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# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""A simple template system that compiles templates to Python code.
Basic usage looks like::
t = template.Template("<html>{{ myvalue }}</html>")
`Loader` is a class that loads templates from a root directory and caches
the compiled templates::
loader = template.Loader("/home/btaylor")
We compile all templates to raw Python. Error-reporting is currently... uh,
interesting. Syntax for the templates::
### base.html
<title>{% block title %}Default title{% end %}</title>
{% for student in students %}
{% block student %}
<li>{{ escape( }}</li>
{% end %}
{% end %}
### bold.html
{% extends "base.html" %}
{% block title %}A bolder title{% end %}
{% block student %}
<li><span style="bold">{{ escape( }}</span></li>
{% end %}
Unlike most other template systems, we do not put any restrictions on the
expressions you can include in your statements. ``if`` and ``for`` blocks get
translated exactly into Python, so you can do complex expressions like::
{% for student in [p for p in people if p.student and p.age > 23] %}
<li>{{ escape( }}</li>
{% end %}
Translating directly to Python means you can apply functions to expressions
easily, like the ``escape()`` function in the examples above. You can pass
functions in to your template just like any other variable
(In a `.RequestHandler`, override `.RequestHandler.get_template_namespace`)::
### Python code
def add(x, y):
return x + y
### The template
{{ add(1, 2) }}
We provide the functions `escape() <.xhtml_escape>`, `.url_escape()`,
`.json_encode()`, and `.squeeze()` to all templates by default.
Typical applications do not create `Template` or `Loader` instances by
hand, but instead use the `~.RequestHandler.render` and
`~.RequestHandler.render_string` methods of
`tornado.web.RequestHandler`, which load templates automatically based
on the ``template_path`` `.Application` setting.
Variable names beginning with ``_tt_`` are reserved by the template
system and should not be used by application code.
Syntax Reference
Template expressions are surrounded by double curly braces: ``{{ ... }}``.
The contents may be any python expression, which will be escaped according
to the current autoescape setting and inserted into the output. Other
template directives use ``{% %}``.
To comment out a section so that it is omitted from the output, surround it
with ``{# ... #}``.
These tags may be escaped as ``{{!``, ``{%!``, and ``{#!``
if you need to include a literal ``{{``, ``{%``, or ``{#`` in the output.
``{% apply *function* %}...{% end %}``
Applies a function to the output of all template code between ``apply``
and ``end``::
{% apply linkify %}{{name}} said: {{message}}{% end %}
Note that as an implementation detail apply blocks are implemented
as nested functions and thus may interact strangely with variables
set via ``{% set %}``, or the use of ``{% break %}`` or ``{% continue %}``
within loops.
``{% autoescape *function* %}``
Sets the autoescape mode for the current file. This does not affect
other files, even those referenced by ``{% include %}``. Note that
autoescaping can also be configured globally, at the `.Application`
or `Loader`.::
{% autoescape xhtml_escape %}
{% autoescape None %}
``{% block *name* %}...{% end %}``
Indicates a named, replaceable block for use with ``{% extends %}``.
Blocks in the parent template will be replaced with the contents of
the same-named block in a child template.::
<!-- base.html -->
<title>{% block title %}Default title{% end %}</title>
<!-- mypage.html -->
{% extends "base.html" %}
{% block title %}My page title{% end %}
``{% comment ... %}``
A comment which will be removed from the template output. Note that
there is no ``{% end %}`` tag; the comment goes from the word ``comment``
to the closing ``%}`` tag.
``{% extends *filename* %}``
Inherit from another template. Templates that use ``extends`` should
contain one or more ``block`` tags to replace content from the parent
template. Anything in the child template not contained in a ``block``
tag will be ignored. For an example, see the ``{% block %}`` tag.
``{% for *var* in *expr* %}...{% end %}``
Same as the python ``for`` statement. ``{% break %}`` and
``{% continue %}`` may be used inside the loop.
``{% from *x* import *y* %}``
Same as the python ``import`` statement.
