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<header>
<title>Techniques for <abbr expansion="Web Content Accessibility Guidelines">WCAG</abbr> 2.0</title>
<subtitle>Techniques and Failures for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0</subtitle>
<w3c-designation>WCAG20-TECHS</w3c-designation>
<w3c-doctype>W3C Working Group Note</w3c-doctype>
<pubdate>
<day>13</day>
<month>September</month>
<year>2016</year>
</pubdate>
<publoc>
<loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2016/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20160913/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2016/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20160913/</loc>
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</publoc>
<altlocs>
<loc href="complete.html">Single file version</loc>
<loc href="complete-diff.html">Single file diff-marked version showing revisions since 17 March 2015</loc>
<loc href="/WAI/WCAG20/versions/techniques/">Alternate Versions of Techniques for WCAG 2.0</loc>
</altlocs>
<latestloc>
<loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/">http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/</loc>
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<prevlocs>
<loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2016/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20160317/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2016/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20160317/</loc>
<!--<loc href="https://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/2016/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20160105/">https://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/2016/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20160105/</loc>-->
</prevlocs>
<authlist>
<author role="current">
<name>Michael Cooper</name>
<affiliation>W3C</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="current">
<name>Andrew Kirkpatrick</name>
<affiliation>Adobe Systems Inc.</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="current">
<name>Joshue O Connor</name>
<affiliation>InterAccess</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="past">
<name>Loretta Guarino Reid</name>
<affiliation>(until May 2013 while at Google, Inc.)</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="past">
<name>Gregg Vanderheiden</name>
<affiliation>(until May 2013 while at Trace R&amp;D Center, University of
Wisconsin-Madison)</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="past">
<name>Ben Caldwell</name>
<affiliation>(until September 2010 while at Trace R&amp;D Center, University of
Wisconsin-Madison)</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="past">
<name>Wendy Chisholm</name>
<affiliation>(until July 2006 while at W3C)</affiliation>
</author>
<author role="past">
<name>John Slatin</name>
<affiliation>(until June 2006 while at Accessibility Institute, University of Texas at
Austin)</affiliation>
</author>
</authlist>
<status>
<p><emph>This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">W3C technical reports index</loc> at <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/">http://www.w3.org/TR/</loc>.</emph></p>
<p>This is a <phrase role="final">Working Group Note</phrase><phrase role="ext-review">Public Editors' Draft of</phrase><phrase role="int-review">Editors' Draft of</phrase> "Techniques for WCAG 2.0". These techniques are produced by the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group</loc> to provide guidance about how to conform to the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 Recommendation</loc>. Techniques are referenced from <loc href="" linktype="understanding">Understanding WCAG 2.0</loc> and <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/">How to Meet WCAG 2.0</loc>. Please note that the contents of this document are informative (they provide guidance), and not normative (they do not set requirements for conforming to WCAG 2.0).</p>
<p>WCAG 2.0 Techniques was previously published on 11 December 2008 as a Working Group Note and updated 14 October 2010, 3 January 2012, 5 September 2013, 3 March 2014, 8 April 2014, 16 September 2014, 26 February 2015, and 17 March 2016. This new version updates the support information provided for WCAG 2.0. Note that WCAG 2.0 itself remains unchanged, only the informative support materials have been updated. Primary changes include clarifications based on input from the public and translators. Changes in this version include clarifications in techniques <loc href="G136" linktype="general">G136</loc>, <loc href="ARIA2" linktype="aria">ARIA2</loc>, and <loc href="F68" linktype="failure">F68</loc>.</p>
<p><phrase role="ext-review">The purpose of this draft is to collect public feedback on proposed changes since the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2015/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20150226/">WCAG 2.0 Techniques Working Group Note of 26 February 2015</loc>. The Working Group intends to publish an updated Note once feedback from this review has been incorporated. <emph role="bold">The existing Techniques document remains in place as a W3C Note</emph> while this separate draft update is under review and the WCAG Working Group addresses comments.</phrase> The changes are highlighted in the <loc href="complete-diff">diff-marked version</loc>.</p>
<p><phrase role="ext-review">Comments on this draft are due <emph role="bold">on or before 29 January 2016</emph>.</phrase> The Working Group requests that any comments be made using the options documented in <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/comments/">Instructions for Commenting on WCAG 2.0 Documents</loc>. If this is not possible, comments can also be sent to <loc href="mailto:public-comments-wcag20@w3.org">public-comments-wcag20@w3.org</loc>. The <loc href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-comments-wcag20/">archives for the public comments list</loc> are publicly available. <phrase role="ext-review">Because this is a public review of changes to the Working Group Notes, only comments on changes made since the last Notes will be processed during this review; other comments will be saved and treated as comments on the updated Notes once published. </phrase><phrase role="final">Comments received on this document may be addressed in future versions of this document, or in another manner. </phrase><!--The Working Group does not plan to make formal responses to comments. -->Archives of the <loc href="http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/w3c-wai-gl/">WCAG WG mailing list discussions</loc> are also publicly available, and future work undertaken by the Working Group may address comments received on this document.</p>
