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The FitbitGatt API is designed to provide a strong state machine around all Android gatt operations with the aim of making Android BLE development across Android vendors as straightforward and side-effect free as possible.
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README.md

Fitbit Gatt (Bitgatt) Documentation Build Status

Table of Contents

  1. Original Contributors
  2. Purpose
  3. Threading
  4. Diagram
  5. Architectural Overview
  6. Transactions
  7. Validation
  8. Pre/Post Commit (Deprecated)
  9. Composite Transactions
  10. Gatt Server
  11. Sample Code
  12. Bitgatt Scanner
  13. Always Connected Scanner
  14. Bluetooth State on Android Device
  15. Runtime Mocking
  16. Bitgatt Transaction Manual
  17. License

Original Contributors

Fitbit Maintainers

Irvin Owens Jr iowens@fitbit.com, 0xbadbeef@sigsegv.us - Creator

Ionut Lepadatescu - ilepadatescu@fitbit.com - Maintainer

Fitbit Contributors

Andy Branscomb abranscomb@fitbit.com

Adriana Draghici - adraghici@fitbit.com

Cristian Ichimescu - cichimescu@fitbit.com

Murtuza Khan - murtuza.kahn@fitbit.com

Ionut Lepadatescu - ilepadatescu@fitbit.com

Irvin Owens Jr - iowens@fitbit.com

Purpose

The FitbitGatt API is designed to provide a strong state machine around all Android gatt operations with the aim to make Android BLE development as bomb-proof as possible.

We created a blog post to explain further why we need such a significant abstraction on top of the Android Low Energy API : eng.fitbit.com/what-is-bitgatt-and-why-do-we-need-it/

Getting Started

To use Bitgatt, you will need to add the permission for bluetooth ( and maybe admin ) into your manifest. After that, you will need to provide the services that you wish to add to the gatt server to the start call, alongside any filters you wish to add to the periodical scan if any.

This will call back once all of the services are added, and the scanner is set up. If you do not wish to use local services, or the periodical scanner, then you can just call start(Context context) and wait for the callback to start communicating with devices.

Threading

The threading model of the Android gatt is extremely fraught with landmines. It was very easy to end up processing data on one of the JNI binder threads when a gatt callback returned, or in our legacy implementation it was so limited as we had only a single execution thread that required pre-emption.

Bitgatt does this differently, instead of providing callbacks on the JNI binder thread, Bitgatt intentionally delivers results on the main thread while dispatching transactions on a connection thread held by the client or server connection object in this way dispatches are not blocked by receipts, and any I/O on the main thread issues are caught right away (because it's I/O on the main thread). This is the same pattern as an Android broadcast receiver so it is wise to get off of the main thread as soon as possible to create a responsive system.

Responses will be copies of characteristics, descriptors, and services. These copies are not able to be handed back to the system as instantiating new characteristics, descriptors and services, then utilizing them with GATT instances will often wedge the stack. The reason for this is that native GATT objects have an instance id inside of them. When you create a new instance, it did not originate from the GATT DB so the instance is null. By forcing the use of copies, bitgatt eliminates the possibility of this error from the developer.

Diagram

             ╔════════════════════════════════╗                             ┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐
             ║ FitbitGatt hosts instances of  ║                             │FitbitGatt                                │
             ║the GattConnection, they do not ║                             │Looper for asynchronous operations        │
             ║ interfere with each other and  ║                             │characteristic notifications and such     │
             ║ transactions execute serially  ║                             │                                          │
             ║      per connection, but       ║ ┌┬┬─────────────────────────│                                          │──────────┐
             ║   asynchronously with other    ║ │││                         │                                          │          │
             ║          connections           ║ │││                         │                                          │          │
             ╚════════════════════════════════╝ │││                         │                                          │          │
                                                │││                         │                                          │          │
                                                │││                         └──────────────────────────────────────────┘          │
                                                │││                                               ▲                               │
                                                ││▼                                               │                               │
                               ┌────────────────┼▼───────────────────┐                            │                               │
                              ┌┴────────────────▼───────────────────┐│                            │                               ▼
                             ┌┴────────────────────────────────────┐││                            │           ┌───────────────────────────────────────┐
                             │GattConnection                       │││                            │           │GattServerConnection                   │
                             │Looper per connection object         │││                            │           │Looper for the gatt server             │
                             │Looper for gatt transaction timeout  │││                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     │││                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     │││                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     │││                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     │││                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     │├┘                            │           │                                       │
                             │                                     ├┘                             │           │                                       │
                             └─────────────────────────────────────┘                              │           └───────────────────────────────────────┘
                                                                                                  │
                                                                                                  │
                                                                                                  │
                             ┌─────────────────────────────────────┐                              │
                             │TrackerScanner                       │                              │
                             │ Main Looper                         │                              │
                             │                                     │                              │
                             │                                     │      Pushes candidate        │
                             │                                     │────────devices into ─────────┘
                             │                                     │         FitbitGatt
                             │                                     │
                             │                                     │
                             └─────────────────────────────────────┘

