"""Functions that read and write gzipped files.
The user of the file doesn't have to worry about the compression,
but random access is not allowed."""
# based on Andrew Kuchling's distributed with the zlib module
import struct, sys, time, os
import zlib
import builtins
import io
import _compression
__all__ = ["BadGzipFile", "GzipFile", "open", "compress", "decompress"]
READ, WRITE = 1, 2
def open(filename, mode="rb", compresslevel=_COMPRESS_LEVEL_BEST,
encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None):
"""Open a gzip-compressed file in binary or text mode.
The filename argument can be an actual filename (a str or bytes object), or
an existing file object to read from or write to.
The mode argument can be "r", "rb", "w", "wb", "x", "xb", "a" or "ab" for
binary mode, or "rt", "wt", "xt" or "at" for text mode. The default mode is
"rb", and the default compresslevel is 9.
For binary mode, this function is equivalent to the GzipFile constructor:
GzipFile(filename, mode, compresslevel). In this case, the encoding, errors
and newline arguments must not be provided.
For text mode, a GzipFile object is created, and wrapped in an
io.TextIOWrapper instance with the specified encoding, error handling
behavior, and line ending(s).
if "t" in mode:
if "b" in mode:
raise ValueError("Invalid mode: %r" % (mode,))
if encoding is not None:
raise ValueError("Argument 'encoding' not supported in binary mode")
if errors is not None:
raise ValueError("Argument 'errors' not supported in binary mode")
if newline is not None:
raise ValueError("Argument 'newline' not supported in binary mode")
gz_mode = mode.replace("t", "")
if isinstance(filename, (str, bytes, os.PathLike)):
binary_file = GzipFile(filename, gz_mode, compresslevel)
elif hasattr(filename, "read") or hasattr(filename, "write"):
binary_file = GzipFile(None, gz_mode, compresslevel, filename)
raise TypeError("filename must be a str or bytes object, or a file")
if "t" in mode:
return io.TextIOWrapper(binary_file, encoding, errors, newline)
return binary_file
def write32u(output, value):
# The L format writes the bit pattern correctly whether signed
# or unsigned.
output.write(struct.pack("<L", value))
class _PaddedFile:
"""Minimal read-only file object that prepends a string to the contents
of an actual file. Shouldn't be used outside of, as it lacks
essential functionality."""
def __init__(self, f, prepend=b''):
self._buffer = prepend
self._length = len(prepend)
self.file = f
self._read = 0
def read(self, size):
if self._read is None:
if self._read + size <= self._length:
read = self._read
self._read += size
return self._buffer[read:self._read]
read = self._read
self._read = None
return self._buffer[read:] + \
def prepend(self, prepend=b''):
if self._read is None:
self._buffer = prepend
else: # Assume data was read since the last prepend() call
self._read -= len(prepend)
self._length = len(self._buffer)
self._read = 0
def seek(self, off):
self._read = None
self._buffer = None
def seekable(self):
return True # Allows fast-forwarding even in unseekable streams
class BadGzipFile(OSError):
"""Exception raised in some cases for invalid gzip files."""
class GzipFile(_compression.BaseStream):
"""The GzipFile class simulates most of the methods of a file object with
the exception of the truncate() method.
This class only supports opening files in binary mode. If you need to open a
compressed file in text mode, use the function.
# Overridden with internal file object to be closed, if only a filename
# is passed in
myfileobj = None
def __init__(self, filename=None, mode=None,
compresslevel=_COMPRESS_LEVEL_BEST, fileobj=None, mtime=None):
"""Constructor for the GzipFile class.
At least one of fileobj and filename must be given a
non-trivial value.
The new class instance is based on fileobj, which can be a regular
file, an io.BytesIO object, or any other object which simulates a file.
It defaults to None, in which case filename is opened to provide
a file object.
When fileobj is not None, the filename argument is only used to be
included in the gzip file header, which may include the original
filename of the uncompressed file. It defaults to the filename of
fileobj, if discernible; otherwise, it defaults to the empty string,
and in this case the original filename is not included in the header.
The mode argument can be any of 'r', 'rb', 'a', 'ab', 'w', 'wb', 'x', or
'xb' depending on whether the file will be read or written. The default
is the mode of fileobj if discernible; otherwise, the default is 'rb'.
A mode of 'r' is equivalent to one of 'rb', and similarly for 'w' and
'wb', 'a' and 'ab', and 'x' and 'xb'.
The compresslevel argument is an integer from 0 to 9 controlling the
level of compression; 1 is fastest and produces the least compression,
and 9 is slowest and produces the most compression. 0 is no compression
at all. The default is 9.
The mtime argument is an optional numeric timestamp to be written
to the last modification time field in the stream when compressing.
