UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer) has two purposes. Its first purpose is to provide a general vocabulary (the UMBEL "vocabulary") of classes and predicates for describing domain ontologies, with the specific aim of promoting interoperability with external datasets and domains. The second purpose is to provide a coherent framework …
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External Ontologies
Reference Structure



UMBEL is the Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer, designed to help content interoperate on the Web. UMBEL provides two valuable functions:

First, it is a broad, general reference structure of 34,000 concepts, which provides a scaffolding to link and interoperate other datasets and domain vocabularies. Second, it is a base vocabulary for the construction of other concept-based domain ontologies, also designed for interoperation.


General documentation and search and display functions related to UMBEL are available on UMBEL's main website. From that website, you can easily search and browse the ontology. The UMBEL portal is supported by a rich set of APIs and functionality written in Clojure.

Specifications and technical annexes for UMBEL, as well as many other technical papers, are available from