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"""Transform a string with Python-like source code into SymPy expression. """
from __future__ import print_function, division
from tokenize import (generate_tokens, untokenize, TokenError,
NUMBER, STRING, NAME, OP, ENDMARKER, ERRORTOKEN, NEWLINE)
from keyword import iskeyword
import ast
import unicodedata
from sympy.core.compatibility import exec_, StringIO
from sympy.core.basic import Basic
from sympy.core import Symbol
def _token_splittable(token):
"""
Predicate for whether a token name can be split into multiple tokens.
A token is splittable if it does not contain an underscore character and
it is not the name of a Greek letter. This is used to implicitly convert
expressions like 'xyz' into 'x*y*z'.
"""
if '_' in token:
return False
else:
try:
return not unicodedata.lookup('GREEK SMALL LETTER ' + token)
except KeyError:
pass
if len(token) > 1:
return True
return False
def _token_callable(token, local_dict, global_dict, nextToken=None):
"""
Predicate for whether a token name represents a callable function.
Essentially wraps ``callable``, but looks up the token name in the
locals and globals.
"""
func = local_dict.get(token[1])
if not func:
func = global_dict.get(token[1])
return callable(func) and not isinstance(func, Symbol)
def _add_factorial_tokens(name, result):
if result == [] or result[-1][1] == '(':
raise TokenError()
beginning = [(NAME, name), (OP, '(')]
end = [(OP, ')')]
diff = 0
length = len(result)
for index, token in enumerate(result[::-1]):
toknum, tokval = token
i = length - index - 1
if tokval == ')':
diff += 1
elif tokval == '(':
diff -= 1
if diff == 0:
if i - 1 >= 0 and result[i - 1][0] == NAME:
return result[:i - 1] + beginning + result[i - 1:] + end
else:
return result[:i] + beginning + result[i:] + end
return result
class AppliedFunction(object):
"""
A group of tokens representing a function and its arguments.
`exponent` is for handling the shorthand sin^2, ln^2, etc.
"""
def __init__(self, function, args, exponent=None):
if exponent is None:
exponent = []
self.function = function
self.args = args
self.exponent = exponent
self.items = ['function', 'args', 'exponent']
def expand(self):
"""Return a list of tokens representing the function"""
result = []
result.append(self.function)
result.extend(self.args)
return result
def __getitem__(self, index):
return getattr(self, self.items[index])
def __repr__(self):
return "AppliedFunction(%s, %s, %s)" % (self.function, self.args,
self.exponent)
class ParenthesisGroup(list):
"""List of tokens representing an expression in parentheses."""
pass
def _flatten(result):
result2 = []
for tok in result:
if isinstance(tok, AppliedFunction):
result2.extend(tok.expand())
else:
result2.append(tok)
return result2
def _group_parentheses(recursor):
def _inner(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Group tokens between parentheses with ParenthesisGroup.
Also processes those tokens recursively.
"""
result = []
stacks = []
stacklevel = 0
for token in tokens:
if token[0] == OP:
if token[1] == '(':
stacks.append(ParenthesisGroup([]))
stacklevel += 1
elif token[1] == ')':
stacks[-1].append(token)
stack = stacks.pop()
if len(stacks) > 0:
# We don't recurse here since the upper-level stack
# would reprocess these tokens
stacks[-1].extend(stack)
else:
# Recurse here to handle nested parentheses
# Strip off the outer parentheses to avoid an infinite loop
inner = stack[1:-1]
inner = recursor(inner,
local_dict,
global_dict)
parenGroup = [stack[0]] + inner + [stack[-1]]
result.append(ParenthesisGroup(parenGroup))
stacklevel -= 1
continue
if stacklevel:
stacks[-1].append(token)
else:
result.append(token)
if stacklevel:
raise TokenError("Mismatched parentheses")
return result
return _inner
def _apply_functions(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Convert a NAME token + ParenthesisGroup into an AppliedFunction.
Note that ParenthesisGroups, if not applied to any function, are
converted back into lists of tokens.