If omitted or None, the current time is used.
if mode and ('t' in mode or 'U' in mode):
raise ValueError("Invalid mode: {!r}".format(mode))
if mode and 'b' not in mode:
mode += 'b'
if fileobj is None:
fileobj = self.myfileobj =, mode or 'rb')
if filename is None:
filename = getattr(fileobj, 'name', '')
if not isinstance(filename, (str, bytes)):
filename = ''
filename = os.fspath(filename)
if mode is None:
mode = getattr(fileobj, 'mode', 'rb')
if mode.startswith('r'):
self.mode = READ
raw = _GzipReader(fileobj)
self._buffer = io.BufferedReader(raw) = filename
elif mode.startswith(('w', 'a', 'x')):
self.mode = WRITE
self.compress = zlib.compressobj(compresslevel,
self._write_mtime = mtime
raise ValueError("Invalid mode: {!r}".format(mode))
self.fileobj = fileobj
if self.mode == WRITE:
def filename(self):
import warnings
warnings.warn("use the name attribute", DeprecationWarning, 2)
if self.mode == WRITE and[-3:] != ".gz":
return + ".gz"
def mtime(self):
"""Last modification time read from stream, or None"""
return self._buffer.raw._last_mtime
def __repr__(self):
s = repr(self.fileobj)
return '<gzip ' + s[1:-1] + ' ' + hex(id(self)) + '>'
def _init_write(self, filename): = filename
self.crc = zlib.crc32(b"")
self.size = 0
self.writebuf = []
self.bufsize = 0
self.offset = 0 # Current file offset for seek(), tell(), etc
def _write_gzip_header(self):
self.fileobj.write(b'\037\213') # magic header
self.fileobj.write(b'\010') # compression method
# RFC 1952 requires the FNAME field to be Latin-1. Do not
# include filenames that cannot be represented that way.
fname = os.path.basename(
if not isinstance(fname, bytes):
fname = fname.encode('latin-1')
if fname.endswith(b'.gz'):
fname = fname[:-3]
except UnicodeEncodeError:
fname = b''
flags = 0
if fname:
flags = FNAME
mtime = self._write_mtime
if mtime is None:
mtime = time.time()
write32u(self.fileobj, int(mtime))
if fname:
self.fileobj.write(fname + b'\000')
def write(self,data):
if self.mode != WRITE:
import errno
raise OSError(errno.EBADF, "write() on read-only GzipFile object")
if self.fileobj is None:
raise ValueError("write() on closed GzipFile object")
if isinstance(data, bytes):
length = len(data)
# accept any data that supports the buffer protocol
data = memoryview(data)
length = data.nbytes
if length > 0:
self.size += length
self.crc = zlib.crc32(data, self.crc)
self.offset += length
return length
def read(self, size=-1):
if self.mode != READ:
import errno
raise OSError(errno.EBADF, "read() on write-only GzipFile object")
def read1(self, size=-1):
"""Implements BufferedIOBase.read1()
Reads up to a buffer's worth of data if size is negative."""
if self.mode != READ:
import errno
raise OSError(errno.EBADF, "read1() on write-only GzipFile object")
if size < 0:
return self._buffer.read1(size)
def peek(self, n):
if self.mode != READ:
import errno
raise OSError(errno.EBADF, "peek() on write-only GzipFile object")
return self._buffer.peek(n)
def closed(self):
return self.fileobj is None
def close(self):
fileobj = self.fileobj
if fileobj is None:
self.fileobj = None
if self.mode == WRITE:
write32u(fileobj, self.crc)
# self.size may exceed 2 GiB, or even 4 GiB
write32u(fileobj, self.size & 0xffffffff)
elif self.mode == READ:
myfileobj = self.myfileobj
if myfileobj:
self.myfileobj = None
def flush(self,zlib_mode=zlib.Z_SYNC_FLUSH):
if self.mode == WRITE:
# Ensure the compressor's buffer is flushed
def fileno(self):
"""Invoke the underlying file object's fileno() method.
This will raise AttributeError if the underlying file object
doesn't support fileno().
return self.fileobj.fileno()
def rewind(self):
'''Return the uncompressed stream file position indicator to the
beginning of the file'''
if self.mode != READ:
raise OSError("Can't rewind in write mode")
def readable(self):
return self.mode == READ
def writable(self):
return self.mode == WRITE
def seekable(self):
return True
def seek(self, offset, whence=io.SEEK_SET):
if self.mode == WRITE:
if whence != io.SEEK_SET:
if whence == io.SEEK_CUR:
offset = self.offset + offset
raise ValueError('Seek from end not supported')
if offset < self.offset:
raise OSError('Negative seek in write mode')
count = offset - self.offset
chunk = b'\0' * 1024
for i in range(count // 1024):
self.write(b'\0' * (count % 1024))
elif self.mode == READ:
return, whence)
return self.offset
def readline(self, size=-1):
return self._buffer.readline(size)
class _GzipReader(_compression.DecompressReader):
def __init__(self, fp):
super().__init__(_PaddedFile(fp), zlib.decompressobj,
# Set flag indicating start of a new member
self._new_member = True
self._last_mtime = None
def _init_read(self):
self._crc = zlib.crc32(b"")
self._stream_size = 0 # Decompressed size of unconcatenated stream
def _read_exact(self, n):
'''Read exactly *n* bytes from `self._fp`
This method is required because self._fp may be unbuffered,
i.e. return short reads.