<p>Materials from the public to assist in documenting techniques are particularly welcomed. Please use the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/WCAG20/TECHS-SUBMIT/">Techniques Submission Form</loc> to submit techniques. </p>
<p>This document has been produced as part of the W3C <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/">Web Accessibility Initiative</loc> (WAI). The goals of the WCAG Working Group are discussed in the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/charter">WCAG Working Group charter</loc>. The WCAG Working Group is part of the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/Technical/Activity">WAI Technical Activity</loc>.</p>
<p> Publication as a <phrase role="final">Working Group Note</phrase><phrase role="ext-review">Public Editors' Draft</phrase><phrase role="int-review">Editors' Draft</phrase> does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. </p>
<p>This document was produced by a group operating under the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/">5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy</loc>. W3C maintains a <loc role="disclosures" href="http://www.w3.org/2004/01/pp-impl/35422/status">public list of any patent disclosures</loc> made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains <loc href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#def-essential">Essential Claim(s)</loc> must disclose the information in accordance with <loc href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/#sec-Disclosure">section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy</loc>. </p>
<p>This document is governed by the <loc id="w3c_process_revision" href="http://www.w3.org/2015/Process-20150901/">1 September 2015 W3C Process Document</loc>. </p>
</status>
<abstract>
<p id="abstract-general-intro">This <emph>Techniques for WCAG 2.0</emph> document provides guidance for web content authors and evaluators on meeting <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0</loc> <bibref ref="WCAG20"/> success criteria. It is part of a series of documents published by the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) to support WCAG 2.0. For an introduction to WCAG, supporting technical documents, and educational material, see <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview</loc>.</p>
<p><phrase id="abstract-techniques-informative">Techniques are informative—that means they are not required. The basis for determining conformance to WCAG 2.0 is the success criteria from the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/">WCAG 2.0 standard</loc>—not the techniques.</phrase> <phrase id="abstract-techniques-understanding"><emph role="bold">For important information about techniques, please see the <loc href="understanding-techniques" linktype="understanding">Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria</loc> section of Understanding WCAG 2.0.</emph></phrase></p>
<p id="abstract-not-standalone"><emph>Techniques for WCAG 2.0</emph> is not intended to be used as a stand-alone document. Instead, it is expected that content authors will usually use <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/">How to Meet WCAG 2.0: A customizable quick reference</loc> to read the WCAG success criteria, and follow links from there to specific topics in Understanding WCAG 2.0 and to specific techniques.</p>
</abstract>
<langusage>
<language id="en-US"/>
</langusage>
<revisiondesc>
<p>
<loc href="/WAI/GL/WCAG20/change-history.html">History of Changes to WCAG 2.0 Working Drafts</loc>
</p>
</revisiondesc>
</header>
<front>
<div1 id="intro">
<head>Introduction to <emph>Techniques for WCAG 2.0</emph></head>
<p use-id="abstract-general-intro"/>
<p>WCAG 2.0 itself is a stable document that does not change. This <emph>Techniques for WCAG 2.0</emph> document is updated periodically, about <phrase>twice per</phrase> year, to cover more current best practices and changes in technologies and tools.</p>
<p><phrase use-id="abstract-techniques-informative"/>.</p>
<note>
<p>W3C cautions against requiring W3C's sufficient techniques. The only thing that should be required is meeting the WCAG 2.0 success criteria. To learn more, see:</p>
<ulist>
<item>
<p><loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/wcag2faq.html#techsnot">What would be the negative consequences of allowing <emph>only</emph> W3C's published techniques to be used for conformance to WCAG 2.0?</loc> in the WCAG 2 FAQ</p>
</item>
<!--
<item>
<p>
<loc href="http://www.w3.org/2013/02/stdref">Normative References to W3C Standards</loc>
<span class="quiet">[@@ Ian asks that we not point to this for now.]</span>
</p>
</item>
-->
</ulist>
</note>
<p use-id="abstract-not-standalone"/>
<p>Publication of techniques for a specific technology does not imply that the technology can be used in all situations to create content that meets WCAG 2.0 success criteria and conformance requirements. Developers need to be aware of the limitations of specific technologies and provide content in a way that is accessible to people with disabilities. </p>
<p><phrase use-id="abstract-techniques-understanding"/></p>
</div1>
</front>
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<back>
<!-- BBC - This is the master list. Some of these refs also appear in the Understanding Doc. -->
<inform-div1 id="acknowledgements">
<head>Acknowledgements</head>
<p>This publication has been funded in part with U.S. Federal funds from the Department of Education, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), initially under contract number ED-OSE-10-C-0067 and currently under contract number HHSP23301500054C. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.</p>
<p>Additional information about participation in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (WCAG WG) can be found on the <loc href="http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/">Working Group home page</loc>.
