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Rihanna is a high performance postgres-backed job queue for Elixir
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README.md

Rihanna

Package Version Documentation

Rihanna is a fast, reliable and easy-to-use Postgres-backed distributed job queue for Elixir. It was inspired by the brilliant Que library for Ruby and uses advisory locks for speed.

You might consider using Rihanna if:

  • You need durable asynchronous jobs that are guaranteed to run even if the BEAM is restarted
  • You want ACID guarantees around your jobs so you can be 100% sure they will never be lost
  • You want a beautiful web GUI that allows you to inspect, delete and retry failed jobs
  • You want a simple queue that uses your existing Postgres database and doesn't require any additional services or dependencies
  • You need to process up to 10,000 jobs per second (if you need more throughout than this you should probably consider a "real" messaging system like Kafka or ActiveMQ)
  • You want to pass arbitrary Elixir/Erlang terms that may not be JSON-serializable such as tuples or structs as arguments

Contents

Requirements

Rihanna requires Elixir >= 1.5 (OTP >= 18.0) and Postgres >= 9.5

Usage

There are two ways to use Rihanna. The simplest way is to pass a mod-fun-args tuple like so:

# Enqueue job for later execution and return immediately
Rihanna.enqueue({MyModule, :my_fun, [arg1, arg2]})

The second way is to implement the Rihanna.Job behaviour and define the perform/1 function. Implementing this behaviour allows you to define retry strategies, show custom error messages on failure etc. See the docs for more details.

defmodule MyApp.MyJob do
  @behaviour Rihanna.Job

  # NOTE: `perform/1` is a required callback. It takes exactly one argument. To
  # pass multiple arguments, wrap them in a list and destructure in the
  # function head as in this example
  def perform([arg1, arg2]) do
    success? = do_some_work(arg1, arg2)

    if success? do
      # job completed successfully
      :ok
    else
      # job execution failed
      {:error, :failed}
    end
  end
end

Now you can enqueue your jobs like so:

# Enqueue job for later execution and return immediately
Rihanna.enqueue(MyApp.MyJob, [arg1, arg2])

Job scheduling

You can schedule jobs for deferred execution using schedule/2 and schedule/3.

Schedule at a DateTime:

Rihanna.schedule(
  {IO, :puts, ["Hello"]},
  at: DateTime.from_naive!(~N[2018-07-01 12:00:00], "Etc/UTC")
)

Schedule in one hour:

Rihanna.schedule({IO, :puts, ["Hello"]}, in: :timer.hours(1))

Jobs scheduled for later execution will run after their scheduled date, but there is no guarantee they will run at exactly their due date as this will depend on your configured poll interval and what other jobs are being processed.

Installation

With Ecto

Step 1 - add the dependency

Add rihanna to your list of dependencies in mix.exs:

def deps do
  [
    {:rihanna, ">= 0.0.0"}
  ]
end

Install with mix deps.get.

Step 2 - migrate the database

Add a migration to create your jobs table.

Rihanna stores jobs in a table in your database. The default table name is "rihanna_jobs".

Run mix ecto.gen.migration create_rihanna_jobs and make your migration look like this:

defmodule MyApp.CreateRihannaJobs do
  use Rihanna.Migration
end

Now you can run mix ecto.migrate.

Step 3 - configure Rihanna to use your Ecto Repo

When using Ecto Rihanna can reuse your Ecto Repo to enqueue and schedule jobs, rather than creating a new database connection for these actions. This will also make Rihanna use the Ecto sandbox in test so you can run tests that enqueue jobs asynchronously.

Note Rihanna will still create a dedicated database connection outside of the Repo for the dispatcher to poll for new jobs.

# config/config.exs
config :rihanna,
  producer_postgres_connection: {Ecto, MyApp.Repo} # Use the name of your Repo here

Step 4 - boot the supervisor

Add Rihanna.Supervisor to your supervision tree

Rihanna.Supervisor starts a job dispatcher and by adding it to your supervision tree it will automatically start running jobs when your app boots.

Rihanna requires a database configuration to be passed in under the postgrex key. This is passed through directly to Postgrex.

If you are already using Ecto you can avoid duplicating your DB config by pulling this out of your existing Repo using My.Repo.config().