``{% if *condition* %}...{% elif *condition* %}...{% else %}...{% end %}``
Conditional statement - outputs the first section whose condition is
true. (The ``elif`` and ``else`` sections are optional)
``{% import *module* %}``
Same as the python ``import`` statement.
``{% include *filename* %}``
Includes another template file. The included file can see all the local
variables as if it were copied directly to the point of the ``include``
directive (the ``{% autoescape %}`` directive is an exception).
Alternately, ``{% module Template(filename, **kwargs) %}`` may be used
to include another template with an isolated namespace.
``{% module *expr* %}``
Renders a `~tornado.web.UIModule`. The output of the ``UIModule`` is
not escaped::
{% module Template("foo.html", arg=42) %}
``UIModules`` are a feature of the `tornado.web.RequestHandler`
class (and specifically its ``render`` method) and will not work
when the template system is used on its own in other contexts.
``{% raw *expr* %}``
Outputs the result of the given expression without autoescaping.
``{% set *x* = *y* %}``
Sets a local variable.
``{% try %}...{% except %}...{% else %}...{% finally %}...{% end %}``
Same as the python ``try`` statement.
``{% while *condition* %}... {% end %}``
Same as the python ``while`` statement. ``{% break %}`` and
``{% continue %}`` may be used inside the loop.
``{% whitespace *mode* %}``
Sets the whitespace mode for the remainder of the current file
(or until the next ``{% whitespace %}`` directive). See
`filter_whitespace` for available options. New in Tornado 4.3.
import datetime
from io import StringIO
import linecache
import os.path
import posixpath
import re
import threading
from tornado import escape
from tornado.log import app_log
from tornado.util import ObjectDict, exec_in, unicode_type
from typing import Any, Union, Callable, List, Dict, Iterable, Optional, TextIO
import typing
if typing.TYPE_CHECKING:
from typing import Tuple, ContextManager # noqa: F401
_DEFAULT_AUTOESCAPE = "xhtml_escape"
class _UnsetMarker:
_UNSET = _UnsetMarker()
def filter_whitespace(mode: str, text: str) -> str:
"""Transform whitespace in ``text`` according to ``mode``.
Available modes are:
* ``all``: Return all whitespace unmodified.
* ``single``: Collapse consecutive whitespace with a single whitespace
character, preserving newlines.
* ``oneline``: Collapse all runs of whitespace into a single space
character, removing all newlines in the process.
.. versionadded:: 4.3
if mode == "all":
return text
elif mode == "single":
text = re.sub(r"([\t ]+)", " ", text)
text = re.sub(r"(\s*\n\s*)", "\n", text)
return text
elif mode == "oneline":
return re.sub(r"(\s+)", " ", text)
raise Exception("invalid whitespace mode %s" % mode)
class Template(object):
"""A compiled template.
We compile into Python from the given template_string. You can generate
the template from variables with generate().
# note that the constructor's signature is not extracted with
# autodoc because _UNSET looks like garbage. When changing
# this signature update website/sphinx/template.rst too.
def __init__(
template_string: Union[str, bytes],
name: str = "<string>",
loader: Optional["BaseLoader"] = None,
compress_whitespace: Union[bool, _UnsetMarker] = _UNSET,
autoescape: Optional[Union[str, _UnsetMarker]] = _UNSET,
whitespace: Optional[str] = None,
) -> None:
"""Construct a Template.
:arg str template_string: the contents of the template file.
:arg str name: the filename from which the template was loaded
(used for error message).
:arg tornado.template.BaseLoader loader: the `~tornado.template.BaseLoader` responsible
for this template, used to resolve ``{% include %}`` and ``{% extend %}`` directives.
:arg bool compress_whitespace: Deprecated since Tornado 4.3.
Equivalent to ``whitespace="single"`` if true and
``whitespace="all"`` if false.
:arg str autoescape: The name of a function in the template
namespace, or ``None`` to disable escaping by default.
