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#!/usr/bin/env python3
# portions copyright 2001, Autonomous Zones Industries, Inc., all rights...
# err... reserved and offered to the public under the terms of the
# Python 2.2 license.
# Author: Zooko O'Whielacronx
# Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Skip Montanaro
# Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Andrew Dalke
# Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Skip Montanaro
# Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved.
# Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and
# its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby
# granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies,
# and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
# supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix,
# Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
# distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.
"""program/module to trace Python program or function execution
Sample use, command line: -c -f counts --ignore-dir '$prefix' eggs -t --ignore-dir '$prefix' eggs --trackcalls eggs
Sample use, programmatically
import sys
# create a Trace object, telling it what to ignore, and whether to
# do tracing or line-counting or both.
tracer = trace.Trace(ignoredirs=[sys.base_prefix, sys.base_exec_prefix,],
trace=0, count=1)
# run the new command using the given tracer'main()')
# make a report, placing output in /tmp
r = tracer.results()
r.write_results(show_missing=True, coverdir="/tmp")
__all__ = ['Trace', 'CoverageResults']
import linecache
import os
import sys
import token
import tokenize
import inspect
import gc
import dis
import pickle
from time import monotonic as _time
import threading
class _Ignore:
def __init__(self, modules=None, dirs=None):
self._mods = set() if not modules else set(modules)
self._dirs = [] if not dirs else [os.path.normpath(d)
for d in dirs]
self._ignore = { '<string>': 1 }
def names(self, filename, modulename):
if modulename in self._ignore:
return self._ignore[modulename]
# haven't seen this one before, so see if the module name is
# on the ignore list.
if modulename in self._mods: # Identical names, so ignore
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# check if the module is a proper submodule of something on
# the ignore list
for mod in self._mods:
# Need to take some care since ignoring
# "cmp" mustn't mean ignoring "cmpcache" but ignoring
# "Spam" must also mean ignoring "Spam.Eggs".
if modulename.startswith(mod + '.'):
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Now check that filename isn't in one of the directories
if filename is None:
# must be a built-in, so we must ignore
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Ignore a file when it contains one of the ignorable paths
for d in self._dirs:
# The '+ os.sep' is to ensure that d is a parent directory,
# as compared to cases like:
# d = "/usr/local"
# filename = "/usr/"
# or
# d = "/usr/"
# filename = "/usr/"
if filename.startswith(d + os.sep):
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Tried the different ways, so we don't ignore this module
self._ignore[modulename] = 0
return 0
def _modname(path):
"""Return a plausible module name for the patch."""
base = os.path.basename(path)
filename, ext = os.path.splitext(base)
return filename
def _fullmodname(path):
"""Return a plausible module name for the path."""
# If the file 'path' is part of a package, then the filename isn't
# enough to uniquely identify it. Try to do the right thing by
# looking in sys.path for the longest matching prefix. We'll
# assume that the rest is the package name.
comparepath = os.path.normcase(path)
longest = ""
for dir in sys.path:
dir = os.path.normcase(dir)
if comparepath.startswith(dir) and comparepath[len(dir)] == os.sep:
if len(dir) > len(longest):
longest = dir
if longest:
base = path[len(longest) + 1:]
base = path
# the drive letter is never part of the module name
drive, base = os.path.splitdrive(base)
base = base.replace(os.sep, ".")
if os.altsep:
base = base.replace(os.altsep, ".")
filename, ext = os.path.splitext(base)
return filename.lstrip(".")
class CoverageResults:
def __init__(self, counts=None, calledfuncs=None, infile=None,
callers=None, outfile=None):
self.counts = counts
if self.counts is None:
self.counts = {}
self.counter = self.counts.copy() # map (filename, lineno) to count
self.calledfuncs = calledfuncs
if self.calledfuncs is None:
self.calledfuncs = {}
self.calledfuncs = self.calledfuncs.copy()
self.callers = callers
if self.callers is None:
self.callers = {}
self.callers = self.callers.copy()
self.infile = infile
self.outfile = outfile
if self.infile:
# Try to merge existing counts file.
with open(self.infile, 'rb') as f:
counts, calledfuncs, callers = pickle.load(f)
self.update(self.__class__(counts, calledfuncs, callers))
except (OSError, EOFError, ValueError) as err:
print(("Skipping counts file %r: %s"
% (self.infile, err)), file=sys.stderr)
def is_ignored_filename(self, filename):
"""Return True if the filename does not refer to a file
we want to have reported.
