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@mitsoe @mbuttler @AlbertoMontalesi
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Another neat thing about ES6 is that you can extend the built-ins. I don't mean monkeying with the prototype of something like an array or a number, but I mean that we can create our own classes that are modeled after an array. Let's say we wanted to create a movie collection that will look something like this:

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

Now the movie collection is going to take in Wes's Fav Movies, that's the name of our collection, and then argument two, three, four, and so on, are going to have a movie, where you have the name of the movie and the number of stars that we're giving it. This is kind of like an array, except it's going to have a the property of Wes's Fav Movies, and then we're also going to add methods to this.

What we do is we create a MovieCollection class that extends the built-in array:

class MovieCollection extends Array {
 
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

We need a constructor here, but what arguments are getting passed in when we create a new movie collection? The first thing getting passed in is the name of the movie, that's easy. But then, how do we capture items two, three, four, and so on, for the rest of the arguments you need?

I just said it! We can use a rest, which in this case is ...items:

class MovieCollection extends Array {
 constructor(name, ...items) {
     
 }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

What that's going to do is the first thing first argument is a name and the rest of them that get passed in are going to be items. So let's try something:

class MovieCollection extends Array {
 constructor(name, ...items) {
    this.name = name;     
 }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

If we try to run this, we'll get a prety familiar error, telling us that this is not defined. Why can't we set this on movie collection? Because we have not yet given ourselves that initial array that we are extending.

Remember, whenever you extend something, you need to create the thing that you're extending first, before you create the thing that you want.

How do we do that?

class MovieCollection extends Array {
 constructor(name, ...items) {
    super(items);
    this.name = name;     
 }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

What we've done is called super(); and passed it items. We did that because it's kind of like creating a new array that will take item one, two, three and so on, kind of like new Array(1, 2, 3). Because we don't know how many items we're going to have, we can pass it items to capture everything.

If we run this code, we'll see our movies in the console, but our movies will be an array of an array.

That's not exactly what we want. We want to be able to put each item in one array, not an array in an array, so we use a spread, in this case ...items into the function:

class MovieCollection extends Array {
    constructor(name, ...items) {
        super(...items);
        this.name = name;     
    }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

We do this because items is an array, but we want to pass super each item as an argument. This is cool because we've captured all of them with a rest, and then we then turn around and spread them into our super function, which is the array.

If call movies in our console, it returns these objects, which if we open them up, you'll see all of the different movies that are inside our array.

If we ask for movies.name in the console, we'll see it's called "Wes's Fav Movies".

We can have an array but we can also have properties. That's because, at the end of the day, arrays still are objects in JavaScript.

Now what we can do is add methods to this movie collection. Let's add a movie using this.push(movie):

class MovieCollection extends Array {
    constructor(name, ...items) {
        super(...items);
        this.name = name;     
    }
    add(movie) {
        this.push(movie);
    }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

Even though we have our MovieCollection class, because we extended Array, it's inherited all of the array methods.

So we can add a new movie by adding movies.add({name: "Titanic", stars: 5}); which adds Titanic as a five star movie. If we run this code in our console, we'll see that Titanic is there, it's our last movie is Titanic.

The next thing I want to show you is, using the for...in loop.

In the console we can run:

for (const movie in movies) {console.log(movie)}

What we'll see is we get 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. That makes sense because it's the index of each object in our class, but then we get name.

Why do we get name? Because movie has five items in it, but then we also gave it a property of name, and for...in will loop over that.

However, we also learned about for...of, which only iterates over the iteratible properties of an object. We can use:

for (const movie of movies) {console.log(movie)} 

If we run that, you'll see we don't get name, and we also get the actual object for each movie, not just the index like we did before. That's a really neat thing where you can still add properties to an array, but we're able to skip over those properties with a for...of loop.

Let's add one more method to this, where I want to be able to sort this array of movies and then get the top 2, 3, or 10, or however many we want.

class MovieCollection extends Array {
    constructor(name, ...items) {
        super(...items);
        this.name = name;     
    }
    add(movie) {
        this.push(movie);
    }
    topRated(limit = 10){
        return this.sort((a, b) => (a.stars > b.stars ? -1 : 1)).slice(0, limit);
    }
}

const movies = new MovieCollection('Wes\'s Fav Movies',
    {name: 'Bee Movie', stars: 10},
    {name: 'Star Wars Trek', stars: 1},
    {name: 'Virgin Suicides', stars: 7},
    {name: 'King of the Road', stars: 8}
);

So we've called our method topRated, which is taking in a limit as its argument. If you have thousands move movies, you only want to bring a few back, but here we've set our default function argument to 10, which will bring back our top 10 movies.

On the next line we can make a quick and dirty sort, and this in this case is MovieCollection, which is an array, which we can use sort(), which is a method available to arrays. With that, we can sort through each object in our array, and see if a.stars is greater than b.stars then we'll have a -1 and 1. Then we can call .slice on it, and slice from index 0 to the limit, which is 10 by default.

Now we should be able to call movies.topRated() and it will bring back our movies, but they'll just show as Object, Object, Object, Object, Object.

That's not very good, but let's try using console.table(movies.topRated()) instead.

If you run that in your console, that will give us all of the movies, sorted by the number of stars, in a nice table. You can also pass in console.table(movies.topRated(2)), the top two rated movies, and that will bring me a table of the top two rated.

That's really handy if you're able to have an array, but also have methods on front of it. Extending arrays, you can extend any of the native stuff that are built into JavaScript to create your own collections.

Finally, we need to add a word of warning when extending arrays with classes for a custom collection: We're modifying the constructor signature of the extended array, so we can't reply on falling back to 'native' array methods such as .map(), .slice() on the class instance of the array we're using. Similarly, we can't rely on the behaviour of any other method that returns a new instance of an array if we haven't first defined it's behaviour in the context of teh extended class. The reason for the 'unexpected' behaviour is that Javascript calls the constructor each time it runs .map() and that constructor is called with the length of the original array. Since we modified the constructor signature, the new copy of the array won't be what you expected it to be. To use these 'native' methods, you'll have to explicitly define them in the extended class, as we did with the method .add(arg).

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