:arg str whitespace: A string specifying treatment of whitespace;
see `filter_whitespace` for options.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Added ``whitespace`` parameter; deprecated ``compress_whitespace``.
""" = escape.native_str(name)
if compress_whitespace is not _UNSET:
# Convert deprecated compress_whitespace (bool) to whitespace (str).
if whitespace is not None:
raise Exception("cannot set both whitespace and compress_whitespace")
whitespace = "single" if compress_whitespace else "all"
if whitespace is None:
if loader and loader.whitespace:
whitespace = loader.whitespace
# Whitespace defaults by filename.
if name.endswith(".html") or name.endswith(".js"):
whitespace = "single"
whitespace = "all"
# Validate the whitespace setting.
assert whitespace is not None
filter_whitespace(whitespace, "")
if not isinstance(autoescape, _UnsetMarker):
self.autoescape = autoescape # type: Optional[str]
elif loader:
self.autoescape = loader.autoescape
self.autoescape = _DEFAULT_AUTOESCAPE
self.namespace = loader.namespace if loader else {}
reader = _TemplateReader(name, escape.native_str(template_string), whitespace)
self.file = _File(self, _parse(reader, self))
self.code = self._generate_python(loader)
self.loader = loader
# Under python2.5, the fake filename used here must match
# the module name used in __name__ below.
# The dont_inherit flag prevents's future imports
# from being applied to the generated code.
self.compiled = compile(
"" %".", "_"),
except Exception:
formatted_code = _format_code(self.code).rstrip()
app_log.error("%s code:\n%s",, formatted_code)
def generate(self, **kwargs: Any) -> bytes:
"""Generate this template with the given arguments."""
namespace = {
"escape": escape.xhtml_escape,
"xhtml_escape": escape.xhtml_escape,
"url_escape": escape.url_escape,
"json_encode": escape.json_encode,
"squeeze": escape.squeeze,
"linkify": escape.linkify,
"datetime": datetime,
"_tt_utf8": escape.utf8, # for internal use
"_tt_string_types": (unicode_type, bytes),
# __name__ and __loader__ allow the traceback mechanism to find
# the generated source code.
"__name__":".", "_"),
"__loader__": ObjectDict(get_source=lambda name: self.code),
exec_in(self.compiled, namespace)
execute = typing.cast(Callable[[], bytes], namespace["_tt_execute"])
# Clear the traceback module's cache of source data now that
# we've generated a new template (mainly for this module's
# unittests, where different tests reuse the same name).
return execute()
def _generate_python(self, loader: Optional["BaseLoader"]) -> str:
buffer = StringIO()
# named_blocks maps from names to _NamedBlock objects
named_blocks = {} # type: Dict[str, _NamedBlock]
ancestors = self._get_ancestors(loader)
for ancestor in ancestors:
ancestor.find_named_blocks(loader, named_blocks)
writer = _CodeWriter(buffer, named_blocks, loader, ancestors[0].template)
return buffer.getvalue()
def _get_ancestors(self, loader: Optional["BaseLoader"]) -> List["_File"]:
ancestors = [self.file]
for chunk in self.file.body.chunks:
if isinstance(chunk, _ExtendsBlock):
if not loader:
raise ParseError(
"{% extends %} block found, but no " "template loader"
template = loader.load(,
return ancestors
class BaseLoader(object):
"""Base class for template loaders.
You must use a template loader to use template constructs like
``{% extends %}`` and ``{% include %}``. The loader caches all
templates after they are loaded the first time.
def __init__(
autoescape: str = _DEFAULT_AUTOESCAPE,
namespace: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None,
whitespace: Optional[str] = None,
) -> None:
"""Construct a template loader.
:arg str autoescape: The name of a function in the template
namespace, such as "xhtml_escape", or ``None`` to disable
autoescaping by default.
:arg dict namespace: A dictionary to be added to the default template
namespace, or ``None``.
:arg str whitespace: A string specifying default behavior for
whitespace in templates; see `filter_whitespace` for options.