return filename.startswith('<') and filename.endswith('>')
def update(self, other):
"""Merge in the data from another CoverageResults"""
counts = self.counts
calledfuncs = self.calledfuncs
callers = self.callers
other_counts = other.counts
other_calledfuncs = other.calledfuncs
other_callers = other.callers
for key in other_counts:
counts[key] = counts.get(key, 0) + other_counts[key]
for key in other_calledfuncs:
calledfuncs[key] = 1
for key in other_callers:
callers[key] = 1
def write_results(self, show_missing=True, summary=False, coverdir=None):
Write the coverage results.
:param show_missing: Show lines that had no hits.
:param summary: Include coverage summary per module.
:param coverdir: If None, the results of each module are placed in its
directory, otherwise it is included in the directory
if self.calledfuncs:
print("functions called:")
calls = self.calledfuncs
for filename, modulename, funcname in sorted(calls):
print(("filename: %s, modulename: %s, funcname: %s"
% (filename, modulename, funcname)))
if self.callers:
print("calling relationships:")
lastfile = lastcfile = ""
for ((pfile, pmod, pfunc), (cfile, cmod, cfunc)) \
in sorted(self.callers):
if pfile != lastfile:
print("***", pfile, "***")
lastfile = pfile
lastcfile = ""
if cfile != pfile and lastcfile != cfile:
print(" -->", cfile)
lastcfile = cfile
print(" %s.%s -> %s.%s" % (pmod, pfunc, cmod, cfunc))
# turn the counts data ("(filename, lineno) = count") into something
# accessible on a per-file basis
per_file = {}
for filename, lineno in self.counts:
lines_hit = per_file[filename] = per_file.get(filename, {})
lines_hit[lineno] = self.counts[(filename, lineno)]
# accumulate summary info, if needed
sums = {}
for filename, count in per_file.items():
if self.is_ignored_filename(filename):
if filename.endswith(".pyc"):
filename = filename[:-1]
if coverdir is None:
dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(filename))
modulename = _modname(filename)
dir = coverdir
if not os.path.exists(dir):
modulename = _fullmodname(filename)
# If desired, get a list of the line numbers which represent
# executable content (returned as a dict for better lookup speed)
if show_missing:
lnotab = _find_executable_linenos(filename)
lnotab = {}
source = linecache.getlines(filename)
coverpath = os.path.join(dir, modulename + ".cover")
with open(filename, 'rb') as fp:
encoding, _ = tokenize.detect_encoding(fp.readline)
n_hits, n_lines = self.write_results_file(coverpath, source,
lnotab, count, encoding)
if summary and n_lines:
percent = int(100 * n_hits / n_lines)
sums[modulename] = n_lines, percent, modulename, filename
if summary and sums:
print("lines cov% module (path)")
for m in sorted(sums):
n_lines, percent, modulename, filename = sums[m]
print("%5d %3d%% %s (%s)" % sums[m])
if self.outfile:
# try and store counts and module info into self.outfile
pickle.dump((self.counts, self.calledfuncs, self.callers),
open(self.outfile, 'wb'), 1)
except OSError as err:
print("Can't save counts files because %s" % err, file=sys.stderr)
def write_results_file(self, path, lines, lnotab, lines_hit, encoding=None):
"""Return a coverage results file in path."""