                              ╔════════════════════════════════╗
                              ║ The tracker scanner will find  ║
                              ║devices that match a filter and ║
                              ║will add them into the cache in ║
                              ║  the gatt.  They will only be  ║
                              ║connected if the business logic ║
                              ║            dictates            ║
                              ║                                ║
                              ╚════════════════════════════════╝

Created with Monodraw                                                                                                                                  

Architectural Overview

The general idea behind this is that we want to use the right number of threads. This means that we will keep the serial execution nature of the legacy implementation at the GATT level, but allow the business logic to execute gatt commands in any way desired. This has the effect of matching the best of concurrency with the stability of single-threadedness. In short it's an effort to limit the concurrency only where we actually have to, but allowing concurrency anywhere else as the business logic requires.

Where necessary bitgatt provides primitives for deploying strategies around hooks to deal with specific OEM incompatibilities or bad behavior. The intent behind this is to keep the bitgatt core code free of "hacks" around bugs in the Android BLE code, or peripheral issues.

NOTE The present API is not stable as the library is still at 0.8.x. Improvements in the API may still occur, especially around the scanner.

Transactions

Gatt transactions are single gatt operations such as enable characteristic notifications on x characteristic, or write to characteristic, etc... transactions can only be executed if the prior transaction has not ended in failure with notable exceptions, those exceptions will be enumerated in the manual section. This will force a developer to deal with errors explicitly and will not try to hide or to automatically deal with errors by disconnecting and reconnecting, etc ...

Everything about the execution of gatt operations should be intentional to prevent side effects that adjust the operation of higher-level functions, as an example if you have implicit connection attempts, then you have to deal with the situation where two different higher level operations could start a connection attempt. If you make connecting explicit on a single-threaded implementation, then this is by nature impossible, and the errors caused by it are eliminated.

Transactions are atomic. A subsequent transaction provided to the connection transaction queue will not be executed until the prior running transaction completes in success, failure, or timeout.

Transaction Strategies

The strategies are meant to be used by bitgatt for dealing with the odd phone, tablet, or chromebook that does not seem to want to play nice with standard GATT operations. In this case a strategy should be hooked directly into a transaction wherever it makes sense to mitigate the adverse behavior against the GATT ( usually in these scenarios a bug should be filed against the OEM ).

The StrategyProvider, Situation, and Strategy classes are all public so that you, as a GATT user can extend these and implement your own strategies at the business logic level. This would be, for example, if you are a mobile developer and a particular firmware on your IOT device does a strange thing when writing to a descriptor for the first time, but in later versions of that firmware this is fixed.

You would in this case extend strategy and StrategyProvider, overriding getStrategyForPhoneAndGattConnection(...) to return your own strategies. You could determine the firmware version and after that strange thing, you could retry, whatever your business logic required. This you could do without modifying bitgatt, and without adversely affecting your basic GATT logic.

Validation

The transaction entry states are guarded by a transaction validator that verifies that the gatt is in a good state and is ready to be used by a client. If it isn't it will return a clear transaction result error that will allow the developer to understand why it isn't working.

Pre/Post Commit Deprecated

In order to chain transactions we provide a pre/post commit implemention that will allow you to provide a bundle of transactions that must execute in order. Pre-commit transactions will execute before the main body of the transaction while post-commit transactions will run after

Composite Transactions

The pre / post transaction API was deprecated in favor of a single composite transaction that takes as an argument a list of transactions. These transactions will be executed atomically in the order in which they are present in the list. Any failure will halt the chain of transactions and exit the composite transaction.

Gatt Server

The gatt server implementation here is designed to protect the developer from common Android mistakes such as not responding to write requests or read requests on characteristics or descriptors that are not implemented. Bitgatt will respond with error ( to help prevent disconnections ), in cases where the developer has not registered a listener, or where they are not using a particular characteristic.

In order to ensure that the gatt server is always responsive after toggling bluetooth services will be cleared when BT is disabled, this leads to a consistent experience across Android devices. In order to use services again, please re-add any gatt server services that you are hosting on the Android device when BT is turned on again. You can do this by listening for bt on / off events with the FitbitGattCallback.

