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scales (development version)

  • manual_pal() now always returns an unnamed colour vector, which is easy to use with ggplot2::discrete_scale() (@yutannihilation, #284).

  • label_number_si() now correctly uses SI prefixes (e.g. abbreviations "k" for "kilo-" and "m" for "milli-"). It previously used short scale abbreviations (e.g. "M" for million, "B" for billion). The short scale is most commonly used in finance, so it is now supported via the new rescale_large argument of label_dollar() (@davidchall, #235).

  • label_number_si() now requires the unit argument is specified. The default value of the accuracy argument is now NULL, which automatically chooses the precision. The sep argument is removed, which had no purpose (@davidchall, #235).

  • label_dollar() gains a rescale_large argument to support scaling of large numbers by suffix (e.g. "M" for million, "B" for billion). In finance, the short scale is most prevalent (i.e. 1 billion = 1 thousand million). In other contexts, the long scale might be desired (i.e. 1 billion = 1 million million). These two common scales are supported by setting rescale_large = rescale_short_scale() or rescale_large = rescale_long_scale(), but custom scaling-by-suffix is also supported (@davidchall, #235).

  • label_bytes() now correctly accounts for the scale argument when choosing auto units (@davidchall, #235).

scales 1.1.1

  • breaks_width() now handles difftime/hms objects (@bhogan-mitre, #244).

  • hue_pal() now correctly inverts color palettes when direction = -1 (@dpseidel, #252).

  • Internal precision(), used when accuracy = NULL, now does a better job when duplicate values are present (@teunbrand, #251). It also does a better job when there's a mix of finite and non-finite values (#257).

  • New oob_keep() to keep data outside range, allowing for zoom-limits when oob_keep is used as oob argument in scales. Existing out of bounds functions have been renamed with the oob_-prefix to indicate their role (@teunbrand, #255).

  • ordinal_french() gains plural and gender arguments (@stephLH, #256).

scales 1.1.0

  • Axis breaks and labels have a new naming scheme: functions that generate breaks from limits are called breaks_; functions that generate labels from breaks are called labels_ (#226).

  • All breaks and labels examples have been overhauled to use new demo_continuous(), demo_discrete(), and demo_log10(), so you can see how to use scales functions with ggplot2.


  • All label functions preserve names (#202) and keep NAs as NAs instead of trying to convert to "NA" (@clauswilke, #187).

  • New label_bytes() replaces number_bytes_format() with a more convenient interface. It takes a single unit argument which can either be an SI unit (e.g. "kB"), a binary unit (e.g. "kIB"), or an automatic unit (either "auto_si" or "auto_binary").

    It always uses "B" as the symbol for bytes (#174), and checks that units are valid. Additionally, auto units are now used to determine the symbol separately for each value (@mikmart):

    #> [1] "1 kiB" "1 MiB" "1 GiB"
  • New label_date_short() creates labels for a date axis that only show the components of the date that have changed since the previous label. For example, if you have Jan 10, Jan 20, Jan 30, and Feb 1, label_date_short() will use labels Jan 10, 20, 30, Feb 1 (#209).

  • label_dollar() now correctly formats negative numbers as (e.g.) -$200 (#216).

  • label_math() now returns an expression vector, and doesn't coerce inputs to names.

  • label_number() takes scale into account when computing accuracy, if not supplied. This means that label_percent() should have better default accuracy in many cases (#192).

  • label_number() now picks the accuracy automatically by default. The underlying heuristic has been improved to use the distance between adjacent breaks (rather than the total range of the break).

  • New label_number_auto() automatically picks between number_format() and scientific_format() based on the range of the input. It should produce nice output over a very wide range of inputs (@paleolimbot, #208).

  • New label_number_si() formats numeric vectors with limited SI units. Individual values are scaled and labelled with abbreviations "K", "M", "B", or "T" dependent on magnitude (@dpseidel, #83).

  • label_parse() now generates an expression object that can be used to display formatted labels in ggplot2 (@agila5, #203).

  • label_pvalue() now reports values close to 1 (as determined by accuracy) as (e.g.) ">0.99". You can control the prefixes used with the new prefix argument (#213).


  • The built in breaks functions now returns a function that takes both a range and a desired number of breaks, making it possible to overwrite the defaults number of desired breaks given in the constructor call (@thomasp85).

  • breaks_log() has nicer behaviour when there are no finite inputs (#210). It also provides usable breaks even with very small ranges (@billdenney, #168)

  • New breaks_width() which allows you to specify a fixed distance between breaks (along with optional offset).


  • New yj_trans() implements the Yeo-Johnson transformation (@zamorarr, #196)

  • trans objects gets methods for plot() and lines(), and all numeric transformations get an example showing the transformation.