# ``lnotab`` is a dict of executable lines, or a line number "table"
outfile = open(path, "w", encoding=encoding)
except OSError as err:
print(("trace: Could not open %r for writing: %s "
"- skipping" % (path, err)), file=sys.stderr)
return 0, 0
n_lines = 0
n_hits = 0
with outfile:
for lineno, line in enumerate(lines, 1):
# do the blank/comment match to try to mark more lines
# (help the reader find stuff that hasn't been covered)
if lineno in lines_hit:
outfile.write("%5d: " % lines_hit[lineno])
n_hits += 1
n_lines += 1
elif lineno in lnotab and not PRAGMA_NOCOVER in line:
# Highlight never-executed lines, unless the line contains
# #pragma: NO COVER
outfile.write(">>>>>> ")
n_lines += 1
outfile.write(" ")
return n_hits, n_lines
def _find_lines_from_code(code, strs):
"""Return dict where keys are lines in the line number table."""
linenos = {}
for _, lineno in dis.findlinestarts(code):
if lineno not in strs:
linenos[lineno] = 1
return linenos
def _find_lines(code, strs):
"""Return lineno dict for all code objects reachable from code."""
# get all of the lineno information from the code of this scope level
linenos = _find_lines_from_code(code, strs)
# and check the constants for references to other code objects
for c in code.co_consts:
if inspect.iscode(c):
# find another code object, so recurse into it
linenos.update(_find_lines(c, strs))
return linenos
def _find_strings(filename, encoding=None):
"""Return a dict of possible docstring positions.
The dict maps line numbers to strings. There is an entry for
line that contains only a string or a part of a triple-quoted
d = {}
# If the first token is a string, then it's the module docstring.
# Add this special case so that the test in the loop passes.
prev_ttype = token.INDENT
with open(filename, encoding=encoding) as f:
tok = tokenize.generate_tokens(f.readline)
for ttype, tstr, start, end, line in tok:
if ttype == token.STRING:
if prev_ttype == token.INDENT:
sline, scol = start
eline, ecol = end
for i in range(sline, eline + 1):
d[i] = 1
prev_ttype = ttype
return d
def _find_executable_linenos(filename):
"""Return dict where keys are line numbers in the line number table."""
with as f:
prog =
encoding = f.encoding
except OSError as err:
print(("Not printing coverage data for %r: %s"
% (filename, err)), file=sys.stderr)
return {}
code = compile(prog, filename, "exec")
strs = _find_strings(filename, encoding)
return _find_lines(code, strs)
class Trace:
def __init__(self, count=1, trace=1, countfuncs=0, countcallers=0,
ignoremods=(), ignoredirs=(), infile=None, outfile=None,
@param count true iff it should count number of times each
line is executed
@param trace true iff it should print out each line that is
being counted
@param countfuncs true iff it should just output a list of
(filename, modulename, funcname,) for functions
that were called at least once; This overrides
`count' and `trace'
@param ignoremods a list of the names of modules to ignore
@param ignoredirs a list of the names of directories to ignore
all of the (recursive) contents of
@param infile file from which to read stored counts to be
added into the results
@param outfile file in which to write the results
@param timing true iff timing information be displayed
self.infile = infile
self.outfile = outfile
self.ignore = _Ignore(ignoremods, ignoredirs)
self.counts = {} # keys are (filename, linenumber)
self.pathtobasename = {} # for memoizing os.path.basename
self.donothing = 0
self.trace = trace
self._calledfuncs = {}
self._callers = {}
self._caller_cache = {}
self.start_time = None
if timing:
self.start_time = _time()
if countcallers:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_trackcallers
elif countfuncs:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_countfuncs
elif trace and count:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_trace_and_count
elif trace:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_trace
elif count:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_count
# Ahem -- do nothing? Okay.
self.donothing = 1
def run(self, cmd):
import __main__
dict = __main__.__dict__
self.runctx(cmd, dict, dict)
def runctx(self, cmd, globals=None, locals=None):
if globals is None: globals = {}
if locals is None: locals = {}
if not self.donothing:
exec(cmd, globals, locals)
if not self.donothing:
def runfunc(self, func, /, *args, **kw):
result = None
if not self.donothing:
result = func(*args, **kw)
if not self.donothing:
return result
def file_module_function_of(self, frame):
code = frame.f_code
filename = code.co_filename
if filename:
modulename = _modname(filename)
modulename = None
funcname = code.co_name
clsname = None
if code in self._caller_cache:
if self._caller_cache[code] is not None:
clsname = self._caller_cache[code]
self._caller_cache[code] = None
## use of gc.get_referrers() was suggested by Michael Hudson
# all functions which refer to this code object
funcs = [f for f in gc.get_referrers(code)
if inspect.isfunction(f)]