Default is "single" for files ending in ".html" and ".js" and
"all" for other files.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Added ``whitespace`` parameter.
self.autoescape = autoescape
self.namespace = namespace or {}
self.whitespace = whitespace
self.templates = {} # type: Dict[str, Template]
# self.lock protects self.templates. It's a reentrant lock
# because templates may load other templates via `include` or
# `extends`. Note that thanks to the GIL this code would be safe
# even without the lock, but could lead to wasted work as multiple
# threads tried to compile the same template simultaneously.
self.lock = threading.RLock()
def reset(self) -> None:
"""Resets the cache of compiled templates."""
with self.lock:
self.templates = {}
def resolve_path(self, name: str, parent_path: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
"""Converts a possibly-relative path to absolute (used internally)."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def load(self, name: str, parent_path: Optional[str] = None) -> Template:
"""Loads a template."""
name = self.resolve_path(name, parent_path=parent_path)
with self.lock:
if name not in self.templates:
self.templates[name] = self._create_template(name)
return self.templates[name]
def _create_template(self, name: str) -> Template:
raise NotImplementedError()
class Loader(BaseLoader):
"""A template loader that loads from a single root directory.
def __init__(self, root_directory: str, **kwargs: Any) -> None:
super(Loader, self).__init__(**kwargs)
self.root = os.path.abspath(root_directory)
def resolve_path(self, name: str, parent_path: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
if (
and not parent_path.startswith("<")
and not parent_path.startswith("/")
and not name.startswith("/")
current_path = os.path.join(self.root, parent_path)
file_dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(current_path))
relative_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(file_dir, name))
if relative_path.startswith(self.root):
name = relative_path[len(self.root) + 1 :]
return name
def _create_template(self, name: str) -> Template:
path = os.path.join(self.root, name)
with open(path, "rb") as f:
template = Template(, name=name, loader=self)
return template
class DictLoader(BaseLoader):
"""A template loader that loads from a dictionary."""
def __init__(self, dict: Dict[str, str], **kwargs: Any) -> None:
super(DictLoader, self).__init__(**kwargs)
self.dict = dict
def resolve_path(self, name: str, parent_path: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
if (
and not parent_path.startswith("<")
and not parent_path.startswith("/")
and not name.startswith("/")
file_dir = posixpath.dirname(parent_path)
name = posixpath.normpath(posixpath.join(file_dir, name))
return name
def _create_template(self, name: str) -> Template:
return Template(self.dict[name], name=name, loader=self)
class _Node(object):
def each_child(self) -> Iterable["_Node"]:
return ()
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
raise NotImplementedError()
def find_named_blocks(
self, loader: Optional[BaseLoader], named_blocks: Dict[str, "_NamedBlock"]
) -> None:
for child in self.each_child():
child.find_named_blocks(loader, named_blocks)
class _File(_Node):
def __init__(self, template: Template, body: "_ChunkList") -> None:
self.template = template
self.body = body
self.line = 0
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
writer.write_line("def _tt_execute():", self.line)
with writer.indent():
writer.write_line("_tt_buffer = []", self.line)
writer.write_line("_tt_append = _tt_buffer.append", self.line)
writer.write_line("return _tt_utf8('').join(_tt_buffer)", self.line)
def each_child(self) -> Iterable["_Node"]:
return (self.body,)
class _ChunkList(_Node):
def __init__(self, chunks: List[_Node]) -> None:
self.chunks = chunks
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
for chunk in self.chunks:
def each_child(self) -> Iterable["_Node"]:
return self.chunks
class _NamedBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, name: str, body: _Node, template: Template, line: int) -> None: = name
self.body = body
self.template = template
self.line = line
