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There are number of decisions which could be made differently. This document attempts to catalog them along with the rationales for the choices currently made.


The method in this proposal is named fromEntries. There already exists Array.from, and there is a proposal to add {Set, Map, WeakSet, WeakMap}.from; it could be argued that the method in this proposal should therefore be named .from for consistency.

However, this is less of a "canonical" way of constructing objects than those methods are or would be, especially since this method does not provide for defining non-data properties or setting a prototype. As such, fromEntries was chosen instead, to match Object.entries.

Issue: #7.


This proposal adds a static method to Object. In principle the same functionality could be provided by a similar function elsewhere, e.g. Array.prototype.toObject.

This proposal instead chooses consistency with Object.entries and Array.from.


This proposal coerces the first entry in the list of pairs to a property key using the ToPropertyKey abstract operation.

This is consistent with other methds of creating or assigning to properties on objects.

Symbol keys

Object.entries does not report Symbol-keyed entries, but this proposal allows their creation (for example, let prop = Symbol(); let obj = Object.fromEntries([[prop, 0]]); console.log(obj[prop]); will report 0). This means that Object.entries(Object.fromEntries(arr)) may yield an array with fewer elements than arr.

However, fromEntries is strictly more useful this way, and any other behavior would probably be more surprising.

Issue: #5.

List of records vs list of iterables

fromEntries expects the key-value pairs yielded by its argument to be objects with keys "0" and "1" which give the key and value respectively, rather than being iterables whose first and second items give the key and value respectively.

This was chosen for consistency with the Map constructor, which takes a list of entires in precisely the same way (except that it does not coerce keys with ToPropertyKey).

In the common case of arrays as this behavior is equivalent unless someone has overridden Array.prototype[@@iterator].

Requirement that records be objects

This proposal throws if the iterator yields a value which is not an object (that is, an x such that Object(x) !== x). This means that, for example, yielding a length-2 string will not work, even though the later steps which access the "0" and "1" properties would succeed and then use the first and second character of the string as the key and value respectively of a property on the resulting object.

This is consistent with the Map constructor.

Iterable or array-like

This proposal requires its first argument to be an iterable, not an "array-like" (an object with a number-valued length property and possibly number-keyed properties). This means that passing, for example, an arguments object will cause this method to throw (assuming no one has defined Object.prototype[@@iterator]). This is inconsistent with Array.from, which accepts "array-likes".

However, the behavior of Array.from is very specifically intended for the conversion of array-likes, and does not need to be copied elsewhere.

Issue: #9.

Non-optionality of argument

This proposal's first argument is not optional, meaning a TypeError is thrown if it's not provided.

This is unlike the Map constructor but like Array.from and most other uses of the iteration protocol. The Map constructor is also used to construct new empty Maps, whereas this is not the preferred way of constructing new empty objects.

Issue: #6.

Evaluation order

This proposal chooses to get the value from the entry record before coercing the key with ToPropertyKey. This matters because both of these steps are observable.

This is somewhat arbitrary, but is consistent with regular assignment: ({}[{ toString(){ console.log(2); return ''; } }] = console.log(1)) prints 1, 2.

Prototype of new object

This proposal does not allow specifying the prototype of the resulting object.

However, Object.assign(Object.create(proto), Object.fromEntries(entries)) can be used for the same effect (modulo [[Set]] vs [[DefineOwnProperty]] differences).

Issue: #13.

Non-data properties

This proposal does not allow the creation of non-data properties, for example from a list of key-property descriptor pairs.

However, given such a list, Object.defineProperties({}, Object.fromEntries(list)) can be used for the same effect.

Installation of properties on existing object

This proposal does not allow installing properties on an existing object.

However, Object.assign(obj, Object.fromEntries(entries)) can be used for the same effect (modulo [[Set]] vs [[DefineOwnProperty]] differences).

[[Set]] vs [[DefineOwnProperty]]

This proposal uses defineOwnProperty semantics to install properties on the newly-created object.

This is consistent with Object.create and Array.from, and avoids triggering setters on Object.prototype.

Issue: #2.

Duplicate keys

This proposal does not explicitly handle duplicate keys, with the result that later occurrences of a given key will take precedence over earlier ones.

This is consistent with the Map constructor.

Mapping function

Array.from allows specifying a mapping function; this proposal does not.

The mapping function on Array.from is more necessary because of Array.from's use for converting arbitrary iterables to arrays.