</p>
<div2 id="ack_participants-active" role="normal">
<head>Participants of the WCAG WG active in the development of this document:</head>
<ulist>
<item>
<p>Paul Adam (Deque)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Kathleen Anderson</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Jon Avila (SSB Bart Group)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Bruce Bailey (U.S. Access Board) </p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Laura Carlson</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Louis Cheng (Google)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Michael Cooper (W3C)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Wayne Dick</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Eric Eggert (W3C)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Michael Elledge</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Detlev Fischer</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>John Foliot (Deque)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Loretta Guarino Reid (Google)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Jon Gunderson</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Katie Haritos-Shea</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Marc Johlic (IBM)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Barry Johnson (Deque)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Andrew Kirkpatrick (Adobe)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>David MacDonald</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Erich Manser (IBM)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>James Nurthen (Oracle)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Joshue O Connor</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Jan Richards</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Alan Smith</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Adam Solomon</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Makoto Ueki</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Gregg Vanderheiden</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Kathleen Wahlbin</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Can Wang (Zhejiang University)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Jason White (Educational Testing Service)</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>Kenny Zhang (W3C)</p>
</item>
</ulist>
</div2>
<div2 id="ack_participants-previous" role="normal">
<head>Other previously active WCAG WG participants and other contributors to WCAG 2.0 or supporting resources</head>
<p>Shadi Abou-Zahra, Jim Allan, Jenae Andershonis, Wilhelm Joys Andersen, Andrew Arch, Avi Arditti, Aries Arditi, Jon Avila, Mark Barratt, Mike Barta, Sandy Bartell, Kynn Bartlett, Chris Beer, Charles Belov, Marco Bertoni, Harvey Bingham, Chris Blouch, Paul Bohman, Frederick Boland, Denis Boudreau, Patrice Bourlon, Judy Brewer, Andy Brown, Dick Brown, Doyle Burnett, Raven Calais, Ben Caldwell, Alastair Campbell, Laura Carlson, Tomas Caspers, Roberto Castaldo, Sofia Celic-Li, Sambhavi Chandrashekar, Mike Cherim, Jonathan Chetwynd, Wendy Chisholm, Alan Chuter, David M Clark, Joe Clark, Darcy Clarke, James Coltham, Vivienne Conway, Earl Cousins, James Craig, Tom Croucher, Pierce Crowell, Nir Dagan, Daniel Dardailler, Geoff Deering, Sébastien Delorme, Pete DeVasto, Wayne Dick, Iyad Abu Doush, Sylvie Duchateau, Cherie Eckholm, Roberto Ellero, Don Evans, Gavin Evans, Neal Ewers, Steve Faulkner, Bengt Farre, Lainey Feingold, Wilco Fiers, Michel Fitos, Alan J. Flavell, Nikolaos Floratos, Kentarou Fukuda, Miguel Garcia, P.J. Gardner, Alistair Garrison, Greg Gay, Becky Gibson, Al Gilman, Kerstin Goldsmith, Michael Grade, Karl Groves, Jon Gunderson, Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Brian Hardy, Eric Hansen, Benjamin Hawkes-Lewis, Sean Hayes, Shawn Henry, Hans Hillen, Donovan Hipke, Bjoern Hoehrmann, Allen Hoffman, Chris Hofstader, Yvette Hoitink, Martijn Houtepen, Carlos Iglesias, Jonas Jacek, Ian Jacobs, Phill Jenkins, Duff Johnson, Jyotsna Kaki, Shilpi Kapoor, Leonard R. Kasday, Kazuhito Kidachi, Ken Kipness, John Kirkwood, Jason Kiss, Johannes Koch, Marja-Riitta Koivunen, Maureen Kraft, Preety Kumar, Kristjan Kure, Andrew LaHart, Gez Lemon, Chuck Letourneau, Aurélien Levy, Harry Loots, Scott Luebking, Tim Lacy, Jim Ley, Alex Li, William Loughborough, Greg Lowney, N Maffeo, Mark Magennis, Kapsi