"""
result = []
symbol = None
for tok in tokens:
if tok[0] == NAME:
symbol = tok
result.append(tok)
elif isinstance(tok, ParenthesisGroup):
if symbol and _token_callable(symbol, local_dict, global_dict):
result[-1] = AppliedFunction(symbol, tok)
symbol = None
else:
result.extend(tok)
else:
symbol = None
result.append(tok)
return result
def _implicit_multiplication(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Implicitly adds '*' tokens.
Cases:
- Two AppliedFunctions next to each other ("sin(x)cos(x)")
- AppliedFunction next to an open parenthesis ("sin x (cos x + 1)")
- A close parenthesis next to an AppliedFunction ("(x+2)sin x")\
- A close parenthesis next to an open parenthesis ("(x+2)(x+3)")
- AppliedFunction next to an implicitly applied function ("sin(x)cos x")
"""
result = []
for tok, nextTok in zip(tokens, tokens[1:]):
result.append(tok)
if (isinstance(tok, AppliedFunction) and
isinstance(nextTok, AppliedFunction)):
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (isinstance(tok, AppliedFunction) and
nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '('):
# Applied function followed by an open parenthesis
if tok.function[1] == "Function":
result[-1].function = (result[-1].function[0], 'Symbol')
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == OP and tok[1] == ')' and
isinstance(nextTok, AppliedFunction)):
# Close parenthesis followed by an applied function
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == OP and tok[1] == ')' and
nextTok[0] == NAME):
# Close parenthesis followed by an implicitly applied function
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == nextTok[0] == OP
and tok[1] == ')' and nextTok[1] == '('):
# Close parenthesis followed by an open parenthesis
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (isinstance(tok, AppliedFunction) and nextTok[0] == NAME):
# Applied function followed by implicitly applied function
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == NAME and
not _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict) and
nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '('):
# Constant followed by parenthesis
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == NAME and
not _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict) and
nextTok[0] == NAME and
not _token_callable(nextTok, local_dict, global_dict)):
# Constant followed by constant
result.append((OP, '*'))
elif (tok[0] == NAME and
not _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict) and
(isinstance(nextTok, AppliedFunction) or nextTok[0] == NAME)):
# Constant followed by (implicitly applied) function
result.append((OP, '*'))
if tokens:
result.append(tokens[-1])
return result
def _implicit_application(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Adds parentheses as needed after functions."""
result = []
appendParen = 0 # number of closing parentheses to add
skip = 0 # number of tokens to delay before adding a ')' (to
# capture **, ^, etc.)
exponentSkip = False # skipping tokens before inserting parentheses to
# work with function exponentiation
for tok, nextTok in zip(tokens, tokens[1:]):
result.append(tok)
if (tok[0] == NAME and nextTok[0] not in [OP, ENDMARKER, NEWLINE]):
if _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict, nextTok):
result.append((OP, '('))
appendParen += 1
# name followed by exponent - function exponentiation
elif (tok[0] == NAME and nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '**'):
if _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict):
exponentSkip = True
elif exponentSkip:
# if the last token added was an applied function (i.e. the
# power of the function exponent) OR a multiplication (as
# implicit multiplication would have added an extraneous
# multiplication)
if (isinstance(tok, AppliedFunction)
or (tok[0] == OP and tok[1] == '*')):
# don't add anything if the next token is a multiplication
# or if there's already a parenthesis (if parenthesis, still
# stop skipping tokens)
if not (nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '*'):
if not(nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '('):
result.append((OP, '('))
appendParen += 1
exponentSkip = False
elif appendParen:
if nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] in ('^', '**', '*'):
skip = 1
continue
if skip:
skip -= 1
continue
result.append((OP, ')'))
appendParen -= 1
if tokens:
result.append(tokens[-1])
if appendParen:
result.extend([(OP, ')')] * appendParen)
return result
