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r"""JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) <http://json.org> is a subset of
JavaScript syntax (ECMA-262 3rd edition) used as a lightweight data
interchange format.
:mod:`json` exposes an API familiar to users of the standard library
:mod:`marshal` and :mod:`pickle` modules. It is derived from a
version of the externally maintained simplejson library.
Encoding basic Python object hierarchies::
>>> import json
>>> json.dumps(['foo', {'bar': ('baz', None, 1.0, 2)}])
'["foo", {"bar": ["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]'
>>> print(json.dumps("\"foo\bar"))
"\"foo\bar"
>>> print(json.dumps('\u1234'))
"\u1234"
>>> print(json.dumps('\\'))
"\\"
>>> print(json.dumps({"c": 0, "b": 0, "a": 0}, sort_keys=True))
{"a": 0, "b": 0, "c": 0}
>>> from io import StringIO
>>> io = StringIO()
>>> json.dump(['streaming API'], io)
>>> io.getvalue()
'["streaming API"]'
Compact encoding::
>>> import json
>>> mydict = {'4': 5, '6': 7}
>>> json.dumps([1,2,3,mydict], separators=(',', ':'))
'[1,2,3,{"4":5,"6":7}]'
Pretty printing::
>>> import json
>>> print(json.dumps({'4': 5, '6': 7}, sort_keys=True, indent=4))
{
"4": 5,
"6": 7
}
Decoding JSON::
>>> import json
>>> obj = ['foo', {'bar': ['baz', None, 1.0, 2]}]
>>> json.loads('["foo", {"bar":["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]') == obj
True
>>> json.loads('"\\"foo\\bar"') == '"foo\x08ar'
True
>>> from io import StringIO
>>> io = StringIO('["streaming API"]')
>>> json.load(io)[0] == 'streaming API'
True
Specializing JSON object decoding::
>>> import json
>>> def as_complex(dct):
... if '__complex__' in dct:
... return complex(dct['real'], dct['imag'])
... return dct
...
>>> json.loads('{"__complex__": true, "real": 1, "imag": 2}',
... object_hook=as_complex)
(1+2j)
>>> from decimal import Decimal
>>> json.loads('1.1', parse_float=Decimal) == Decimal('1.1')
True
Specializing JSON object encoding::
>>> import json
>>> def encode_complex(obj):
... if isinstance(obj, complex):
... return [obj.real, obj.imag]
... raise TypeError(f'Object of type {obj.__class__.__name__} '
... f'is not JSON serializable')
...
>>> json.dumps(2 + 1j, default=encode_complex)
'[2.0, 1.0]'
>>> json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).encode(2 + 1j)
'[2.0, 1.0]'
>>> ''.join(json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).iterencode(2 + 1j))
'[2.0, 1.0]'
Using json.tool from the shell to validate and pretty-print::
$ echo '{"json":"obj"}' | python -m json.tool
{
"json": "obj"
}
$ echo '{ 1.2:3.4}' | python -m json.tool
Expecting property name enclosed in double quotes: line 1 column 3 (char 2)
"""
__version__ = '2.0.9'
__all__ = [
'dump', 'dumps', 'load', 'loads',
'JSONDecoder', 'JSONDecodeError', 'JSONEncoder',
]
__author__ = 'Bob Ippolito <bob@redivi.com>'
from .decoder import JSONDecoder, JSONDecodeError
from .encoder import JSONEncoder
import codecs
_default_encoder = JSONEncoder(
skipkeys=False,
ensure_ascii=True,
check_circular=True,
allow_nan=True,
indent=None,
separators=None,
default=None,
)
def dump(obj, fp, *, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw):
"""Serialize ``obj`` as a JSON formatted stream to ``fp`` (a
``.write()``-supporting file-like object).
If ``skipkeys`` is true then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
(``str``, ``int``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``) will be skipped
instead of raising a ``TypeError``.
If ``ensure_ascii`` is false, then the strings written to ``fp`` can
contain non-ASCII characters if they appear in strings contained in
``obj``. Otherwise, all such characters are escaped in JSON strings.
If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).
If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``)
in strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).
If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
representation.
If specified, ``separators`` should be an ``(item_separator, key_separator)``
tuple. The default is ``(', ', ': ')`` if *indent* is ``None`` and
``(',', ': ')`` otherwise. To get the most compact JSON representation,
you should specify ``(',', ':')`` to eliminate whitespace.
``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.
If *sort_keys* is true (default: ``False``), then the output of
dictionaries will be sorted by key.
To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.
"""
# cached encoder
if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
check_circular and allow_nan and
cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
default is None and not sort_keys and not kw):
iterable = _default_encoder.iterencode(obj)
else:
if cls is None:
cls = JSONEncoder
iterable = cls(skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
separators=separators,
default=default, sort_keys=sort_keys, **kw).iterencode(obj)
# could accelerate with writelines in some versions of Python, at
# a debuggability cost
for chunk in iterable:
fp.write(chunk)
def dumps(obj, *, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
default=None, sort_keys=False, **kw):
"""Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``.