# require len(func) == 1 to avoid ambiguity caused by calls to
# new.function(): "In the face of ambiguity, refuse the
# temptation to guess."
if len(funcs) == 1:
dicts = [d for d in gc.get_referrers(funcs[0])
if isinstance(d, dict)]
if len(dicts) == 1:
classes = [c for c in gc.get_referrers(dicts[0])
if hasattr(c, "__bases__")]
if len(classes) == 1:
# ditto for new.classobj()
clsname = classes[0].__name__
# cache the result - assumption is that new.* is
# not called later to disturb this relationship
# _caller_cache could be flushed if functions in
# the new module get called.
self._caller_cache[code] = clsname
if clsname is not None:
funcname = "%s.%s" % (clsname, funcname)
return filename, modulename, funcname
def globaltrace_trackcallers(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
Adds information about who called who to the self._callers dict.
if why == 'call':
# XXX Should do a better job of identifying methods
this_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame)
parent_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame.f_back)
self._callers[(parent_func, this_func)] = 1
def globaltrace_countfuncs(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
Adds (filename, modulename, funcname) to the self._calledfuncs dict.
if why == 'call':
this_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame)
self._calledfuncs[this_func] = 1
def globaltrace_lt(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
If the code block being entered is to be ignored, returns `None',
else returns self.localtrace.
if why == 'call':
code = frame.f_code
filename = frame.f_globals.get('__file__', None)
if filename:
# XXX _modname() doesn't work right for packages, so
# the ignore support won't work right for packages
modulename = _modname(filename)
if modulename is not None:
ignore_it = self.ignore.names(filename, modulename)
if not ignore_it:
if self.trace:
print((" --- modulename: %s, funcname: %s"
% (modulename, code.co_name)))
return self.localtrace
return None
def localtrace_trace_and_count(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
# record the file name and line number of every trace
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
key = filename, lineno
self.counts[key] = self.counts.get(key, 0) + 1
if self.start_time:
print('%.2f' % (_time() - self.start_time), end=' ')
bname = os.path.basename(filename)
print("%s(%d): %s" % (bname, lineno,
linecache.getline(filename, lineno)), end='')
return self.localtrace
def localtrace_trace(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
# record the file name and line number of every trace
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
if self.start_time:
print('%.2f' % (_time() - self.start_time), end=' ')
bname = os.path.basename(filename)
print("%s(%d): %s" % (bname, lineno,
linecache.getline(filename, lineno)), end='')
return self.localtrace
def localtrace_count(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
key = filename, lineno
self.counts[key] = self.counts.get(key, 0) + 1
return self.localtrace
def results(self):
return CoverageResults(self.counts, infile=self.infile,
def main():
import argparse
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('--version', action='version', version='trace 2.0')
grp = parser.add_argument_group('Main options',
'One of these (or --report) must be given')
grp.add_argument('-c', '--count', action='store_true',
help='Count the number of times each line is executed and write '
'the counts to <module>.cover for each module executed, in '
'the module\'s directory. See also --coverdir, --file, '
'--no-report below.')
grp.add_argument('-t', '--trace', action='store_true',
help='Print each line to sys.stdout before it is executed')
grp.add_argument('-l', '--listfuncs', action='store_true',
help='Keep track of which functions are executed at least once '
'and write the results to sys.stdout after the program exits. '
'Cannot be specified alongside --trace or --count.')
grp.add_argument('-T', '--trackcalls', action='store_true',
help='Keep track of caller/called pairs and write the results to '
'sys.stdout after the program exits.')
grp = parser.add_argument_group('Modifiers')
_grp = grp.add_mutually_exclusive_group()
_grp.add_argument('-r', '--report', action='store_true',
help='Generate a report from a counts file; does not execute any '
'code. --file must specify the results file to read, which '
'must have been created in a previous run with --count '
_grp.add_argument('-R', '--no-report', action='store_true',
help='Do not generate the coverage report files. '
'Useful if you want to accumulate over several runs.')