def function_exponentiation(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Allows functions to be exponentiated, e.g. ``cos**2(x)``.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr,
... standard_transformations, function_exponentiation)
>>> transformations = standard_transformations + (function_exponentiation,)
>>> parse_expr('sin**4(x)', transformations=transformations)
sin(x)**4
"""
result = []
exponent = []
consuming_exponent = False
level = 0
for tok, nextTok in zip(tokens, tokens[1:]):
if tok[0] == NAME and nextTok[0] == OP and nextTok[1] == '**':
if _token_callable(tok, local_dict, global_dict):
consuming_exponent = True
elif consuming_exponent:
if tok[0] == NAME and tok[1] == 'Function':
tok = (NAME, 'Symbol')
exponent.append(tok)
# only want to stop after hitting )
if tok[0] == nextTok[0] == OP and tok[1] == ')' and nextTok[1] == '(':
consuming_exponent = False
# if implicit multiplication was used, we may have )*( instead
if tok[0] == nextTok[0] == OP and tok[1] == '*' and nextTok[1] == '(':
consuming_exponent = False
del exponent[-1]
continue
elif exponent and not consuming_exponent:
if tok[0] == OP:
if tok[1] == '(':
level += 1
elif tok[1] == ')':
level -= 1
if level == 0:
result.append(tok)
result.extend(exponent)
exponent = []
continue
result.append(tok)
if tokens:
result.append(tokens[-1])
if exponent:
result.extend(exponent)
return result
def split_symbols_custom(predicate):
"""Creates a transformation that splits symbol names.
``predicate`` should return True if the symbol name is to be split.
For instance, to retain the default behavior but avoid splitting certain
symbol names, a predicate like this would work:
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr, _token_splittable,
... standard_transformations, implicit_multiplication,
... split_symbols_custom)
>>> def can_split(symbol):
... if symbol not in ('list', 'of', 'unsplittable', 'names'):
... return _token_splittable(symbol)
... return False
...
>>> transformation = split_symbols_custom(can_split)
>>> parse_expr('unsplittable', transformations=standard_transformations +
... (transformation, implicit_multiplication))
unsplittable
"""
def _split_symbols(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
result = []
split = False
split_previous=False
for tok in tokens:
if split_previous:
# throw out closing parenthesis of Symbol that was split
split_previous=False
continue
split_previous=False
if tok[0] == NAME and tok[1] in ['Symbol', 'Function']:
split = True
elif split and tok[0] == NAME:
symbol = tok[1][1:-1]
if predicate(symbol):
tok_type = result[-2][1] # Symbol or Function
del result[-2:] # Get rid of the call to Symbol
for char in symbol[:-1]:
if char in local_dict or char in global_dict:
result.extend([(NAME, "%s" % char)])
else:
result.extend([(NAME, 'Symbol'), (OP, '('),
(NAME, "'%s'" % char), (OP, ')')])
char = symbol[-1]
if char in local_dict or char in global_dict:
result.extend([(NAME, "%s" % char)])
else:
result.extend([(NAME, tok_type), (OP, '('),
(NAME, "'%s'" % char), (OP, ')')])
# Set split_previous=True so will skip
# the closing parenthesis of the original Symbol
split = False
split_previous = True
continue
else:
split = False
result.append(tok)
return result
return _split_symbols
#: Splits symbol names for implicit multiplication.
#:
#: Intended to let expressions like ``xyz`` be parsed as ``x*y*z``. Does not
#: split Greek character names, so ``theta`` will *not* become
#: ``t*h*e*t*a``. Generally this should be used with
#: ``implicit_multiplication``.
split_symbols = split_symbols_custom(_token_splittable)
def implicit_multiplication(result, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Makes the multiplication operator optional in most cases.
Use this before :func:`implicit_application`, otherwise expressions like
``sin 2x`` will be parsed as ``x * sin(2)`` rather than ``sin(2*x)``.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr,
... standard_transformations, implicit_multiplication)
>>> transformations = standard_transformations + (implicit_multiplication,)
>>> parse_expr('3 x y', transformations=transformations)
3*x*y
"""
# These are interdependent steps, so we don't expose them separately
for step in (_group_parentheses(implicit_multiplication),
_apply_functions,
_implicit_multiplication):
result = step(result, local_dict, global_dict)
result = _flatten(result)
return result
def implicit_application(result, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Makes parentheses optional in some cases for function calls.