Sample Code

Pre-Commit ( Deprecated )

class Test {
    public void doTx(){
        WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction writeGattDescriptorMockTransaction = new WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_DESCRIPTOR_SUCCESS, descriptor, fakeData, false);
        WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction = new WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_CHARACTERISTIC_SUCCESS, characteristic, fakeData, false);
        writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction.addPreCommitHook(writeGattDescriptorMockTransaction);
        conn.runTx(writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction, result -> {
            Timber.v("Result provided %s", result);
        });
    }
}

Post-Commit ( Deprecated )

class Test {
    public void doTx(){
        WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction = new WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_CHARACTERISTIC_SUCCESS, characteristic, fakeData, false);
        SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction subscribe = new SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction(conn, GattState.ENABLE_CHARACTERISTIC_NOTIFICATION_SUCCESS, characteristic, fakeData, false);
        WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction writeDescriptor = new WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_DESCRIPTOR_SUCCESS, descriptor, fakeData, false);
        writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction.addPostCommitHook(subscribe);
        writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction.addPostCommitHook(writeDescriptor);
        conn.runTx(writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction, result -> {
            Timber.v("Result provided %s", result);
        });
    }
}

Composite Transaction

class Test {
    public void doTx(){
        WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction = new WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_CHARACTERISTIC_SUCCESS, characteristic, fakeData, false);
        SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction subscribe = new SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction(conn, GattState.ENABLE_CHARACTERISTIC_NOTIFICATION_SUCCESS, characteristic, fakeData, false);
        WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction writeDescriptor = new WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction(conn, GattState.WRITE_DESCRIPTOR_SUCCESS, descriptor, fakeData, false);
        ArrayList<GattTransaction> transactions = new ArrayList<>();
        transactions.add(writeGattCharacteristicMockTransaction);
        transactions.add(subscribe);
        transactions.add(writeDescriptor);
        CompositeClientTransaction composite = new CompositeClientTransaction(conn, transactions);
        conn.runTx(composite, result -> {
            Timber.v("Result provided %s", result);        
        });
    }
}

Chained connect and discover services

class Test {
    public void doTx(){
        // obtain the connection
        GattConnection conn = FitbitGatt.getInstance().getConnection(myBluetoothDevice);
        GattConnectTransaction connTx = new GattConnectTransaction(conn, GattState.CONNECTED);
        conn.runTx(connTx, (result) -> {
            if (result.getResultStatus().equals(TransactionResult.TransactionResultStatus.SUCCESS)) {
                GattClientDiscoverServicesTransaction discoverTx = new GattClientDiscoverServicesTransaction(conn, GattState.DISCOVERY_SUCCESS);
                conn.runTx(discoverTx, (result1) -> {
                    if (result1.getResultStatus().equals(TransactionResult.TransactionResultStatus.SUCCESS)) {
                        // yay, connection is ready to use
                    } else {
                        Log.d("test", "something bad happened during discovery %s", result1);
                    }
                });
            } else {
                Log.d("test", "Failed to connect successfully %s", result); // will print out all details
            }
        });
    }
}

Scanning (periodical scan) ... remember the idea behind the scanner is that it should be treated as a system resource, there should be a single periodical scan, and / or intent scan that occurs with multiple filters. There can be multiple listeners to scan results.

class Test {
    public void doScan(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        gatt.registerGattEventListener(mylistener);  // also idempotent for adding instances
        gatt.addScanServiceUUIDWithMaskFilter(ParcelUuid.fromString("ABCDEFGH-6E7D-4601-BDA2-BFFAA68956BA"), null);
        boolean success = gatt.startPeriodicScan(this);
        if(!success) {
            Timber.v("The scan didn't start, oh noes!!!!");
        }
    }
}

Scanning (high priority scan) ... will stop a scan if in progress and deliver the onScanStopped callback

class Test {
    public void doScan(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        gatt.registerGattEventListener(mylistener); // also idempotent for adding instances
        gatt.addScanServiceUUIDWithMaskFilter(ParcelUuid.fromString("ABCDEFGH-6E7D-4601-BDA2-BFFAA68956BA"), null);
        boolean success = gatt.startHighPriorityScan(this);
        if(!success) {
            Timber.v("The scan didn't start, oh noes!!!!");
        }
    }
}

Scanning (pending intent scan) ... will deliver callbacks for devices discovered by the system scan the backoff, and scan intervals are managed by the Android system

class Test {
    public void doScan(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        gatt.registerGattEventListener(mylistener); // also idempotent for adding instances
        gatt.addScanServiceUUIDWithMaskFilter(ParcelUuid.fromString("ABCDEFGH-6E7D-4601-BDA2-BFFAA68956BA"), null);
        ArrayList<ScanFilter> scanFilters = new ArrayList<>();
        scanFilters.add(new ScanFilter.Builder().setDeviceName("Flex").build());
        boolean success = gatt.startSystemManagedPendingIntentScan(this, scanFilters);
        if(!success) {
            Timber.v("The scan didn't start, oh noes!!!!");
        }
    }
}

Bitgatt Scanner

The Bitgatt scanner is designed around the principle that the developer should have a particular set of filters that they want to find and always want to know about them. The FitbitBluetoothDevice object will keep the scan result with it so that it can be used even if the device remains connected.