# Elixir 1.6+
# NOTE: In Phoenix you would find this inside `lib/my_app/application.ex`
children = [
  {Rihanna.Supervisor, [postgrex: My.Repo.config()]}
]
# Elixir 1.5
import Supervisor.Spec, warn: false

children = [
  supervisor(Rihanna.Supervisor, [[postgrex: My.Repo.config()]])
]

Without Ecto

Step 1 - add the dependency

Add rihanna to your list of dependencies in mix.exs:

def deps do
  [
    {:rihanna, ">= 0.0.0"}
  ]
end

Install with mix deps.get.

Step 2 - migrate the database

Add a migration to create your jobs table.

Rihanna stores jobs in a table in your database. The default table name is "rihanna_jobs".

To create the table yourself take a look at the docs for Rihanna.Migration.

Step 3 - boot the supervisor

Add Rihanna.Supervisor to your supervision tree

Rihanna.Supervisor starts a job dispatcher and by adding it to your supervision tree it will automatically start running jobs when your app boots.

Rihanna requires a database configuration to be passed in under the postgrex key. This is passed through directly to Postgrex.

If you are already using Ecto you can avoid duplicating your DB config by pulling this out of your existing Repo using My.Repo.config().

# Elixir 1.6+
# NOTE: In Phoenix you would find this inside `lib/my_app/application.ex`
children = [
  {Rihanna.Supervisor, [name: Rihanna.Supervisor, postgrex: My.Repo.config()]}
]
# Elixir 1.5
import Supervisor.Spec, warn: false

children = [
  supervisor(Rihanna.Supervisor, [[name: Rihanna.Supervisor, postgrex: My.Repo.config()]])
]

Configuration

Rihanna should work out of the box without any configuration. However, should you wish to tweak it, take a look at the documentation for Rihanna.Config.

Upgrading

Please refer to the Changelog for details on when a database upgrade is required and how to migrate the Rihanna jobs table.

FAQs

Q: What does the supervision tree look like/how does Rihanna work?

Architecture/Supervision tree

Q: How many jobs can be processed concurrently?

By default Rihanna processes a maximum of 50 jobs per dispatcher. This number is configurable, see the docs.

Q. What guarantees does Rihanna provide?

Rihanna guarantees at-least-once execution of jobs regardless of node failures, netsplits or even database restarts.

Rihanna strives to never execute a job more than once, however, this may be unavoidable in certain failure scenarios such as

  • a node losing its connection to the database
  • a node dying during execution of a job

For this reason jobs should be made idempotent where possible.

Q: Are there any limits on job duration?

No. Rihanna jobs run for as long as they need to.

One thing to be aware of is that if you restart your application (e.g. because you deployed) then all running jobs on that node will be exited. For this reason it is probably sensible not to make your jobs take an extremely long time.

Q: How many database connections does Rihanna hold open?

Rihanna requires 1 + N database connections per node, where 1 connection is used for the external API of enqueuing/retrying jobs and N is the number of dispatchers.

In the default configuration of one dispatcher per node, Rihanna will use 2 database connections per node.

It is possible to reuse an existing Postgres connection (such as an Ecto Repo) for enqueuing etc, bringing the number of connections down to N where N is the number of dispatchers. See Rihanna.Config for more information.

Q. How fast is Rihanna?

Performance should be at least as good as Que.

I have seen it do around 1.5k jobs per second on a mid-2016 Macbook Pro. Significantly higher throughputs are possible with a beefier database server.

More detailed benchmarks to come. For now see: https://github.com/chanks/queue-shootout.

Q. Does it support multiple queues?

Not yet, but it will.

Q. Does it support cron tasks/recurring jobs?

Yes! To implement a recurring job have the job reschedule itself after completion and Postgres' ACID guarantees will ensure that it continues running. You will need to enqueue the job manually the first time from the console.

Q. Are there risks of arbitrary code execution with the MFA variant?

Short answer: No.

Long answer:

In order to do anything the attacker first needs to have obtained write access to your production database. In most companies, internal and customer data is far more important than whatever code is executing so you're already effectively hosed at this point.

By default you can call Rihanna with any mod-fun-args tuple. This does give a potential attacker a few more options than if they were restricted to simply calling the perform/1 function on an existing module with different arguments.

If you really want to turn this behaviour off, you can set the behaviour_only config option to true.

Q. Why Rihanna?

Because she knows how to work, work, work, work, work.

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