Use this after :func:`implicit_multiplication`, otherwise expressions
like ``sin 2x`` will be parsed as ``x * sin(2)`` rather than
``sin(2*x)``.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr,
... standard_transformations, implicit_application)
>>> transformations = standard_transformations + (implicit_application,)
>>> parse_expr('cot z + csc z', transformations=transformations)
cot(z) + csc(z)
"""
for step in (_group_parentheses(implicit_application),
_apply_functions,
_implicit_application,):
result = step(result, local_dict, global_dict)
result = _flatten(result)
return result
def implicit_multiplication_application(result, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Allows a slightly relaxed syntax.
- Parentheses for single-argument method calls are optional.
- Multiplication is implicit.
- Symbol names can be split (i.e. spaces are not needed between
symbols).
- Functions can be exponentiated.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr,
... standard_transformations, implicit_multiplication_application)
>>> parse_expr("10sin**2 x**2 + 3xyz + tan theta",
... transformations=(standard_transformations +
... (implicit_multiplication_application,)))
3*x*y*z + 10*sin(x**2)**2 + tan(theta)
"""
for step in (split_symbols, implicit_multiplication,
implicit_application, function_exponentiation):
result = step(result, local_dict, global_dict)
return result
def auto_symbol(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Inserts calls to ``Symbol``/``Function`` for undefined variables."""
result = []
prevTok = (None, None)
tokens.append((None, None)) # so zip traverses all tokens
for tok, nextTok in zip(tokens, tokens[1:]):
tokNum, tokVal = tok
nextTokNum, nextTokVal = nextTok
if tokNum == NAME:
name = tokVal
if (name in ['True', 'False', 'None']
or iskeyword(name)
# Don't convert attribute access
or (prevTok[0] == OP and prevTok[1] == '.')
# Don't convert keyword arguments
or (prevTok[0] == OP and prevTok[1] in ('(', ',')
and nextTokNum == OP and nextTokVal == '=')):
result.append((NAME, name))
continue
elif name in local_dict:
if isinstance(local_dict[name], Symbol) and nextTokVal == '(':
result.extend([(NAME, 'Function'),
(OP, '('),
(NAME, repr(str(local_dict[name]))),
(OP, ')')])
else:
result.append((NAME, name))
continue
elif name in global_dict:
obj = global_dict[name]
if isinstance(obj, (Basic, type)) or callable(obj):
result.append((NAME, name))
continue
result.extend([
(NAME, 'Symbol' if nextTokVal != '(' else 'Function'),
(OP, '('),
(NAME, repr(str(name))),
(OP, ')'),
])
else:
result.append((tokNum, tokVal))
prevTok = (tokNum, tokVal)
return result
def lambda_notation(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Substitutes "lambda" with its Sympy equivalent Lambda().
However, the conversion doesn't take place if only "lambda"
is passed because that is a syntax error.
"""
result = []
flag = False
toknum, tokval = tokens[0]
tokLen = len(tokens)
if toknum == NAME and tokval == 'lambda':
if tokLen == 2 or tokLen == 3 and tokens[1][0] == NEWLINE:
# In Python 3.6.7+, inputs without a newline get NEWLINE added to
# the tokens
result.extend(tokens)
elif tokLen > 2:
result.extend([
(NAME, 'Lambda'),
(OP, '('),
(OP, '('),
(OP, ')'),
(OP, ')'),
])
for tokNum, tokVal in tokens[1:]:
if tokNum == OP and tokVal == ':':
tokVal = ','
flag = True
if not flag and tokNum == OP and tokVal in ['*', '**']:
raise TokenError("Starred arguments in lambda not supported")
if flag:
result.insert(-1, (tokNum, tokVal))
else:
result.insert(-2, (tokNum, tokVal))
else:
result.extend(tokens)
return result
def factorial_notation(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Allows standard notation for factorial."""