The scanner will call a callback if the data changes on a subsequent scan, and will callback when started or stopped. There is a pending intent scan available on Oreo and higher that may be used in addition to the low-duty periodical scanner, or with the high-duty scanner.

If you are going to use the pending intent scanner, it is important to ensure that you cancel the scan as soon as you can as it consumes an additional gatt_if. These interfaces are limited in nature and if your application is using more than one of them you could inadvertently cause bluetooth to stop working properly on your users' phone. Bitgatt will prevent you from using more than one additional if, however it would be better if you only used a single gatt_if.

If you do not know what a gatt_if is, it is advisable to use the periodical scanner instead.

Always Connected Scanner

Scanning on Android is quite complex, in many cases however the developer has a peripheral which they want to remain connected whenever the mobile device is within range. This could be accomplished naiively either by starting a low/high-latency scan for a given duration by setting a cancel scan call as a pending message via the many future wrappers available to modern Android developers.

There are dozens of hidden complexities within this. What if the user turns BT on / off during this time, how do you ensure that your scan state matches? What if the Android power manager decides that your application is now scanning too much and you end up with silent scan-start failures?

To make this easier, bitgatt features a simple always connected scanner that will attempt to protect the developer from the various problems with Android scanning as well as making it straightforward to always connect when within range. To prevent obvious problems, ad-hoc scanning using the bitgatt peripheral scanner API is prevented while the always connected scanner is in use. It is expected that one always connected scanner will be enabled per application.

It is critical to remember that not all OEMs on all Android versions implement all features of the filter API, you could set a MAC address filter that is ineffective on the HTC M8 running 5.0.2 for example. Make sure to test thoroughly if you are concerned with Android versions before 9.

Usage

Simplest case, no scanning in effect and, we want to stay connected all peripherals with a given name, also that we do not want to keep scanning after we have found any device that matches the name filter

Find one device matching a name filter and keep it connected

class Test {
    
    AlwaysConnectedScanner alwaysConnectedScanner = FitbitGatt.getInstance().getAlwaysConnectedScanner();
    
    public void startAlwaysConnectedScanner(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        ScanFilter filter = new ScanFilter.Builder().setDeviceName("MyCoolIOTThing").build();
        // the always connected scanner will default to discovering 1 device matching the filter and that
        // once it finds a single match it should stop scanning until a device disconnects
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setNumberOfExpectedDevices(1);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setShouldKeepLooking(false);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.addScanFilter(mockContext, filter);
        boolean didStart = alwaysConnectedScanner.start(mockContext);
        if(!didStart) {
            android.util.Log.DEBUG("There was a problem starting the scanner!");
            return;
        }
        alwaysConnectedScanner.registerAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
    }
    
    public void stopAlwaysConnectedScanner(Context context){
        alwaysConnectedScanner.unregisterAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.stop(context);
    }
}

Slightly more complex case, find one device, but keep looking even after it is connected

Find one device, but keep scanning even after it is connected

class Test {
    
    AlwaysConnectedScanner alwaysConnectedScanner = FitbitGatt.getInstance().getAlwaysConnectedScanner();
    
    public void startAlwaysConnectedScanner(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        ScanFilter filter = new ScanFilter.Builder().setDeviceName("MyCoolIOTThing").build();
        // the always connected scanner will default to discovering 1 device matching the filter and that
        // once it finds a single match it should stop scanning until a device disconnects
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setNumberOfExpectedDevices(1);
        // if expected devices is zero, then the value of should keep looking is not relevant
        // the scanner will just keep going
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setShouldKeepLooking(true);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.addScanFilter(mockContext, filter);
        boolean didStart = alwaysConnectedScanner.start(mockContext);
        if(!didStart) {
            android.util.Log.DEBUG("There was a problem starting the scanner!");
            return;
        }
        alwaysConnectedScanner.registerAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
    }
    
    public void stopAlwaysConnectedScanner(Context context){
        alwaysConnectedScanner.unregisterAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.stop(context);
    }
}

Filter more complex with a SRV data mask maybe matching some kind of encrypted user id for several devices, should stop when all devices are found