def each_child(self) -> Iterable["_Node"]:
return (self.body,)
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
block = writer.named_blocks[]
with writer.include(block.template, self.line):
def find_named_blocks(
self, loader: Optional[BaseLoader], named_blocks: Dict[str, "_NamedBlock"]
) -> None:
named_blocks[] = self
_Node.find_named_blocks(self, loader, named_blocks)
class _ExtendsBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, name: str) -> None: = name
class _IncludeBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, name: str, reader: "_TemplateReader", line: int) -> None: = name
self.template_name =
self.line = line
def find_named_blocks(
self, loader: Optional[BaseLoader], named_blocks: Dict[str, _NamedBlock]
) -> None:
assert loader is not None
included = loader.load(, self.template_name)
included.file.find_named_blocks(loader, named_blocks)
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
assert writer.loader is not None
included = writer.loader.load(, self.template_name)
with writer.include(included, self.line):
class _ApplyBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, method: str, line: int, body: _Node) -> None:
self.method = method
self.line = line
self.body = body
def each_child(self) -> Iterable["_Node"]:
return (self.body,)
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
method_name = "_tt_apply%d" % writer.apply_counter
writer.apply_counter += 1
writer.write_line("def %s():" % method_name, self.line)
with writer.indent():
writer.write_line("_tt_buffer = []", self.line)
writer.write_line("_tt_append = _tt_buffer.append", self.line)
writer.write_line("return _tt_utf8('').join(_tt_buffer)", self.line)
"_tt_append(_tt_utf8(%s(%s())))" % (self.method, method_name), self.line
class _ControlBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, statement: str, line: int, body: _Node) -> None:
self.statement = statement
self.line = line
self.body = body
def each_child(self) -> Iterable[_Node]:
return (self.body,)
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
writer.write_line("%s:" % self.statement, self.line)
with writer.indent():
# Just in case the body was empty
writer.write_line("pass", self.line)
class _IntermediateControlBlock(_Node):
def __init__(self, statement: str, line: int) -> None:
self.statement = statement
self.line = line
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
# In case the previous block was empty
writer.write_line("pass", self.line)
writer.write_line("%s:" % self.statement, self.line, writer.indent_size() - 1)
class _Statement(_Node):
def __init__(self, statement: str, line: int) -> None:
self.statement = statement
self.line = line
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
writer.write_line(self.statement, self.line)
class _Expression(_Node):
def __init__(self, expression: str, line: int, raw: bool = False) -> None:
self.expression = expression
self.line = line
self.raw = raw
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
writer.write_line("_tt_tmp = %s" % self.expression, self.line)
"if isinstance(_tt_tmp, _tt_string_types):" " _tt_tmp = _tt_utf8(_tt_tmp)",
writer.write_line("else: _tt_tmp = _tt_utf8(str(_tt_tmp))", self.line)
if not self.raw and writer.current_template.autoescape is not None:
# In python3 functions like xhtml_escape return unicode,
# so we have to convert to utf8 again.
"_tt_tmp = _tt_utf8(%s(_tt_tmp))" % writer.current_template.autoescape,
writer.write_line("_tt_append(_tt_tmp)", self.line)
class _Module(_Expression):
def __init__(self, expression: str, line: int) -> None:
super(_Module, self).__init__("_tt_modules." + expression, line, raw=True)
class _Text(_Node):
def __init__(self, value: str, line: int, whitespace: str) -> None:
self.value = value
self.line = line
self.whitespace = whitespace
def generate(self, writer: "_CodeWriter") -> None:
value = self.value
# Compress whitespace if requested, with a crude heuristic to avoid
# altering preformatted whitespace.
if "<pre>" not in value:
value = filter_whitespace(self.whitespace, value)
if value:
writer.write_line("_tt_append(%r)" % escape.utf8(value), self.line)
class ParseError(Exception):
"""Raised for template syntax errors.