result = []
nfactorial = 0
for toknum, tokval in tokens:
if toknum == ERRORTOKEN:
op = tokval
if op == '!':
nfactorial += 1
else:
nfactorial = 0
result.append((OP, op))
else:
if nfactorial == 1:
result = _add_factorial_tokens('factorial', result)
elif nfactorial == 2:
result = _add_factorial_tokens('factorial2', result)
elif nfactorial > 2:
raise TokenError
nfactorial = 0
result.append((toknum, tokval))
return result
def convert_xor(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Treats XOR, ``^``, as exponentiation, ``**``."""
result = []
for toknum, tokval in tokens:
if toknum == OP:
if tokval == '^':
result.append((OP, '**'))
else:
result.append((toknum, tokval))
else:
result.append((toknum, tokval))
return result
def repeated_decimals(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""
Allows 0.2[1] notation to represent the repeated decimal 0.2111... (19/90)
Run this before auto_number.
"""
result = []
def is_digit(s):
return all(i in '0123456789_' for i in s)
# num will running match any DECIMAL [ INTEGER ]
num = []
for toknum, tokval in tokens:
if toknum == NUMBER:
if (not num and '.' in tokval and 'e' not in tokval.lower() and
'j' not in tokval.lower()):
num.append((toknum, tokval))
elif is_digit(tokval)and len(num) == 2:
num.append((toknum, tokval))
elif is_digit(tokval) and len(num) == 3 and is_digit(num[-1][1]):
# Python 2 tokenizes 00123 as '00', '123'
# Python 3 tokenizes 01289 as '012', '89'
num.append((toknum, tokval))
else:
num = []
elif toknum == OP:
if tokval == '[' and len(num) == 1:
num.append((OP, tokval))
elif tokval == ']' and len(num) >= 3:
num.append((OP, tokval))
elif tokval == '.' and not num:
# handle .[1]
num.append((NUMBER, '0.'))
else:
num = []
else:
num = []
result.append((toknum, tokval))
if num and num[-1][1] == ']':
# pre.post[repetend] = a + b/c + d/e where a = pre, b/c = post,
# and d/e = repetend
result = result[:-len(num)]
pre, post = num[0][1].split('.')
repetend = num[2][1]
if len(num) == 5:
repetend += num[3][1]
pre = pre.replace('_', '')
post = post.replace('_', '')
repetend = repetend.replace('_', '')
zeros = '0'*len(post)
post, repetends = [w.lstrip('0') for w in [post, repetend]]
# or else interpreted as octal
a = pre or '0'
b, c = post or '0', '1' + zeros
d, e = repetends, ('9'*len(repetend)) + zeros
seq = [
(OP, '('),
(NAME, 'Integer'),
(OP, '('),
(NUMBER, a),
(OP, ')'),
(OP, '+'),
(NAME, 'Rational'),
(OP, '('),
(NUMBER, b),
(OP, ','),
(NUMBER, c),
(OP, ')'),
(OP, '+'),
(NAME, 'Rational'),
(OP, '('),
(NUMBER, d),
(OP, ','),
(NUMBER, e),
(OP, ')'),
(OP, ')'),
]
result.extend(seq)
num = []
return result
def auto_number(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""
Converts numeric literals to use SymPy equivalents.
Complex numbers use ``I``, integer literals use ``Integer``, and float
literals use ``Float``.
"""
result = []
for toknum, tokval in tokens:
if toknum == NUMBER:
number = tokval
postfix = []
if number.endswith('j') or number.endswith('J'):
number = number[:-1]
postfix = [(OP, '*'), (NAME, 'I')]
if '.' in number or (('e' in number or 'E' in number) and
not (number.startswith('0x') or number.startswith('0X'))):
seq = [(NAME, 'Float'), (OP, '('),
(NUMBER, repr(str(number))), (OP, ')')]
else:
seq = [(NAME, 'Integer'), (OP, '('), (
NUMBER, number), (OP, ')')]
result.extend(seq + postfix)
else:
result.append((toknum, tokval))
return result
def rationalize(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Converts floats into ``Rational``. Run AFTER ``auto_number``."""
result = []
passed_float = False
for toknum, tokval in tokens:
if toknum == NAME:
if tokval == 'Float':
passed_float = True
tokval = 'Rational'
result.append((toknum, tokval))
elif passed_float == True and toknum == NUMBER:
passed_float = False
result.append((STRING, tokval))
else:
result.append((toknum, tokval))
return result
def _transform_equals_sign(tokens, local_dict, global_dict):
"""Transforms the equals sign ``=`` to instances of Eq.
