A .NET library that contains a set of lock-free thread-safe collections designed to be used asynchronously.
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AsyncCollections.Benchmark Migrated IAsyncCollection and IBatchAsyncCollection to ValueTask Jul 24, 2016
AsyncCollections.Test Migrated AsyncCollection.TakeFromAnyAsync() to ValueTask Jul 24, 2016
AsyncCollections
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AsyncCollections.sln
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README.md

README.md

What is it and why should I care?

AsyncCollections is a library that contains a bunch of fast lock-free thread-safe producer-consumer collections tailored for asynchronous usage. Think System.Collections.Concurrent but fully async-ready.

Nuget package

https://www.nuget.org/packages/AsyncCollections/

API

IAsyncCollection

Most of collections here implement this interface (I'd say it pretty much describes what this library is all about):

public interface IAsyncCollection<T> : IReadOnlyCollection<T>
{
	void Add( T item );
	ValueTask<T> TakeAsync( CancellationToken cancellationToken );

	int AwaiterCount { get; } // An amount of pending item requests
}

A copy of corefx ValueTask<T> implementation is used at the moment, it's going to be replaced by the original one when 2.0 is released.

AsyncQueue and AsyncStack

These classes provide queue- and stack-based implementations of IAsyncCollection<T>.

AsyncQueue<int> queue = new AsyncQueue<int>();
ValueTask<int> itemTask = queue.TakeAsync();
queue.Add( 42 ); // at this point itemTask completes with Result = 42

AsyncStack<int> stack = new AsyncStack<int>();
stack.Add( 64 );
stack.Add( 128 );
int first = await stack.TakeAsync(); // 128
int second = await stack.TaskAsync(); // 64

AsyncCollection

Think System.Concurrent.BlockingCollection for async usage. AsyncCollection<T> wraps anything that implements IProducerConcumerCollection<T> and turns it into an IAsyncCollection<T>:

var asyncBag = new AsyncCollection<int>( new ConcurrentBag<int>() );
asyncBag.Add( 984 );
int item = await asyncBag.TakeAsync();

Another trait it shares with BlockingCollection is a static TakeFromAny method (which is actually called TakeFromAnyAsync here):

var bag1 = new AsyncCollection<int>( new ConcurrentBag<int>() );
var bag2 = new AsyncCollection<int>( new ConcurrentBag<int>() );
AsyncCollection<int>[] collections = new [] { bag1, bag2 };

// Will return asynchronously when one of the queues gets an item.
AnyResult<int> result = await AsyncCollection<int>.TakeFromAnyAsync( collections );

// Index of the collection that returned the item.
int index = result.CollectionIndex;

// The actual item that has been returned.
int value = result.Value;

AsyncBoundedPriorityQueue

This is a priority queue with a limited number of priority levels:

var queue = new AsyncBoundedPriorityQueue<int>( priorityLevels: 3 );

queue.Add( 1000 ); // item is added at the lowest priority by default
queue.AddTopPriority( 42 );
queue.AddLowPriority( 999 );
queue.Add( 16, priority: 1 );

// 42 16 1000 999 
while ( true )
{
  Debug.Write( await queue.TakeAsync() );
  Debug.Write( " " );
}

AsyncBatchQueue

This one doesn't implement IAsyncCollection<T>, because it provides a slightly different experience. Just like AsyncQueue<T>, AsyncBatchQueue<T> allows you to add items synchronously and retreive them asynchronously, but the difference is you consume them in batches of the specified size:

AsyncBatchQueue<int> queue = new AsyncBatchQueue<int>( batchSize: 2 );
queue.Add( 42 );
queue.Add( 64 );
queue.Add( 128 );

// Immediately returns a batch of items 42 and 64.
IReadOnlyList<int> batch1 = await queue.TakeAsync();

// Asynchronously returns when the next batch is full
// (128 and whatever the next item will be)
IReadOnlyList<int> batch2 = await queue.TakeAsync();

There's a bunch of scenarios when you might want to make items available for consumption even if the specified batch size is not reached yet. First of all, you can do it manually by calling Flush:

AsyncBatchQueue<int> queue = new AsyncBatchQueue<int>( 9999 );
queue.Add( 42 );
queue.Flush();

// This will return a batch of 1 item.
IReadOnlyList<int> batch = await queue.TakeAsync();

Second, there's a typical case to flush pending items when a certain amount of time has passed. You can use a WithFlushEvery extension method to achieve this:

AsyncBatchQueue<int> queue = new AsyncBatchQueue<int>( 10 );

using ( TimerAsyncBatchQueue<int> timerQueue = queue.WithFlushEvery( TimeSpan.FromSeconds( 5 ) ) )
{
	timerQueue.Add( 42 );

	// This will asynchronously return a batch of 1 item in 5 seconds.
	IReadOnlyList<int> batch = await timerQueue.TakeAsync();
}

// Disposing the TimerAsyncBatchQueue simply disposes the inner timer.
// You can continue using the original queue though.

If the queue has no pending items, Flush won't do anything, so you don't have to worry about creating a lot of empty batches when doing manual/timer flushing.

Benchmarks

The idea behind all the benchmarks is to measure how long it takes to add a fixed amount of items to the collection and them to take them back, using different amount of producer and consumer tasks. The results below were measured by using this configuration:

BenchmarkDotNet=v0.9.6.0
OS=Microsoft Windows NT 6.2.9200.0
Processor=Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-2500 CPU @ 3.30GHz, ProcessorCount=4
Frequency=3239558 ticks, Resolution=308.6841 ns, Timer=TSC
HostCLR=MS.NET 4.0.30319.42000, Arch=64-bit RELEASE [RyuJIT]
JitModules=clrjit-v4.6.1080.0

Type=AsyncQueueBenchmark  Mode=Throughput  Platform=X64  
Jit=RyuJit  LaunchCount=1  

AsyncQueue benchmark

There are multiple ways to achieve the functionality of AsyncQueue:

  • AsyncQueue itself
  • AsyncCollection that wraps ConcurrentQueue
  • Nito.AsyncEx.AsyncCollection (https://github.com/StephenCleary/AsyncEx) that wraps ConcurrentQueue
  • BlockingCollection (this isn't really asynchronous and will starve the thread pool on large consumer count, but still is an interesting thing to compare against)
  • System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BufferBlock
                                      Method | ConsumerTasks | ProducerTasks |          Median |        StdDev |    Gen 0 | Gen 1 | Gen 2 | Bytes Allocated/Op |
-------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |---------------- |-------------- |--------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
                                  AsyncQueue |             1 |             1 |     914.6110 us |     4.6121 us |     3,73 |  0,39 |     - |          57 889,00 |
          AsyncCollection( ConcurrentQueue ) |             1 |             1 |     969.8161 us |     4.2769 us |     2,37 |     - |     - |          31 965,97 |
                Nito.AsyncEx.AsyncCollection |             1 |             1 |  67,751.7260 us |   104.9323 us |   580,78 |  0,98 |     - |       7 446 934,72 |
        System.Concurrent.BlockingCollection |             1 |             1 |   2,108.3728 us |    17.0404 us |     2,25 |     - |     - |          35 318,88 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BufferBlock |             1 |             1 |   1,673.1337 us |     7.6434 us |    19,88 |     - |     - |         263 489,31 |
-------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |---------------- |-------------- |--------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
                                  AsyncQueue |             1 |             3 |   2,527.1599 us |     8.7526 us |     3,16 |  1,13 |     - |          71 401,25 |
          AsyncCollection( ConcurrentQueue ) |             1 |             3 |   2,904.8245 us |    14.8086 us |     5,02 |  0,94 |     - |          91 164,24 |
                Nito.AsyncEx.AsyncCollection |             1 |             3 |  82,357.5946 us | 2,624.8432 us |   704,33 | 36,10 |     - |      10 253 908,07 |
        System.Concurrent.BlockingCollection |             1 |             3 |   6,337.2439 us |    64.5049 us |     4,56 |     - |     - |          78 099,77 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BufferBlock |             1 |             3 |   3,738.7718 us |    48.2398 us |    90,86 |     - |     - |       1 192 165,45 |
-------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |---------------- |-------------- |--------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
                                  AsyncQueue |             3 |             1 |   1,393.2974 us |    89.1313 us |     5,84 |  0,90 |     - |         100 325,39 |
          AsyncCollection( ConcurrentQueue ) |             3 |             1 |   5,931.3962 us |   655.4277 us |    98,69 |  6,88 |  1,18 |       1 662 971,75 |
                Nito.AsyncEx.AsyncCollection |             3 |             1 |  66,368.2408 us |    83.2923 us |   559,00 |  1,00 |     - |       7 175 669,84 |
        System.Concurrent.BlockingCollection |             3 |             1 |   2,506.8905 us |    15.4637 us |     2,09 |     - |     - |          29 234,91 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BufferBlock |             3 |             1 |   1,680.4107 us |    13.3545 us |    19,07 |     - |     - |         273 553,48 |
-------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |---------------- |-------------- |--------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
                                  AsyncQueue |             3 |             3 |   2,673.4342 us |    18.6929 us |     4,28 |  1,17 |     - |          89 555,79 |
          AsyncCollection( ConcurrentQueue ) |             3 |             3 |   3,304.1851 us |    40.6244 us |     6,69 |  0,37 |     - |         113 443,76 |
                Nito.AsyncEx.AsyncCollection |             3 |             3 | 249,474.1560 us | 1,340.5204 us | 1 275,00 |  1,00 |     - |      16 685 767,14 |
        System.Concurrent.BlockingCollection |             3 |             3 |   6,826.4026 us |    99.6510 us |     4,37 |     - |     - |          80 584,81 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BufferBlock |             3 |             3 |   3,901.0241 us |    55.7299 us |    90,86 |     - |     - |       1 243 432,93 |
-------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |---------------- |-------------- |--------- |------ |------ |------------------- |