  • boxcox_trans() no longer throws an error when given NA values (@sflippl, #181).

Other bug fixes and minor improvements

  • scales now uses the farver package for colour manipulation instead of a combination of grDevices and hand-rolled C++ code (#223).

  • alpha() now preserves element names (@wibeasley, #195)

  • ContinuousRange and DiscreteRange methods now properly inherit and are fully mutable (@dpseidel).

  • col_numeric(), col_bin(), col_quantile(), and col_factor() now support viridis colors. Just pass a palette name ("magma", "inferno", "plasma", or "viridis") as the palette argument (@jcheng5, #191).

  • col_numeric(), col_bin(), col_quantile(), and col_factor() now have a reverse parameter, to apply color palettes in the opposite of their usual order (i.e. high-to-low instead of low-to-high) (@jcheng5, #191).

  • col_bin() and col_quantile() now take a right argument, which is passed to base::cut(); it indicates whether the bin/quantile intervals should be closed on the right (and open on the left), or vice versa (@jcheng5, #191).

  • col_factor() now tries to avoid interpolating qualitative RColorBrewer palettes. Instead, it attempts to assign a palette color to each factor level. Interpolation will still be used if there are more factor levels than available colors, and a warning will be emitted in that case (@jcheng5, #191).

  • dichromat_pal() documentation now builds without requiring suggested dichromat package to be installed (@dpseidel, #172).

  • date_breaks() now supports subsecond intervals (@dpseidel, #85).

scales 1.0.0

New Features


  • comma_format(), percent_format() and unit_format() gain new arguments: accuracy, scale, prefix, suffix, decimal.mark, big.mark (@larmarange, #146).

  • dollar_format() gains new arguments: accuracy, scale, decimal.mark, trim (@larmarange, #148).

  • New number_bytes_format() and number_bytes() format numeric vectors into byte measurements (@hrbrmstr, @dpseidel).

  • New number_format() provides a generic formatter for numbers (@larmarange, #142).

  • New pvalue_format() formats p-values (@larmarange, #145).

  • ordinal_format() gains new arguments: prefix, suffix, big.mark, rules; rules for French and Spanish are also provided (@larmarange, #149).

  • scientific_format() gains new arguments: scale, prefix, suffix, decimal.mark, trim (@larmarange, #147).

  • New time_format() formats POSIXt and hms objects (@dpseidel, #88).

Transformations & breaks

  • boxcox_trans() is now invertible for x >= 0 and requires positive values. A new argument offset allows specification of both type-1 and type-2 Box-Cox transformations (@dpseidel, #103).

  • log_breaks() returns integer multiples of integer powers of base when finer breaks are needed (@ThierryO, #117).

  • New function modulus_trans() implements the modulus transformation for positive and negative values (@dpseidel).

  • New pseudo_log_trans() for transforming numerics into a signed logarithmic scale with a smooth transition to a linear scale around 0 (@lepennec, #106).

Minor bug fixes and improvements

  • scales functions now work as expected when it is used inside a for loop. In previous package versions if a scales function was used with variable custom parameters inside a for loop, some of the parameters were not evaluated until the end of the loop, due to how R lazy evaluation works (@zeehio, #81).

  • colour_ramp() now uses alpha = TRUE by default (@clauswilke, #108).

  • date_breaks() now supports subsecond intervals (@dpseidel, #85).

  • Removes dichromat and plyr dependencies. dichromat is now suggested (@dpseidel, #118).

  • expand_range() arguments mul and add now affect scales with a range of 0
    (@dpseidel, ggplot2-2281).

  • extended_breaks() now allows user specification of the labeling::extended() argument only.loose to permit more flexible breaks specification (@dpseidel, #99).

  • New rescale() and rescale_mid() methods support dist objects (@zeehio, #105).

  • rescale_mid() now properly handles NAs (@foo-bar-baz-qux, #104).

scales 0.5.0

  • New function regular_minor_breaks() calculates minor breaks as a property of the transformation (@karawoo).

  • Adds viridis_pal() for creating palettes with color maps from the viridisLite package (@karawoo).

  • Switched from reference classes to R6 (#96).

  • rescale() and rescale_mid() are now S3 generics, and work with numeric, Date, POSIXct, POSIXlt and bit64::integer64 objects (@zeehio, #74).

scales 0.4.1

  • extended_breaks() no longer fails on pathological inputs.

  • New hms_trans() for transforming hms time vectors.

  • train_discrete() gets a new na.rm argument which controls whether NAs are preserved or dropped.

scales 0.4.0

  • Switched from NEWS to

  • manual_pal() produces a warning if n is greater than the number of values in the palette (@jrnold, #68).