This is a helper function for `convert_equals_signs`.
Works with expressions containing one equals sign and no
nesting. Expressions like `(1=2)=False` won't work with this
and should be used with `convert_equals_signs`.
Examples: 1=2 to Eq(1,2)
1*2=x to Eq(1*2, x)
This does not deal with function arguments yet.
"""
result = []
if (OP, "=") in tokens:
result.append((NAME, "Eq"))
result.append((OP, "("))
for index, token in enumerate(tokens):
if token == (OP, "="):
result.append((OP, ","))
continue
result.append(token)
result.append((OP, ")"))
else:
result = tokens
return result
def convert_equals_signs(result, local_dict, global_dict):
""" Transforms all the equals signs ``=`` to instances of Eq.
Parses the equals signs in the expression and replaces them with
appropriate Eq instances.Also works with nested equals signs.
Does not yet play well with function arguments.
For example, the expression `(x=y)` is ambiguous and can be interpreted
as x being an argument to a function and `convert_equals_signs` won't
work for this.
See also
========
convert_equality_operators
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import (parse_expr,
... standard_transformations, convert_equals_signs)
>>> parse_expr("1*2=x", transformations=(
... standard_transformations + (convert_equals_signs,)))
Eq(2, x)
>>> parse_expr("(1*2=x)=False", transformations=(
... standard_transformations + (convert_equals_signs,)))
Eq(Eq(2, x), False)
"""
for step in (_group_parentheses(convert_equals_signs),
_apply_functions,
_transform_equals_sign):
result = step(result, local_dict, global_dict)
result = _flatten(result)
return result
#: Standard transformations for :func:`parse_expr`.
#: Inserts calls to :class:`Symbol`, :class:`Integer`, and other SymPy
#: datatypes and allows the use of standard factorial notation (e.g. ``x!``).
standard_transformations = (lambda_notation, auto_symbol, repeated_decimals, auto_number,
factorial_notation)
def stringify_expr(s, local_dict, global_dict, transformations):
"""
Converts the string ``s`` to Python code, in ``local_dict``
Generally, ``parse_expr`` should be used.
"""
tokens = []
input_code = StringIO(s.strip())
for toknum, tokval, _, _, _ in generate_tokens(input_code.readline):
tokens.append((toknum, tokval))
for transform in transformations:
tokens = transform(tokens, local_dict, global_dict)
return untokenize(tokens)
def eval_expr(code, local_dict, global_dict):
"""
Evaluate Python code generated by ``stringify_expr``.
Generally, ``parse_expr`` should be used.
"""
expr = eval(
code, global_dict, local_dict) # take local objects in preference
return expr
def parse_expr(s, local_dict=None, transformations=standard_transformations,
global_dict=None, evaluate=True):
"""Converts the string ``s`` to a SymPy expression, in ``local_dict``
Parameters
==========
s : str
The string to parse.
local_dict : dict, optional
A dictionary of local variables to use when parsing.
global_dict : dict, optional
A dictionary of global variables. By default, this is initialized
with ``from sympy import *``; provide this parameter to override
this behavior (for instance, to parse ``"Q & S"``).
transformations : tuple, optional
A tuple of transformation functions used to modify the tokens of the
parsed expression before evaluation. The default transformations
convert numeric literals into their SymPy equivalents, convert
undefined variables into SymPy symbols, and allow the use of standard
mathematical factorial notation (e.g. ``x!``).
evaluate : bool, optional
When False, the order of the arguments will remain as they were in the
string and automatic simplification that would normally occur is
suppressed. (see examples)
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import parse_expr
>>> parse_expr("1/2")
1/2
>>> type(_)
<class 'sympy.core.numbers.Half'>
>>> from sympy.parsing.sympy_parser import standard_transformations,\\
... implicit_multiplication_application
>>> transformations = (standard_transformations +
... (implicit_multiplication_application,))
>>> parse_expr("2x", transformations=transformations)
2*x
When evaluate=False, some automatic simplifications will not occur:
>>> parse_expr("2**3"), parse_expr("2**3", evaluate=False)
(8, 2**3)
In addition the order of the arguments will not be made canonical.
