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The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) is an ontology in the domain of interactions and interaction networks. INO represents general and species-neutral types of interactions and interaction networks, and their related elements and relations. INO has been used in different applications, such as the literature mining of various interaction types.

INO is an OBO library ontology as seen:

This GitHub website is the home page of INO.


The INO development team includes three laboratories led by:

  • Dr. Oliver He, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
  • Dr. Junguk Hur, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA.
  • Dr. Arzucan Ozgur, Department of Computer Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.


Use the following URI to download this ontology

Note that the source ontology is an OWL file.



INO can be cited by the following references:

Hur J, Özgür A, Xiang Z, He Y. Development and application of an Interaction Network Ontology for literature mining of vaccine-associated gene-gene interactions. Journal of Biomedical Semantics. 2015, 6:2. 10.1186/2041-1480-6-2. PMID: 25785184. PMCID: PMC4362819.

Hur J, Özgür A, He Y. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature. BioData Mining. 2016 Dec 19;9:41. doi: 10.1186/s13040-016-0118-0. PMID: 28031747. PMCID: PMC5168857.

Tools using INO

The following tools are using INO:

  • Ignet:
  • SciMiner: Hur J, Schuyler AD, States DJ, Feldman EL. SciMiner: web-based literature mining tool for target identification and functional enrichment analysis. Bioinformatics 2009, 25(6):838-40. PMID: 19188191. PMCID: PMC2654801.


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