Find a few devices via some sort of SRV data

class Test {
    
    AlwaysConnectedScanner alwaysConnectedScanner = FitbitGatt.getInstance().getAlwaysConnectedScanner();
    
    public void startAlwaysConnectedScanner(){
        FitbitGatt gatt = FitbitGatt.getInstance();
        gatt.start(this); // start is idempotent
        // device srvdata
        ParcelUuid srvUuid = new ParcelUuid(UUID.fromString("620CC755-613A-430C-BA60-17258CD6B078"));
        // device one service data
        byte[] serviceDataDeviceOne = new byte[]{ 0x00, 0x18, 0x1A, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};
        byte[] serviceDataDeviceTwo = new byte[]{0x00, 0x1D, 0xBB, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};
        byte[] serviceDataDeviceThree = new byte[]{0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};
        byte[] userIdServiceDataMask = new byte[] {0x00, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};
        ScanFilter filterOne = new ScanFilter.Builder()
        .setServiceData(srvUuid, serviceDataDeviceOne, userIdServiceDataMask)
        .build();
        ScanFilter filterTwo = new ScanFilter.Builder()
        .setServiceData(srvUuid, serviceDataDeviceTwo, userIdServiceDataMask)
        .build();
        ScanFilter filterThree = new ScanFilter.Builder()
        .setServiceData(srvUuid, serviceDataDeviceThree, userIdServiceDataMask)
        .build();
        ArrayList<ScanFilter> filters = new ArrayList<>(3);
        filters.add(filterOne);
        filters.add(filterTwo);
        filters.add(filterThree);
        // will remove all filters currently being used and replace them with the given
        // filters, will take effect on the next scan
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setScanFilters(filters);
        // the always connected scanner will default to discovering 1 device matching the filter and that
        // once it finds a single match it should stop scanning until a device disconnects
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setNumberOfExpectedDevices(3);
        // will only take effect when the next device disconnects or connects
        alwaysConnectedScanner.setShouldKeepLooking(false);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.addScanFilter(mockContext, filter);
        boolean didStart = alwaysConnectedScanner.start(mockContext);
        if(!didStart) {
            android.util.Log.DEBUG("There was a problem starting the scanner!");
            return;
        }
        alwaysConnectedScanner.registerAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
    }
    
    public void stopAlwaysConnectedScanner(Context context){
        alwaysConnectedScanner.unregisterAlwaysConnectedScannerListener(this);
        alwaysConnectedScanner.stop(context);
    }
}

Bluetooth State on Android Device

If the user disables Bluetooth, bitgatt will manage that state accordingly, it will drop any pending transactions in the queue and stop the queues as well as setting it's internal bluetooth state to off. All held connection objects will be set to the disconnected state, but they will not be released.

Runtime Mocking

It is typically difficult to test bluetooth in the Android simulator, currently every transaction against gatt functionality has a mock transaction that can be used to simulate succeeding and failing transactions to validate operational behavior.

In the code examples above you can see how this mocking would work.

Available transaction mocks

Below you will find a list of the available transaction mocks. You can mock a connection even with existing real connections if so desired, each connection is self-contained. With the mocks you can simulate failure and provide the data to be returned to test content handling.

Server

  • AddGattServerServiceMockTransaction - Will mock add a service to the phone's GATT server
  • BlockingServerTaskTestMockTransaction - Sometimes a developer will want to block the queue
  • GattServerConnectMockTransaction - Will mock connect from the GATT server to a peripheral
  • GattServerDisconnectMockTransaction - Will mock disconnect from the remote peripheral from the GATT server
  • SendGattServerResponseMockTransaction - Will mock up a gatt server response
  • NotifyGattServerCharacteristicMockTransaction - Will mock a server notify on a characteristic

Client

  • BlockingTaskTestMockTransaction - Sometimes a developer will want to block the client connection queue
  • CloseGattMockTransaction - Will mock the Android API for gatt close operation
  • GattClientDiscoverMockServicesTransaction - Will mock service discovery for a connection
  • GatConnectMockTransaction - Will mock the gatt connect operation
  • GattDisconnectMockTransaction - Will mock disconnect
  • MockNoOpTransaction - Will mock a no-op transaction
  • ReadGattCharacteristicMockTransaction - Will mock a characteristic read, can pass in data to be returned as though it were read from the remote device
  • ReadGattDescriptorMockTransaction - Will mock a descriptor read, can pass in data to be returned as though it were read from the remote device
  • ReadRssiMockTransaction - Will return a mock RSSI value for a remote device
  • RequestGattConnectionIntervalMockTransaction - Will perform a mock CI adjustment request, taking the Android const values
  • RequestMtuGattMockTransaction - Will request a mock MTU
  • SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction - This will mock the Android notification setting for a characteristic
  • TimeoutTestMockTransaction - This will mock a transaction that times out
  • UnSubscribeToGattCharacteristicNotificationsMockTransaction - Will mock an un-subscription from the Android notification
  • WriteGattCharacteristicMockTransaction - Will mock a characteristic write to a gatt client connection
  • WriteGattDescriptorMockTransaction - Will mock a gatt descriptor write transaction

Bitgatt Transaction Manual

The transaction manual will explain in detail what each transaction does as well has how strategies play into transactions. A strategy can hook into a transaction or transaction subclass to perform other transactions or to operate on the raw gatt instance.