If ``skipkeys`` is true then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
(``str``, ``int``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``) will be skipped
instead of raising a ``TypeError``.
If ``ensure_ascii`` is false, then the return value can contain non-ASCII
characters if they appear in strings contained in ``obj``. Otherwise, all
such characters are escaped in JSON strings.
If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).
If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``) in
strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).
If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
representation.
If specified, ``separators`` should be an ``(item_separator, key_separator)``
tuple. The default is ``(', ', ': ')`` if *indent* is ``None`` and
``(',', ': ')`` otherwise. To get the most compact JSON representation,
you should specify ``(',', ':')`` to eliminate whitespace.
``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.
If *sort_keys* is true (default: ``False``), then the output of
dictionaries will be sorted by key.
To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.
"""
# cached encoder
if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
check_circular and allow_nan and
cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
default is None and not sort_keys and not kw):
return _default_encoder.encode(obj)
if cls is None:
cls = JSONEncoder
return cls(
skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
separators=separators, default=default, sort_keys=sort_keys,
**kw).encode(obj)
_default_decoder = JSONDecoder(object_hook=None, object_pairs_hook=None)
def detect_encoding(b):
bstartswith = b.startswith
if bstartswith((codecs.BOM_UTF32_BE, codecs.BOM_UTF32_LE)):
return 'utf-32'
if bstartswith((codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE, codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE)):
return 'utf-16'
if bstartswith(codecs.BOM_UTF8):
return 'utf-8-sig'
if len(b) >= 4:
if not b[0]:
# 00 00 -- -- - utf-32-be
# 00 XX -- -- - utf-16-be
return 'utf-16-be' if b[1] else 'utf-32-be'
if not b[1]:
# XX 00 00 00 - utf-32-le
# XX 00 00 XX - utf-16-le
# XX 00 XX -- - utf-16-le
return 'utf-16-le' if b[2] or b[3] else 'utf-32-le'
elif len(b) == 2:
if not b[0]:
# 00 XX - utf-16-be
return 'utf-16-be'
if not b[1]:
# XX 00 - utf-16-le
return 'utf-16-le'
# default
return 'utf-8'
def load(fp, *, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None,
parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw):
"""Deserialize ``fp`` (a ``.read()``-supporting file-like object containing
a JSON document) to a Python object.
``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of
``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature
can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting).
``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The
return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``.
This feature can be used to implement custom decoders. If ``object_hook``
is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority.
To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls``
kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used.
"""
return loads(fp.read(),
cls=cls, object_hook=object_hook,
parse_float=parse_float, parse_int=parse_int,
parse_constant=parse_constant, object_pairs_hook=object_pairs_hook, **kw)
def loads(s, *, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None,
parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw):
"""Deserialize ``s`` (a ``str``, ``bytes`` or ``bytearray`` instance
containing a JSON document) to a Python object.
``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of
``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature
can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting).
``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs. The
return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``.
This feature can be used to implement custom decoders. If ``object_hook``
is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority.
``parse_float``, if specified, will be called with the string
of every JSON float to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to
float(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser
for JSON floats (e.g. decimal.Decimal).
``parse_int``, if specified, will be called with the string
of every JSON int to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to
int(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser
for JSON integers (e.g. float).
``parse_constant``, if specified, will be called with one of the
following strings: -Infinity, Infinity, NaN.
This can be used to raise an exception if invalid JSON numbers
are encountered.
To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls``
kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used.
The ``encoding`` argument is ignored and deprecated since Python 3.1.
"""
if isinstance(s, str):
if s.startswith('\ufeff'):
raise JSONDecodeError("Unexpected UTF-8 BOM (decode using utf-8-sig)",
s, 0)
else:
if not isinstance(s, (bytes, bytearray)):
raise TypeError(f'the JSON object must be str, bytes or bytearray, '
f'not {s.__class__.__name__}')
s = s.decode(detect_encoding(s), 'surrogatepass')
if "encoding" in kw:
import warnings
warnings.warn(
"'encoding' is ignored and deprecated. It will be removed in Python 3.9",
DeprecationWarning,
stacklevel=2
)
del kw['encoding']
if (cls is None and object_hook is None and
parse_int is None and parse_float is None and
parse_constant is None and object_pairs_hook is None and not kw):
return _default_decoder.decode(s)
if cls is None:
cls = JSONDecoder
if object_hook is not None:
kw['object_hook'] = object_hook
if object_pairs_hook is not None:
kw['object_pairs_hook'] = object_pairs_hook
if parse_float is not None:
kw['parse_float'] = parse_float
if parse_int is not None:
kw['parse_int'] = parse_int
if parse_constant is not None:
kw['parse_constant'] = parse_constant
return cls(**kw).decode(s)
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