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What: /sys/block/<disk>/stat
Date: February 2008
Contact: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com>
Description:
The /sys/block/<disk>/stat files displays the I/O
statistics of disk <disk>. They contain 11 fields:
1 - reads completed successfully
2 - reads merged
3 - sectors read
4 - time spent reading (ms)
5 - writes completed
6 - writes merged
7 - sectors written
8 - time spent writing (ms)
9 - I/Os currently in progress
10 - time spent doing I/Os (ms)
11 - weighted time spent doing I/Os (ms)
For more details refer Documentation/iostats.txt


What: /sys/block/<disk>/<part>/stat
Date: February 2008
Contact: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com>
Description:
The /sys/block/<disk>/<part>/stat files display the
I/O statistics of partition <part>. The format is the
same as the above-written /sys/block/<disk>/stat
format.


What: /sys/block/<disk>/integrity/format
Date: June 2008
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Metadata format for integrity capable block device.
E.g. T10-DIF-TYPE1-CRC.


What: /sys/block/<disk>/integrity/read_verify
Date: June 2008
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Indicates whether the block layer should verify the
integrity of read requests serviced by devices that
support sending integrity metadata.


What: /sys/block/<disk>/integrity/tag_size
Date: June 2008
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Number of bytes of integrity tag space available per
512 bytes of data.


What: /sys/block/<disk>/integrity/write_generate
Date: June 2008
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Indicates whether the block layer should automatically
generate checksums for write requests bound for
devices that support receiving integrity metadata.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/alignment_offset
Date: April 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Storage devices may report a physical block size that is
bigger than the logical block size (for instance a drive
with 4KB physical sectors exposing 512-byte logical
blocks to the operating system). This parameter
indicates how many bytes the beginning of the device is
offset from the disk's natural alignment.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/<partition>/alignment_offset
Date: April 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Storage devices may report a physical block size that is
bigger than the logical block size (for instance a drive
with 4KB physical sectors exposing 512-byte logical
blocks to the operating system). This parameter
indicates how many bytes the beginning of the partition
is offset from the disk's natural alignment.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/logical_block_size
Date: May 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
This is the smallest unit the storage device can
address. It is typically 512 bytes.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/physical_block_size
Date: May 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
This is the smallest unit a physical storage device can
write atomically. It is usually the same as the logical
block size but may be bigger. One example is SATA
drives with 4KB sectors that expose a 512-byte logical
block size to the operating system. For stacked block
devices the physical_block_size variable contains the
maximum physical_block_size of the component devices.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/minimum_io_size
Date: April 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Storage devices may report a granularity or preferred
minimum I/O size which is the smallest request the
device can perform without incurring a performance
penalty. For disk drives this is often the physical
block size. For RAID arrays it is often the stripe
chunk size. A properly aligned multiple of
minimum_io_size is the preferred request size for
workloads where a high number of I/O operations is
desired.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/optimal_io_size
Date: April 2009
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Storage devices may report an optimal I/O size, which is
the device's preferred unit for sustained I/O. This is
rarely reported for disk drives. For RAID arrays it is
usually the stripe width or the internal track size. A
properly aligned multiple of optimal_io_size is the
preferred request size for workloads where sustained
throughput is desired. If no optimal I/O size is
reported this file contains 0.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/nomerges
Date: January 2010
Contact:
Description:
Standard I/O elevator operations include attempts to
merge contiguous I/Os. For known random I/O loads these
attempts will always fail and result in extra cycles
being spent in the kernel. This allows one to turn off
this behavior on one of two ways: When set to 1, complex
merge checks are disabled, but the simple one-shot merges
with the previous I/O request are enabled. When set to 2,
all merge tries are disabled. The default value is 0 -
which enables all types of merge tries.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/discard_alignment
Date: May 2011
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Devices that support discard functionality may
internally allocate space in units that are bigger than
the exported logical block size. The discard_alignment
parameter indicates how many bytes the beginning of the
device is offset from the internal allocation unit's
natural alignment.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/<partition>/discard_alignment
Date: May 2011
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Devices that support discard functionality may
internally allocate space in units that are bigger than
the exported logical block size. The discard_alignment
parameter indicates how many bytes the beginning of the
partition is offset from the internal allocation unit's
natural alignment.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/discard_granularity
Date: May 2011
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Devices that support discard functionality may
internally allocate space using units that are bigger
than the logical block size. The discard_granularity
parameter indicates the size of the internal allocation
unit in bytes if reported by the device. Otherwise the
discard_granularity will be set to match the device's
physical block size. A discard_granularity of 0 means
that the device does not support discard functionality.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/discard_max_bytes
Date: May 2011
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Devices that support discard functionality may have
internal limits on the number of bytes that can be
trimmed or unmapped in a single operation. Some storage
protocols also have inherent limits on the number of
blocks that can be described in a single command. The
discard_max_bytes parameter is set by the device driver
to the maximum number of bytes that can be discarded in
a single operation. Discard requests issued to the
device must not exceed this limit. A discard_max_bytes
value of 0 means that the device does not support
discard functionality.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/discard_zeroes_data
Date: May 2011
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Devices that support discard functionality may return
stale or random data when a previously discarded block
is read back. This can cause problems if the filesystem
expects discarded blocks to be explicitly cleared. If a
device reports that it deterministically returns zeroes
when a discarded area is read the discard_zeroes_data
parameter will be set to one. Otherwise it will be 0 and
the result of reading a discarded area is undefined.

What: /sys/block/<disk>/queue/write_same_max_bytes
Date: January 2012
Contact: Martin K. Petersen <martin.petersen@oracle.com>
Description:
Some devices support a write same operation in which a
single data block can be written to a range of several
contiguous blocks on storage. This can be used to wipe
areas on disk or to initialize drives in a RAID
configuration. write_same_max_bytes indicates how many
bytes can be written in a single write same command. If
write_same_max_bytes is 0, write same is not supported
by the device.

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