When below the transaction indicates that it blocks on error, this indicates that the transaction will leave the connection queue in a state that will not allow subsequent transactions to execute until the developer runs either the SetClientConnectionStateTransaction, or the SetServerConnectionStateTransaction explicitly setting the state to one of the IDLE connection states ( DISCONNECTED, IDLE, or CONNECTED ).

What this does is force the developer to acknowledge that the last transaction ran into a severe error, and that they have done something to mitigate this error or that they are choosing to ignore it.

All transactions have a default timeout of 60s but some are special and will be noted. Transactions will callback on the main thread with varying properties contained within the TransactionResult instance provided to the GattClient or GattServerCallback.

On transaction timeout, the gatt state will be left in whatever in-progress state it was in when the transaction timed out, this will leave the gatt in an error state and no other transactions will be able to be run until the state is explicitly reset. A timeout response will be delivered.

Where possible transactions will return enum values for the GATT status that correspond to the particular GATT error that occurred instead of just simple error codes.

AddGattServerServiceCharacteristicDescriptorTransaction

This transaction will add a descriptor to an existing gatt service characteristic. It is expected that the caller will check the service to determine whether the descriptor is already hosted or not.

It is also expected that the provided descriptor will already be set up with data that are desired.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

AddGattServerServiceCharacteristicTransaction

This transaction will add a characteristic to an existing gatt service. It is expected that the caller will check the service to determine whether the characteristic is already hosted or not.

It is also expected that the provided characteristic will already be set up with data or descriptors that are desired.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

AddGattServerServiceTransaction

Will perform a transaction adding a service to the gatt server. The caller should check first as to whether the service exists before adding this service or the result will be a failure. Keep in mind that another process or application can manipulate the services and characteristics on the phone in different ways, so it is always prudent to check and ensure that the state of the characteristics, descriptors, and services are to your liking before proceeding.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if Adapter#getGattServer() returns null
  • Includes copy in result? No

ClearServerServicesTransaction

Will remove all services hosted by this application on the Android devices' GATT server

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

CloseGattTransaction

Will close the gatt server, on Marshmallow+ this will also release the [client if|https://android.googlesource.com/platform/frameworks/base/+/master/core/java/android/bluetooth/BluetoothGatt.java]. This will leave the gatt connection in a "disconnected" state. Please note that this does not mean that the logical ACL connection is disconnected, the peripheral may well remain connected to the phone. In this case it means that the Android process is no longer connected to the phone.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

CreateBondTransaction

It is important to remember that creating a bond in Android is a operation that does not actually interact with the gatt instance. Because of the many shifts in connection interval and the other changes that occur it is wise to not try to attempt other gatt operations while a bond attempt is in progress. The bond transaction has a different timeout than the other transactions which have a default timeout of 60s, it has a timeout of 120s.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GattClientDiscoverServicesTransaction

Service discovery must be performed whenever a new connection is made after scanning to be certain that the handles that point to resources on the gatt DB are matched up. Service discovery also must be performed when the developer suspects that services have changed on the remote side. On some Android devices, this will happen automatically when the services change via the service changed notification, on others refresh will have to be called and discovery performed again.

The operating system handles the GATT DB caching, so there is no need to worry about over-discovering. If the service data is fresh it is expected that discovery success will be called quickly. Discovery is expensive when it must be done and can take some time. While discovery is progressing no other GATT transactions can be executed.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, only if the api discover call returns false
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does return a list of remote services discovered

GattClientRefreshGattTransaction

This transaction should only reluctantly be used by upstream strategies to resolve connection issues after entirely understanding the problem and after working to resolve it with other conventional solutions. This call is likely to not work at some point and it's use is at your own risk. In the past it has caused some phones to have inconsistencies between their gatt cache and what was in the filesystem ( db ) among other issues, please only use this if you know exactly why you are doing it and in the narrowest of circumstances when you know that it will help.

There is one other reason to use refresh is if you are having a problem with the services changed characteristic not updating the GATT DB.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GattConnectTransaction

Given a connection object will attempt to establish a GATT connection with the remote device. When a failure occurs, will populate the TransactionResult with as much information as is available.

The gatt connect transaction is shorter than the default 60s and is only 30s, because on all devices the connection should complete within this time.

This GATT operation is somewhat misleading on Android, what this actually does is perform a high-duty cycle scan to determine if the specific device is within range, if it is, then it will establish an ACL connection, go through the standard bluetooth low energy connection negotiation, then establish a gatt_if within the adapter, culminating in a client_if assigned to the instance of the gatt callback provided. There is a maximum number of gatt_if(s), and client_if(s) that are allowed to be assigned to a particular peripheral and this varies per OEM device. Bitgatt is designed to prevent a developer from obtaining too many client_if(s) which is a typical problem with many naive GATT implementations on Android.