``ParseError`` instances have ``filename`` and ``lineno`` attributes
indicating the position of the error.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Added ``filename`` and ``lineno`` attributes.
def __init__(
self, message: str, filename: Optional[str] = None, lineno: int = 0
) -> None:
self.message = message
# The names "filename" and "lineno" are chosen for consistency
# with python SyntaxError.
self.filename = filename
self.lineno = lineno
def __str__(self) -> str:
return "%s at %s:%d" % (self.message, self.filename, self.lineno)
class _CodeWriter(object):
def __init__(
file: TextIO,
named_blocks: Dict[str, _NamedBlock],
loader: Optional[BaseLoader],
current_template: Template,
) -> None:
self.file = file
self.named_blocks = named_blocks
self.loader = loader
self.current_template = current_template
self.apply_counter = 0
self.include_stack = [] # type: List[Tuple[Template, int]]
self._indent = 0
def indent_size(self) -> int:
return self._indent
def indent(self) -> "ContextManager":
class Indenter(object):
def __enter__(_) -> "_CodeWriter":
self._indent += 1
return self
def __exit__(_, *args: Any) -> None:
assert self._indent > 0
self._indent -= 1
return Indenter()
def include(self, template: Template, line: int) -> "ContextManager":
self.include_stack.append((self.current_template, line))
self.current_template = template
class IncludeTemplate(object):
def __enter__(_) -> "_CodeWriter":
return self
def __exit__(_, *args: Any) -> None:
self.current_template = self.include_stack.pop()[0]
return IncludeTemplate()
def write_line(
self, line: str, line_number: int, indent: Optional[int] = None
) -> None:
if indent is None:
indent = self._indent
line_comment = " # %s:%d" % (, line_number)
if self.include_stack:
ancestors = [
"%s:%d" % (, lineno) for (tmpl, lineno) in self.include_stack
line_comment += " (via %s)" % ", ".join(reversed(ancestors))
print(" " * indent + line + line_comment, file=self.file)
class _TemplateReader(object):
def __init__(self, name: str, text: str, whitespace: str) -> None: = name
self.text = text
self.whitespace = whitespace
self.line = 1
self.pos = 0
def find(self, needle: str, start: int = 0, end: Optional[int] = None) -> int:
assert start >= 0, start
pos = self.pos
start += pos
if end is None:
index = self.text.find(needle, start)
end += pos
assert end >= start
index = self.text.find(needle, start, end)
if index != -1:
index -= pos
return index
def consume(self, count: Optional[int] = None) -> str:
if count is None:
count = len(self.text) - self.pos
newpos = self.pos + count
self.line += self.text.count("\n", self.pos, newpos)
s = self.text[self.pos : newpos]
self.pos = newpos
return s
def remaining(self) -> int:
return len(self.text) - self.pos
def __len__(self) -> int:
return self.remaining()
def __getitem__(self, key: Union[int, slice]) -> str:
if isinstance(key, slice):
size = len(self)
start, stop, step = key.indices(size)
if start is None:
start = self.pos
start += self.pos
if stop is not None:
stop += self.pos
return self.text[slice(start, stop, step)]
elif key < 0:
return self.text[key]
return self.text[self.pos + key]
def __str__(self) -> str:
return self.text[self.pos :]
def raise_parse_error(self, msg: str) -> None:
raise ParseError(msg,, self.line)
def _format_code(code: str) -> str:
lines = code.splitlines()
format = "%%%dd %%s\n" % len(repr(len(lines) + 1))
return "".join([format % (i + 1, line) for (i, line) in enumerate(lines)])
def _parse(
reader: _TemplateReader,
template: Template,
in_block: Optional[str] = None,
in_loop: Optional[str] = None,
) -> _ChunkList:
body = _ChunkList([])
while True:
# Find next template directive
curly = 0
while True:
curly = reader.find("{", curly)
if curly == -1 or curly + 1 == reader.remaining():
if in_block:
"Missing {%% end %%} block for %s" % in_block
_Text(reader.consume(), reader.line, reader.whitespace)
return body
# If the first curly brace is not the start of a special token,
# start searching from the character after it
if reader[curly + 1] not in ("{", "%", "#"):
curly += 1
# When there are more than 2 curlies in a row, use the
# innermost ones. This is useful when generating languages
# like latex where curlies are also meaningful
if (
curly + 2 < reader.remaining()
and reader[curly + 1] == "{"
and reader[curly + 2] == "{"
curly += 1
# Append any text before the special token
if curly > 0:
cons = reader.consume(curly)
body.chunks.append(_Text(cons, reader.line, reader.whitespace))
start_brace = reader.consume(2)