This feature allows one to tell exactly how the expression was entered:
>>> a = parse_expr('1 + x', evaluate=False)
>>> b = parse_expr('x + 1', evaluate=0)
>>> a == b
False
>>> a.args
(1, x)
>>> b.args
(x, 1)
See Also
========
stringify_expr, eval_expr, standard_transformations,
implicit_multiplication_application
"""
if local_dict is None:
local_dict = {}
if global_dict is None:
global_dict = {}
exec_('from sympy import *', global_dict)
code = stringify_expr(s, local_dict, global_dict, transformations)
if not evaluate:
code = compile(evaluateFalse(code), '<string>', 'eval')
return eval_expr(code, local_dict, global_dict)
def evaluateFalse(s):
"""
Replaces operators with the SymPy equivalent and sets evaluate=False.
"""
node = ast.parse(s)
node = EvaluateFalseTransformer().visit(node)
# node is a Module, we want an Expression
node = ast.Expression(node.body[0].value)
return ast.fix_missing_locations(node)
class EvaluateFalseTransformer(ast.NodeTransformer):
operators = {
ast.Add: 'Add',
ast.Mult: 'Mul',
ast.Pow: 'Pow',
ast.Sub: 'Add',
ast.Div: 'Mul',
ast.BitOr: 'Or',
ast.BitAnd: 'And',
ast.BitXor: 'Not',
}
def flatten(self, args, func):
result = []
for arg in args:
if isinstance(arg, ast.Call) and arg.func.id == func:
result.extend(self.flatten(arg.args, func))
else:
result.append(arg)
return result
def visit_BinOp(self, node):
if node.op.__class__ in self.operators:
sympy_class = self.operators[node.op.__class__]
right = self.visit(node.right)
left = self.visit(node.left)
if isinstance(node.left, ast.UnaryOp) and (isinstance(node.right, ast.UnaryOp) == 0) and sympy_class in ('Mul',):
left, right = right, left
if isinstance(node.op, ast.Sub):
right = ast.Call(
func=ast.Name(id='Mul', ctx=ast.Load()),
args=[ast.UnaryOp(op=ast.USub(), operand=ast.Num(1)), right],
keywords=[ast.keyword(arg='evaluate', value=ast.Name(id='False', ctx=ast.Load()))],
starargs=None,
kwargs=None
)
if isinstance(node.op, ast.Div):
if isinstance(node.left, ast.UnaryOp):
if isinstance(node.right,ast.UnaryOp):
left, right = right, left
left = ast.Call(
func=ast.Name(id='Pow', ctx=ast.Load()),
args=[left, ast.UnaryOp(op=ast.USub(), operand=ast.Num(1))],
keywords=[ast.keyword(arg='evaluate', value=ast.Name(id='False', ctx=ast.Load()))],
starargs=None,
kwargs=None
)
else:
right = ast.Call(
func=ast.Name(id='Pow', ctx=ast.Load()),
args=[right, ast.UnaryOp(op=ast.USub(), operand=ast.Num(1))],
keywords=[ast.keyword(arg='evaluate', value=ast.Name(id='False', ctx=ast.Load()))],
starargs=None,
kwargs=None
)
new_node = ast.Call(
func=ast.Name(id=sympy_class, ctx=ast.Load()),
args=[left, right],
keywords=[ast.keyword(arg='evaluate', value=ast.Name(id='False', ctx=ast.Load()))],
starargs=None,
kwargs=None
)
if sympy_class in ('Add', 'Mul'):
# Denest Add or Mul as appropriate
new_node.args = self.flatten(new_node.args, sympy_class)
return new_node
return node