data =
while len(data) < n:
b = - len(data))
if not b:
raise EOFError("Compressed file ended before the "
"end-of-stream marker was reached")
data += b
return data
def _read_gzip_header(self):
magic =
if magic == b'':
return False
if magic != b'\037\213':
raise BadGzipFile('Not a gzipped file (%r)' % magic)
(method, flag,
self._last_mtime) = struct.unpack("<BBIxx", self._read_exact(8))
if method != 8:
raise BadGzipFile('Unknown compression method')
if flag & FEXTRA:
# Read & discard the extra field, if present
extra_len, = struct.unpack("<H", self._read_exact(2))
if flag & FNAME:
# Read and discard a null-terminated string containing the filename
while True:
s =
if not s or s==b'\000':
if flag & FCOMMENT:
# Read and discard a null-terminated string containing a comment
while True:
s =
if not s or s==b'\000':
if flag & FHCRC:
self._read_exact(2) # Read & discard the 16-bit header CRC
return True
def read(self, size=-1):
if size < 0:
return self.readall()
# size=0 is special because decompress(max_length=0) is not supported
if not size:
return b""
# For certain input data, a single
# call to decompress() may not return
# any data. In this case, retry until we get some data or reach EOF.
while True:
if self._decompressor.eof:
# Ending case: we've come to the end of a member in the file,
# so finish up this member, and read a new gzip header.
# Check the CRC and file size, and set the flag so we read
# a new member
self._new_member = True
self._decompressor = self._decomp_factory(
if self._new_member:
# If the _new_member flag is set, we have to
# jump to the next member, if there is one.
if not self._read_gzip_header():
self._size = self._pos
return b""
self._new_member = False
# Read a chunk of data from the file
buf =
uncompress = self._decompressor.decompress(buf, size)
if self._decompressor.unconsumed_tail != b"":
elif self._decompressor.unused_data != b"":
# Prepend the already read bytes to the fileobj so they can
# be seen by _read_eof() and _read_gzip_header()
if uncompress != b"":
if buf == b"":
raise EOFError("Compressed file ended before the "
"end-of-stream marker was reached")
self._add_read_data( uncompress )
self._pos += len(uncompress)
return uncompress
def _add_read_data(self, data):
self._crc = zlib.crc32(data, self._crc)
self._stream_size = self._stream_size + len(data)
def _read_eof(self):
# We've read to the end of the file
# We check the that the computed CRC and size of the
# uncompressed data matches the stored values. Note that the size
# stored is the true file size mod 2**32.
crc32, isize = struct.unpack("<II", self._read_exact(8))
if crc32 != self._crc:
raise BadGzipFile("CRC check failed %s != %s" % (hex(crc32),
elif isize != (self._stream_size & 0xffffffff):
raise BadGzipFile("Incorrect length of data produced")
# Gzip files can be padded with zeroes and still have archives.
# Consume all zero bytes and set the file position to the first
# non-zero byte. See
c = b"\x00"
while c == b"\x00":
c =
if c:
def _rewind(self):
self._new_member = True
def compress(data, compresslevel=_COMPRESS_LEVEL_BEST, *, mtime=None):
"""Compress data in one shot and return the compressed string.
Optional argument is the compression level, in range of 0-9.
buf = io.BytesIO()
with GzipFile(fileobj=buf, mode='wb', compresslevel=compresslevel, mtime=mtime) as f:
return buf.getvalue()
def decompress(data):
"""Decompress a gzip compressed string in one shot.
Return the decompressed string.
with GzipFile(fileobj=io.BytesIO(data)) as f:
def main():
from argparse import ArgumentParser
parser = ArgumentParser(description=
"A simple command line interface for the gzip module: act like gzip, "
"but do not delete the input file.")
group = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group()
group.add_argument('--fast', action='store_true', help='compress faster')
group.add_argument('--best', action='store_true', help='compress better')
group.add_argument("-d", "--decompress", action="store_true",
help="act like gunzip instead of gzip")
parser.add_argument("args", nargs="*", default=["-"], metavar='file')
args = parser.parse_args()
compresslevel = _COMPRESS_LEVEL_FAST
compresslevel = _COMPRESS_LEVEL_BEST
for arg in args.args:
if args.decompress:
if arg == "-":
f = GzipFile(filename="", mode="rb", fileobj=sys.stdin.buffer)
g = sys.stdout.buffer
if arg[-3:] != ".gz":
print("filename doesn't end in .gz:", repr(arg))
f = open(arg, "rb")
g =[:-3], "wb")
if arg == "-":
f = sys.stdin.buffer
g = GzipFile(filename="", mode="wb", fileobj=sys.stdout.buffer,
f =, "rb")
g = open(arg + ".gz", "wb")
while True:
chunk =
if not chunk:
if g is not sys.stdout.buffer:
if f is not sys.stdin.buffer:
if __name__ == '__main__':
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