If the device is already connected, this call appears to still perform a scan, at the end of which it will either (a) assign a new client_if if this device has never been connected before, or the existing client_if has been released, or (b) re-connect your process to the existing client_if which in some cases can be a problem.

You can think of the gatt_if as connecting the ACL connection to the Android OS process, and the client_if of connecting the connection that Android OS has to the ACL connection to your process.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GattDisconnectTransaction

Given a connection object will attempt to establish a GATT connection with the remote device. When a failure occurs, will populate the TransactionResult with as much information as is available.

The gatt connect transaction is shorter than the default 60s and is only 30s, because on all devices the connection should complete within this time. Will wait enough time to allow Android to release the client_if in the case that the queue is stuck which the developer can not inspect. Rapid connection / disconnection cycles are not possible with bitgatt. If you need to do this, you should obtain the raw GATT instance from the GattConnection object.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GattServerConnectTransaction

Is similar to the GattConnectTransaction, except that it will perform the gatt connection from the gatt server.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • FitbitBluetoothDevice device
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GattServerDisconnectTransaction

Is similar to the GattDisconnectTransaction, except that it will perform the gatt disconnection from the gatt server.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • FitbitBluetoothDevice device
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

GetGattServerServicesTransaction

A transaction to get the gatt server services hosted by the local gatt server. This exists primarily to prevent the internal to the Android stack CME that can occur if we are reading services and adding, by making this a transaction a caller should not read and add at the same time.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

NotifyGattServerCharacteristicTransaction

Will notify on a provided characteristic on the local gatt server. This will send a notification or indication to a remote device.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the local service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection connection
  • FitbitBluetoothDevice device
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • boolean confirm
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the notify fails
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

ReadGattCharacteristicTransaction

Will read the data value of a remote characteristic

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the read characteristic fails
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

ReadGattClientPhyTransaction

Will read the gatt client physical layer to determine whether the current physical layer that the GattConnection is using is 2 Msym, 1 Msym, or CODED.

Arguments

  • GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

ReadGattDescriptorTransaction

Will read the data value of a remote descriptor

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the descriptor read fails
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

ReadGattServerCharacteristicDescriptorValueTransaction

Will read a characteristic descriptor from a local gatt server and populate a transaction result with response. This and ReadGattServerCharacteristicValueTransaction are sort of conveniences for testing, there is no clear reason why one wouldn't perform these operations in Java, they have no impact to the state machine. But there is no harm in mainstream code using these transactions.

Only provide descriptor instances obtained from the local service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

ReadGattServerCharacteristicValueTransaction

Will read a characteristic from a local gatt server and populate a transaction result with response. This and ReadGattServerCharacteristicDescriptorValueTransaction are sort of conveniences for testing, there is no clear reason why one wouldn't perform these operations in Java, they have no impact to the state machine. But there is no harm in mainstream code using these transactions.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the local service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

ReadRssiTransaction

Will read the RSSI from a remote device

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

RemoveGattServerServicesTransaction

Will remove a local gatt server service. It is a good idea to use the transaction to make sure that nothing else can be interacting with the service while the developer is removing it.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

RequestGattClientPhyChangeTransaction

Will request a PHY change for the gatt client connection. If the client supports the requested PHY then it will adjust, if not it will return with failure. Only Oreo and up. If this is called on a non-oreo and higher Android device will be a no-op.

Arguments

  • GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • int txPhy
  • int rxPhy
  • int phyOptions
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

RequestGattConnectionIntervalTransaction

Will request a connection interval change, on Android there are three levels basically low, mid, high each one will negotiate an appropriate connection interval for that phone.

The downside is that while you can request a connection interval, there is no response, the only way to know what you got is to look at the logs. This needs care as well because it's possible to jam the gatt if the CI change comes from both the central and peripheral at the same time, so tread lightly.

The speeds will use the Speed enum to map to the default Android CI ranges, these are different on different versions of Android, please check the Android source to be certain, however roughly they are:

  • Fast - 15 ~ 24 CI
  • Medium - 24 ~ 42 CI
  • Slow - 42 ~ 100 CI

Please remember a few things about CI, > 100 seems to increase the likelihood of disconnections, changing CIs on some Android versions more frequently than once every 30 seconds will lead to disconnections. If you are seeing excessive disconnections in general, it is worthwhile to look at your connection interval management.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • Speed connectionSpeed
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

RequestMtuGattTransaction

Will request a new MTU from the peripheral, the maximum MTU is 517, though it is up to the peripheral to determine what it actually supports. The MTU is not the actual payload size as there is overhead.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • int mtu
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

SendGattServerResponseTransaction

Will send the gatt server response to a descriptor read / write request. The actual write / read transaction should have completed prior to sending this.