  • precision(0) now returns 1, which means percent(0) now returns 0% (#50).

  • scale_continuous() uses a more correct check for numeric values.

  • NaN is correctly recognised as a missing value by the gradient palettes (ggplot2-1482).

scales 0.3.0

  • rescale() preserves missing values in input when the range of x is (effectively) 0 (ggplot2-985).

  • Continuous colour palettes now use colour_ramp() instead of colorRamp(). This only supports interpolation in Lab colour space, but is hundreds of times faster.

scales 0.2.5

Improved formatting functions

  • date_format() gains an option to specify time zone (#51).

  • dollar_format() is now more flexible and can add either prefixes or suffixes for different currencies (#53). It gains a negative_parens argument to show negative values as ($100) and now passes missing values through unchanged (@dougmitarotonda, #40).

  • New ordinal_format() generates ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, etc) (@aaronwolen, #55).

  • New unit_format() makes it easier to add units to labels, optionally scaling (@ThierryO, #46).

  • New wrap_format() function to wrap character vectors to a desired width. (@jimhester, #37).

New colour scaling functions

  • New color scaling functions col_numeric(), col_bin(), col_quantile(), and col_factor(). These functions provide concise ways to map continuous or categorical values to color spectra.

  • New colour_ramp() function for performing color interpolation in the CIELAB color space (like grDevices::colorRamp(space = 'Lab'), but much faster).

Other bug fixes and minor improvements

  • boxcox_trans() returns correct value when p is close to zero (#31).

  • dollar() and percent() both correctly return a zero length string for zero length input (@BrianDiggs, #35).

  • brewer_pal() gains a direction argument to easily invert the order of colours (@jiho, #36).

  • show_col() has additional options to showcase colors better (@jiho, #52).

  • Relaxed tolerance in zero_range() to .Machine$double.eps * 1000 (#33).

scales 0.2.4

  • Eliminate stringr dependency.

  • Fix outstanding errors in R CMD check.

scales 0.2.3

  • floor_time() calls to_time(), but that function was moved into a function so it was no longer available in the scales namespace. Now floor_time() has its own copy of that function (Thanks to Stefan Novak).

  • Color palettes generated by brewer_pal() no longer give warnings when fewer than 3 colors are requested (@wch).

  • abs_area() and rescale_max() functions have been added, for scaling the area of points to be proportional to their value. These are used by scale_size_area() in ggplot2.

scales 0.2.2

  • zero_range() has improved behaviour thanks to Brian Diggs.

  • brewer_pal() complains if you give it an incorrect palette type. (Fixes #15, thanks to Jean-Olivier Irisson).

  • shape_pal() warns if asked for more than 6 values. (Fixes #16, thanks to Jean-Olivier Irisson).

  • time_trans() gains an optional argument tz to specify the time zone to use for the times. If not specified, it will be guess from the first input with a non-null time zone.

  • date_trans() and time_trans() now check that their inputs are of the correct type. This prevents ggplot2 scales from silently giving incorrect outputs when given incorrect inputs.

  • Change the default breaks algorithm for cbreaks() and trans_new(). Previously it was pretty_breaks(), and now it's extended_breaks(), which uses the extended() algorithm from the labeling package.

  • fixed namespace problem with fullseq().

scales 0.2.1

  • suppressWarnings from train_continuous() so zero-row or all infinite data frames don't potentially cause problems.

  • check for zero-length colour in gradient_n_pal().

  • added extended_breaks() which implements an extension to Wilkinson's labelling approach, as implemented in the labeling package. This should generally produce nicer breaks than pretty_breaks().

  • alpha() can now preserve existing alpha values if alpha() is missing.

  • log_breaks() always gives breaks evenly spaced on the log scale, never evenly spaced on the data scale. This will result in really bad breaks for some ranges (e.g 0.5-0.6), but you probably shouldn't be using log scales in that situation anyway.

scales 0.2.0

  • censor() and squish() gain only.finite argument and default to operating only on finite values. This is needed for ggplot2, and reflects the use of Inf and -Inf as special values.

  • bounds functions now force evaluation of range to avoid bug with S3 method dispatch inside primitive functions (e.g. [).

  • Simplified algorithm for discrete_range() that is robust to stringsAsFactors global option. Now, the order of a factor will only be preserved if the full factor is the first object seen, and all subsequent inputs are subsets of the levels of the original factor.

  • scientific() ensures output is always in scientific format and off the specified number of significant digits. comma() ensures output is never in scientific format (Fixes #7).

  • Another tweak to zero_range() to better detect when a range has zero length (Fixes #6).