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Saying Hello

Note: This document reflects current configuration. Yii team is going to make it significantly simpler before release.

This section describes how to create a new "Hello" page in your application. To achieve this goal, you will define a route, create a handler and use view to get content for response:

  • The application will dispatch the request to the handler
  • and the handler will in turn use view to render a template that shows the word "Hello" to the end user.

Through this tutorial, you will learn three things:

  1. how to create an handler to respond to requests,
  2. how to create a view to compose the response's content, and
  3. how an application dispatches requests to handlers.

Creating a Handler

For the "Hello" task, you will create a Hello class with say method that reads a message parameter from the request and displays that message back to the user. If the request does not provide a message parameter, the action will display the default "Hello" message.

Create Controller/Hello.php:

namespace App\Controller;

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseFactoryInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;

class Hello
    private $responseFactory;

    public function __construct(ResponseFactoryInterface $responseFactory)
        $this->responseFactory = $responseFactory;

    public function say(ServerRequestInterface $request): ResponseInterface
        $message = $request->getAttribute('message', 'Hello!');
        $response = $this->responseFactory->createResponse();
        $response->getBody()->write('The message is: ' . $this->encodeHtml($message));
        return $response;
    private function encodeHtml(string $string): string
        return htmlspecialchars($string, ENT_QUOTES | ENT_SUBSTITUTE);


The say method in our example is given $request parameter that we can use to obtain message, whose value defaults to "Hello" (in exactly the same way you set a default value for any function or method argument in PHP). When the application receives a request and determines that the say action is responsible for handling said request, the application will populate this parameter with the same named parameter found in the request. In other words, if the request includes a message parameter with a value of "Goodbye", the $message variable within the action will be assigned that value.

Configuring router

Now in order to map our handler to URL we need to configure router. We will use a factory to create configured router. Create src/Factory/AppRouterFactory:

namespace App\Factory;

use Psr\Container\ContainerInterface;
use Yiisoft\Router\FastRoute\FastRouteFactory;
use Yiisoft\Router\Route;
use Yiisoft\Router\RouterFactory;
use Yiisoft\Web\Middleware\ActionCaller;
use App\Controller\Hello;

class AppRouterFactory
    public function __invoke(ContainerInterface $container)
        $routes = [
            Route::get('/say')->to(new ActionCaller(Hello::class, 'say', $container)),
            Route::get('/say/{message}')->to(new ActionCaller(Hello::class, 'say', $container)),

        return (new RouterFactory(new FastRouteFactory(), $routes))($container);

In the above we are using FastRoute as routing engine and configuring two routes. For each route a "controller" Hello will be created and its "action" method say will be invoked.

The factory class should be used in the DI container to define router instance. In order to do that edit config/web.php by adding:

use Yiisoft\Router\RouterInterface;
use Yiisoft\Router\UrlGeneratorInterface;
use Yiisoft\Router\UrlMatcherInterface;
use App\Factory\AppRouterFactory;

return [
    // ...
    RouterInterface::class => new AppRouterFactory(),
    UrlMatcherInterface::class => Reference::to(RouterInterface::class),
    UrlGeneratorInterface::class => Reference::to(RouterInterface::class),

Creating a View Template

Views templates are scripts you write to generate a response's body. For the "Hello" task, you will create a say view that prints the message parameter received from the action method:

use Yiisoft\Yii\Helper\Html;
<?= Html::encode($message) ?>

Note that in the above code, the message parameter is [[yii\helpers\Html::encode()|HTML-encoded]] before being printed. This is necessary as the parameter comes from an end user, making it vulnerable to cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks by embedding malicious JavaScript code in the parameter.

Naturally, you may put more content in the say view. The content can consist of HTML tags, plain text, and even PHP statements. In fact, the say view is just a PHP script that is executed by the ...

The content printed by the view script will be returned ... The application will in turn output this result to the end user.

Trying it Out

After creating the action and the view, you may access the new page by accessing the following URL:


Hello World

This URL will result in a page displaying "Hello World".

If you omit the message parameter in the URL, you would see the page display just "Hello".


In this section, you have touched the handler and view parts of the typical web application. You created a handler as part of a class to handle a specific request. And you also created a view to compose the response's content. In this simple example, no data source was involved as the only data used was the message parameter.

You have also learned about routing in Yii, which act as the bridge between user requests and handlers.

In the next section, you will learn how to fetch data, and add a new page containing an HTML form.

You can’t perform that action at this time.