AsyncBatchQueue benchmark

There are less alternatives to AsyncBatchQueue exist in the wild that I know of. As a matter of fact, the only thing I can come up with is System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BatchBlock, so here it is:

                                     Method | ConsumerTasks | ProducerTasks |        Median |     StdDev |  Gen 0 | Gen 1 | Gen 2 | Bytes Allocated/Op |
------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |-------------- |----------- |------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
 HellBrick.AsyncCollections.AsyncBatchQueue |             1 |             1 |   581.7463 us |  3.2790 us | 125,68 |  4,50 |     - |          77 281,41 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BatchBlock |             1 |             1 |   891.3451 us |  1.4635 us | 150,34 |     - |     - |          91 860,30 |
------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |-------------- |----------- |------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
 HellBrick.AsyncCollections.AsyncBatchQueue |             1 |             3 | 1,891.6112 us | 10.6826 us | 278,83 | 12,86 |     - |         178 598,12 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BatchBlock |             1 |             3 | 2,437.1000 us |  4.6214 us | 381,67 |     - |     - |         230 144,44 |
------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |-------------- |----------- |------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
 HellBrick.AsyncCollections.AsyncBatchQueue |             3 |             1 |   891.6061 us |  2.7588 us | 145,75 |  6,90 |     - |          98 127,34 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BatchBlock |             3 |             1 |   900.5719 us |  5.4585 us | 173,48 |     - |     - |         110 865,66 |
------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |-------------- |----------- |------- |------ |------ |------------------- |
 HellBrick.AsyncCollections.AsyncBatchQueue |             3 |             3 | 2,126.5695 us | 19.0822 us | 485,00 | 18,00 |     - |         316 228,75 |
 System.Threading.Tasks.Dataflow.BatchBlock |             3 |             3 | 2,470.9311 us | 19.1620 us | 395,91 |     - |     - |         242 047,11 |
------------------------------------------- |-------------- |-------------- |-------------- |----------- |------- |------ |------ |------------------- |