Maria, Luca Mascaro, Matt May, Sheena McCullagh, Liam McGee, Jens Meiert, Niqui Merret, Jonathan Metz, Alessandro Miele, Steven Miller, Mathew J Mirabella, Matt May, Marti McCuller, Sorcha Moore, Mary Jo Mueller, Charles F. Munat, Robert Neff, Charles Nevile, Liddy Nevile, Dylan Nicholson, Bruno von Niman, Tim Noonan, Sebastiano Nutarelli, Graham Oliver, Sean B. Palmer, Sailesh Panchang, Devarshi Pant, Nigel Peck, Anne Pemberton, David Poehlman, Ian Pouncey, Charles Pritchard, Kerstin Probiesch, W Reagan, Adam Victor Reed, Chris Reeve, Chris Ridpath, Lee Roberts, Mark Rogers, Raph de Rooij, Gregory J. Rosmaita, Matthew Ross, Sharron Rush, Joel Sanda, Janina Sajka, Roberto Scano, Gordon Schantz, Tim van Schie, Wolf Schmidt, Stefan Schnabel, Lisa Seeman, Cynthia Shelly, Glenda Sims, John Slatin, Becky Smith, Jared Smith, Andi Snow-Weaver, Neil Soiffer, Jeanne Spellman, Mike Squillace, Michael Stenitzer, Diane Stottlemyer, Christophe Strobbe, Sarah J Swierenga, Jim Thatcher, Terry Thompson, Justin Thorp, David Todd, Mary Utt, Jean Vanderdonckt, Carlos A Velasco, Eric Velleman, Gijs Veyfeyken, Dena Wainwright, Paul Walsch, Daman Wandke, Richard Warren, Elle Waters, Takayuki Watanabe, Léonie Watson, Gian Wild, David Wooley, Wu Wei, Leona Zumbo.</p>
</div2>
</inform-div1>
<inform-div1 id="references">
<head>References</head>
<blist>
<bibl id="CSS1" key="CSS1">"Cascading Style Sheets, level 1," B. Bos, H. Wium Lie, eds., W3C Recommendation 17 Dec 1996, revised 11 Jan 1999. Available at <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1/">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1/</loc>.</bibl>
<bibl id="CSS2" key="CSS2">"Cascading Style Sheets, level 2," B. Bos, H. Wium Lie, C. Lilley, and I. Jacobs, eds., W3C Recommendation 12 May 1998. Available at <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/">http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/</loc>.</bibl>
<bibl id="CSS21" key="CSS21">"Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 revision 1," B. Bos, T. Çelik, I. Hickson, H. Wium Lie, eds., W3C Candidate Recommendation 25 February 2004. Available at: <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/">http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/</loc>
</bibl>
<bibl id="CSS3" key="CSS3">
<titleref href="http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/current-work">[CSS 2.1 and CSS 3] Roadmap</titleref>, CSS WG's table of modules and publication dates.</bibl>
<bibl id="FLASH" key="FLASH">"Flash", Adobe Systems. Available at <loc href="http://www.adobe.com/devnet/swf.html">http://www.adobe.com/devnet/swf.html</loc>.</bibl>
<bibl id="HTML4" key="HTML4">"HTML 4.01 Specification," D. Raggett, A. Le Hors, I. Jacobs, eds., W3C Recommendation 24 December 1999. Available at <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/">http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/</loc>
</bibl>
<bibl id="ISO32000" key="ISO32000">"Document management - Portable document format - Part 1: PDF 1.7", ISO/TC 171/SC 2. ISO. Available at <loc href="http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51502">http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51502</loc>. ISO-approved copy available at: <loc href="http://www.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/devnet/pdf/pdfs/PDF32000_2008.pdf">http://www.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/devnet/pdf/pdfs/PDF32000_2008.pdf</loc>.
</bibl>
<bibl id="PDF" key="PDF">"PDF", Adobe Systems. Available at <loc href="http://www.adobe.com/devnet/pdf.html">http://www.adobe.com/devnet/pdf.html</loc>.</bibl>
<bibl id="WCAG20" key="WCAG20">"Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0," B. Caldwell, M Cooper, L Guarino Reid, and G. Vanderheiden, eds., W3 Recommendation 12 December 2008, <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211</loc>. The latest version of WCAG 2.0 is available at <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/">http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/</loc>.
</bibl>
<bibl id="XHTML1" key="XHTML1">"XHTML 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)," S. Pemberton, et al., W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002. Available at: <loc href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/">http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/</loc>.</bibl>
</blist>
</inform-div1>
</back>
</spec>