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Ruby bindings to Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) for Android, iOS or Web
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fcm.gemspec Use faraday (#55) Mar 20, 2019

README.md

Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) for Android and iOS

Gem Version Build Status

The FCM gem lets your ruby backend send notifications to Android and iOS devices via Firebase Cloud Messaging.

Installation

$ gem install fcm

or in your Gemfile just include it:

gem 'fcm'

Requirements

For Android you will need a device running 2.3 (or newer) that also have the Google Play Store app installed, or an emulator running Android 2.3 with Google APIs. iOS devices are also supported.

One of the following, tested Ruby versions:

  • 2.0.0
  • 2.1.10
  • 2.2.10
  • 2.3.8
  • 2.4.5
  • 2.5.3

Usage

For your server to send a message to one or more devices, you must first initialise a new FCM class with your Firebase Cloud Messaging server key, and then call the send method on this and give it 1 or more (up to 1000) registration tokens as an array of strings. You can also optionally send further HTTP message parameters like data or time_to_live etc. as a hash via the second optional argument to send.

Example sending notifications:

require 'fcm'

fcm = FCM.new("my_server_key")
# you can set option parameters in here
#  - all options are pass to HTTParty method arguments
#  - ref: https://github.com/jnunemaker/httparty/blob/master/lib/httparty.rb#L29-L60
#  fcm = FCM.new("my_server_key", timeout: 3)

registration_ids= ["12", "13"] # an array of one or more client registration tokens

# See https://firebase.google.com/docs/reference/fcm/rest/v1/projects.messages for all available options.
options = { "notification": {
              "title": "Portugal vs. Denmark",
              "body": "5 to 1"
          }
}
response = fcm.send(registration_ids, options)

Currently response is just a hash containing the response body, headers and status_code. Check here to see how to interpret the responses.

Device Group Messaging

With device group messaging, you can send a single message to multiple instance of an app running on devices belonging to a group. Typically, "group" refers a set of different devices that belong to a single user. However, a group could also represent a set of devices where the app instance functions in a highly correlated manner. To use this feature, you will first need an initialised FCM class.

Generate a Notification Key for device group

Then you will need a notification key which you can create for a particular key_name which needs to be uniquely named per app in case you have multiple apps for the same project_id. This ensures that notifications only go to the intended target app. The create method will do this and return the token notification_key, that represents the device group, in the response:

params = {key_name: "appUser-Chris",
                project_id: "my_project_id",
                registration_ids: ["4", "8", "15", "16", "23", "42"]}
response = fcm.create(*params.values)

Send to Notification Key

Now you can send a message to a particular notification_key via the send_with_notification_key method. This allows the server to send a single data payload or/and notification payload to multiple app instances (typically on multiple devices) owned by a single user (instead of sending to some registration tokens). Note: the maximum number of members allowed for a notification_key is 20.

response = fcm.send_with_notification_key("notification_key",
            data: {score: "3x1"},
            collapse_key: "updated_score")

Add/Remove Registration Tokens

You can also add/remove registration Tokens to/from a particular notification_key of some project_id. For example:

params = { key_name: "appUser-Chris",
                project_id: "my_project_id",
                notification_key:"appUser-Chris-key",
                registration_ids:["7", "3"] }
response = fcm.add(*params.values)

params = { key_name: "appUser-Chris",
                project_id: "my_project_id",
                notification_key:"appUser-Chris-key",
                registration_ids:["8", "15"] }
response = fcm.remove(*params.values)

Send Messages to Topics

FCM topic messaging allows your app server to send a message to multiple devices that have opted in to a particular topic. Based on the publish/subscribe model, topic messaging supports unlimited subscriptions per app. Sending to a topic is very similar to sending to an individual device or to a user group, in the sense that you can use the fcm.send_with_notification_key() method where the notification_key matches the regular expression "/topics/[a-zA-Z0-9-_.~%]+":

response = fcm.send_with_notification_key("/topics/yourTopic",
            data: {message: "This is a FCM Topic Message!"})

Or you can use the helper:

response = fcm.send_to_topic("yourTopic",
            data: {message: "This is a FCM Topic Message!"})

Sending to Multiple Topics

To send to combinations of multiple topics, the FCM docs require that you set a condition key (instead of the to: key) to a boolean condition that specifies the target topics. For example, to send messages to devices that subscribed to TopicA and either TopicB or TopicC:

'TopicA' in topics && ('TopicB' in topics || 'TopicC' in topics)

FCM first evaluates any conditions in parentheses, and then evaluates the expression from left to right. In the above expression, a user subscribed to any single topic does not receive the message. Likewise, a user who does not subscribe to TopicA does not receive the message. These combinations do receive it:

  • TopicA and TopicB
  • TopicA and TopicC

You can include up to five topics in your conditional expression, and parentheses are supported. Supported operators: &&, ||, !. Note the usage for !:

!('TopicA' in topics)

With this expression, any app instances that are not subscribed to TopicA, including app instances that are not subscribed to any topic, receive the message.

The send_to_topic_condition method within this library allows you to specicy a condition of multiple topics to which to send to the data payload.

response = fcm.send_to_topic_condition(
  "'TopicA' in topics && ('TopicB' in topics || 'TopicC' in topics)",
  data: {
    message: "This is an FCM Topic Message sent to a condition!"
  }
)

Subscribe the client app to a topic

Given a registration token and a topic name, you can add the token to the topic using the Google Instance ID server API.

topic = "YourTopic"
registration_id= "12" # a client registration tokens
response = fcm.topic_subscription(topic, registration_id)

Or you can manage relationship maps for multiple app instances Google Instance ID server API. Manage relationship

topic = "YourTopic"
registration_ids= ["4", "8", "15", "16", "23", "42"] # an array of one or more client registration tokens
response = fcm.batch_topic_subscription(topic, registration_ids)
# or unsubscription
response = fcm.batch_topic_unsubscription(topic, registration_ids)

Mobile Clients

You can find a guide to implement an Android Client app to receive notifications here: Set up a FCM Client App on Android.

The guide to set up an iOS app to get notifications is here: Setting up a FCM Client App on iOS.

ChangeLog

0.0.2

  • Fixed group messaging url.
  • Added API to recover_notification_key.

0.0.1

  • Initial version.

MIT License

  • Copyright (c) 2016 Kashif Rasul and Shoaib Burq. See LICENSE.txt for details.

Many thanks to all the contributors

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