line = reader.line
# Template directives may be escaped as "{{!" or "{%!".
# In this case output the braces and consume the "!".
# This is especially useful in conjunction with jquery templates,
# which also use double braces.
if reader.remaining() and reader[0] == "!":
body.chunks.append(_Text(start_brace, line, reader.whitespace))
# Comment
if start_brace == "{#":
end = reader.find("#}")
if end == -1:
reader.raise_parse_error("Missing end comment #}")
contents = reader.consume(end).strip()
# Expression
if start_brace == "{{":
end = reader.find("}}")
if end == -1:
reader.raise_parse_error("Missing end expression }}")
contents = reader.consume(end).strip()
if not contents:
reader.raise_parse_error("Empty expression")
body.chunks.append(_Expression(contents, line))
# Block
assert start_brace == "{%", start_brace
end = reader.find("%}")
if end == -1:
reader.raise_parse_error("Missing end block %}")
contents = reader.consume(end).strip()
if not contents:
reader.raise_parse_error("Empty block tag ({% %})")
operator, space, suffix = contents.partition(" ")
suffix = suffix.strip()
# Intermediate ("else", "elif", etc) blocks
intermediate_blocks = {
"else": set(["if", "for", "while", "try"]),
"elif": set(["if"]),
"except": set(["try"]),
"finally": set(["try"]),
allowed_parents = intermediate_blocks.get(operator)
if allowed_parents is not None:
if not in_block:
"%s outside %s block" % (operator, allowed_parents)
if in_block not in allowed_parents:
"%s block cannot be attached to %s block" % (operator, in_block)
body.chunks.append(_IntermediateControlBlock(contents, line))
# End tag
elif operator == "end":
if not in_block:
reader.raise_parse_error("Extra {% end %} block")
return body
elif operator in (
if operator == "comment":
if operator == "extends":
suffix = suffix.strip('"').strip("'")
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("extends missing file path")
block = _ExtendsBlock(suffix) # type: _Node
elif operator in ("import", "from"):
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("import missing statement")
block = _Statement(contents, line)
elif operator == "include":
suffix = suffix.strip('"').strip("'")
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("include missing file path")
block = _IncludeBlock(suffix, reader, line)
elif operator == "set":
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("set missing statement")
block = _Statement(suffix, line)
elif operator == "autoescape":
fn = suffix.strip() # type: Optional[str]
if fn == "None":
fn = None
template.autoescape = fn
elif operator == "whitespace":
mode = suffix.strip()
# Validate the selected mode
filter_whitespace(mode, "")
reader.whitespace = mode
elif operator == "raw":
block = _Expression(suffix, line, raw=True)
elif operator == "module":
block = _Module(suffix, line)
elif operator in ("apply", "block", "try", "if", "for", "while"):
# parse inner body recursively
if operator in ("for", "while"):
block_body = _parse(reader, template, operator, operator)
elif operator == "apply":
# apply creates a nested function so syntactically it's not
# in the loop.
block_body = _parse(reader, template, operator, None)
block_body = _parse(reader, template, operator, in_loop)
if operator == "apply":
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("apply missing method name")
block = _ApplyBlock(suffix, line, block_body)
elif operator == "block":
if not suffix:
reader.raise_parse_error("block missing name")
block = _NamedBlock(suffix, block_body, template, line)
block = _ControlBlock(contents, line, block_body)
elif operator in ("break", "continue"):
if not in_loop:
"%s outside %s block" % (operator, set(["for", "while"]))
body.chunks.append(_Statement(contents, line))
reader.raise_parse_error("unknown operator: %r" % operator)
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