Arguments

  • GattServerConnection server
  • GattState successEndState
  • FitbitBluetoothDevice device
  • int requestId
  • int status
  • int offset
  • byte[] value
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

SetClientConnectionStateTransaction

Will set the client connection state to whatever the developer wishes. If the transaction queue gets halted by an error, this can be reset to whatever idle state is appropriate.

This transaction is designed to block the transaction queue while modifying the state of the connection. This should only be used to reset the connection to a usable state after an error that has been ADDRESSED. This should not be used to ignore errors. Where appropriate create a non-gatt library strategy to use this transaction appropriately.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • GattState destinationState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

SetServerConnectionStateTransaction

Will set the server connection state to whatever the developer wishes. If the transaction queue gets halted by an error, this can be reset to whatever idle state is appropriate.

This transaction is designed to block the transaction queue while modifying the state of the connection. This should only be used to reset the connection to a usable state after an error that has been ADDRESSED. This should not be used to ignore errors. Where appropriate create a non-gatt library strategy to use this transaction appropriately.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • GattState destinationState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

SubscribeToCharacteristicNotificationsTransaction

Subscribes to characteristic notifications. The Android API call does NOT operate in the way one would expect. This directs remote GATT server notifications and indications that are received by the Android Adapter's gatt_if through to the client_if assigned to your application's process.

What this means is that if discovery has not been completed this can fail in strange ways. It also means that performing this operation does not actually tell the remote GATT server to start sending notifications, only writing to the notification descriptor on that characteristic does that.

The API indicates that this particular call is idempotent, however you should avoid both over-calling this transaction as well as over-writing the descriptor. Keep your subscription state externally and only call as required.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the remote service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the write ends up in a stack NPE ( usually means the device silently disconnected )
  • Includes copy in result? No

UnSubscribeToGattCharacteristicNotificationsTransaction

Un-subscribes to characteristic notifications. The Android API call does NOT operate in the way one would expect. This directs remote GATT server notifications and indications that are received by the Android Adapter's gatt_if through to the client_if assigned to your application's process.

What this means is that if discovery has not been completed this can fail in strange ways. It also means that performing this operation does not actually tell the remote GATT server to stop sending notifications, only writing to the notification descriptor on that characteristic does that.

The API indicates that this particular call is idempotent, however you should avoid both over-calling this transaction as well as over-writing the descriptor. Keep your subscription state externally and only call as required.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the remote service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the write ends up in a stack NPE ( usually means the device silently disconnected )
  • Includes copy in result? No

WriteGattCharacteristicTransaction

Will perform a gatt characteristic write. The developer should have populated the value property of the characteristic object before performing this transaction.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the remote service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the write ends up in a stack NPE ( usually means the device silently disconnected )
  • Includes copy in result? No

WriteGattDescriptorTransaction

Will perform a gatt descriptor write. The developer should have populated the value property of the descriptor object before performing this transaction.

Only provide descriptor instances obtained from the remote service characteristic, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the descriptor and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the write ends up in a stack NPE ( usually means the device silently disconnected )
  • Includes copy in result? No

WriteGattServerCharacteristicDescriptorValueTransaction

Will write a characteristic descriptor from a local gatt server and populate a transaction result with response. This and WriteGattServerCharacteristicValueTransaction are sort of conveniences for testing, there is no clear reason why one wouldn't perform these operations in Java, they have no impact to the state machine. But there is no harm in mainstream code using these transactions.

Only provide descriptor instances obtained from the local service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the descriptor and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor
  • byte[] data
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the server, service, characteristic, or descriptor doesn't exist
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

WriteGattServerCharacteristicValueTransaction

Will write a characteristic from a local gatt server and populate a transaction result with response. This and WriteGattServerCharacteristicDescriptorValueTransaction are sort of conveniences for testing, there is no clear reason why one wouldn't perform these operations in Java, they have no impact to the state machine. But there is no harm in mainstream code using these transactions.

Only provide characteristic instances obtained from the local service, if you create them yourself you will not have a valid instance id, which is an internal property of the characteristic and could wedge the GATT queue and cause the system to become unresponsive.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • BluetoothGattService service
  • BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic
  • byte[] data
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? Yes, if the characteristic doesn't exist
  • Includes copy in result? No, but does include data in the TransactionResult

CloseGattServerTransaction

Will close the currently held instance of the gatt server, potentially useful if services are not released when bluetooth is toggled, you can use the clear services transaction and then the close transaction to ensure that when BT is re-enabled there are no remaining services. This may also be used in the turning off callback if you implement your own bluetooth listener.

Arguments

  • @Nullable GattServerConnection connection
  • GattState successEndState
  • (optional) long timeoutMillis

Results

  • Does it block on failure? No
  • Includes copy in result? No

License

Copyright 2019 Fitbit, Inc. All rights reserved.

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