grp.add_argument('-f', '--file',
help='File to accumulate counts over several runs')
grp.add_argument('-C', '--coverdir',
help='Directory where the report files go. The coverage report '
'for <package>.<module> will be written to file '
grp.add_argument('-m', '--missing', action='store_true',
help='Annotate executable lines that were not executed with '
'">>>>>> "')
grp.add_argument('-s', '--summary', action='store_true',
help='Write a brief summary for each file to sys.stdout. '
'Can only be used with --count or --report')
grp.add_argument('-g', '--timing', action='store_true',
help='Prefix each line with the time since the program started. '
'Only used while tracing')
grp = parser.add_argument_group('Filters',
'Can be specified multiple times')
grp.add_argument('--ignore-module', action='append', default=[],
help='Ignore the given module(s) and its submodules '
'(if it is a package). Accepts comma separated list of '
'module names.')
grp.add_argument('--ignore-dir', action='append', default=[],
help='Ignore files in the given directory '
'(multiple directories can be joined by os.pathsep).')
parser.add_argument('--module', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Trace a module. ')
parser.add_argument('progname', nargs='?',
help='file to run as main program')
parser.add_argument('arguments', nargs=argparse.REMAINDER,
help='arguments to the program')
opts = parser.parse_args()
if opts.ignore_dir:
rel_path = 'lib', 'python{0.major}.{0.minor}'.format(sys.version_info)
_prefix = os.path.join(sys.base_prefix, *rel_path)
_exec_prefix = os.path.join(sys.base_exec_prefix, *rel_path)
def parse_ignore_dir(s):
s = os.path.expanduser(os.path.expandvars(s))
s = s.replace('$prefix', _prefix).replace('$exec_prefix', _exec_prefix)
return os.path.normpath(s)
opts.ignore_module = [mod.strip()
for i in opts.ignore_module for mod in i.split(',')]
opts.ignore_dir = [parse_ignore_dir(s)
for i in opts.ignore_dir for s in i.split(os.pathsep)]
if not opts.file:
parser.error('-r/--report requires -f/--file')
results = CoverageResults(infile=opts.file, outfile=opts.file)
return results.write_results(opts.missing, opts.summary, opts.coverdir)
if not any([opts.trace, opts.count, opts.listfuncs, opts.trackcalls]):
parser.error('must specify one of --trace, --count, --report, '
'--listfuncs, or --trackcalls')
if opts.listfuncs and (opts.count or opts.trace):
parser.error('cannot specify both --listfuncs and (--trace or --count)')
if opts.summary and not opts.count:
parser.error('--summary can only be used with --count or --report')
if opts.progname is None:
parser.error('progname is missing: required with the main options')
t = Trace(opts.count, opts.trace, countfuncs=opts.listfuncs,
countcallers=opts.trackcalls, ignoremods=opts.ignore_module,
ignoredirs=opts.ignore_dir, infile=opts.file,
outfile=opts.file, timing=opts.timing)
if opts.module:
import runpy
module_name = opts.progname
mod_name, mod_spec, code = runpy._get_module_details(module_name)
sys.argv = [code.co_filename, *opts.arguments]
globs = {
'__name__': '__main__',
'__file__': code.co_filename,
'__package__': mod_spec.parent,
'__loader__': mod_spec.loader,
'__spec__': mod_spec,
'__cached__': None,
sys.argv = [opts.progname, *opts.arguments]
sys.path[0] = os.path.dirname(opts.progname)
with open(opts.progname) as fp:
code = compile(, opts.progname, 'exec')
# try to emulate __main__ namespace as much as possible
globs = {
'__file__': opts.progname,
'__name__': '__main__',
'__package__': None,
'__cached__': None,
t.runctx(code, globs, globs)
except OSError as err:
sys.exit("Cannot run file %r because: %s" % (sys.argv[0], err))
except SystemExit:
results = t.results()
if not opts.no_report:
results.write_results(opts.missing, opts.summary, opts.coverdir)
if __name__=='__main__':
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