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Python

README.md

Overview

Projector helps you set up isolated environments for developing Python projects, and pack these environment into isolated packages that you can later install on production.

At Infinidat, we build software for system administrators, that expect a complete, packaged product, and not just a bunch of Python scripts. Since Python (at least until Python 3.2) does not provide a decent mechanism for building Python applications (with a bundled interpreter), we started building our own solution, and this is what we came up with.

By using some skeleton, buildout recipes and some wrapping code, we provide:

  • Isolated python builds for your applications
  • Simple, easy-to-use version release mechanism
  • Packaging Python applications into MSI, RPM, DEB

Using Projector

Installation

Projector is available on pypi.python.org, as infi.projector. To install just run:

pip install -U infi.projector

Walkthrough

We will explain the bits and bolts about using project by a straight-forward walkthrough.

Creating a new project

We will start by creating a new project:

projector repository init --mkdir infi.example git@github.com:Infinidat/example.git "example on infi.projector" "An example by walkthrough"

This creates a new skeleton for the project, under a new directory, called infi.example. Inside, you'll find the following files:

  • buildout.cfg. This project's configuration file. Already includes the project name and description strings.
  • setup.in. A template file for setup.py. Modify when necessary.

Also, you'll notice that the checked out branch is develop. That is because we use gitflow's branching model. That means that master holds merges for final releases only, and that the development is on develop or separate feature branches.

Building the development environment

If you just create a new project, or clone an existing one, you won't have a proper setup.py, or any console script. In order to generate those, run:

projector devenv build

This script will create the buildout environment, generate the version files from Git, and create the executable scripts under the bin directory.

If you want to use our isolated python builds in our development environment, and not the global Python, run instead:

projector devenv build --use-isolated-python

This will download the platform-specific build from our servers, and use that.

There are other flags for this command, you can read about them by passing --help.

Some environment variables may change the behavior of the build process. Specifically, PROJECTOR_BOOTSTRAP_DOWNLOAD_BASE and PROJECTOR_BOOTSTRAP_SETUP_SOURCE change the command-line parameters passed to bootstrap.py (--download-base and --setup-source, respectively).

Adding dependencies

Projects handled by projector have two types of dependencies:

  • production dependencies. written to setup.py, honored by pip/easy_install
  • development dependencies. written to buildout.cfg, affects only the development environment.

Handling both types of dependencies/requirements is easy:

projector requirements list [--development]
projector requirements add <requirement> [--development] [--commit-changes]
projector requirements remove <requirement> [--development] [--commit-changes]

Freezing versions

You can freeze the development environment by using the following commands:

projector requirements freeze [--with-install-requires] [--commit-changes] [--newest]
projector requirements unfreeze [--with-install-requires] [--commit-changes]

What this does is adds the versions of the downloaded dependencies to buildout.cfg, so that you'll always get the same set of dependencies when you run devenv build.

If you pass the --with-install-requires flag, this will also update the dependencies in install_requires with a >= requirement to the locally installed version.

Console scripts

projector provide a simple command-line interface to manage console_scripts entry points in setup.py:

projector console-scripts list
projector console-scripts add <script-name> <entry-point> [--commit-changes]
projector console-scripts remove <script-name> [--commit-changes]

Adding package data

If you wish to include additional (non-Python-source) files in your python package distribution, projector can help you set it up:

projector package-data list
projector package-data add <filename> [--commit-changes]
projector package-data remove <filename> [--commit-changes]

Releasing versions

As we mentioned earlier, we use gitflow's branching model and versioning scheme. However, there's a little more to do when releasing versions than just merging git branches:

  • You need to find out the latest version number, and advance on top of it
  • You need to bump the version-related files in the source
  • You need to upload the version to PyPI
  • You need to push the commit and tags to origin

projector solves all of these problems with the following command-line options:

projector version release <version> [--no-fetch] (--no-upload | [--distributions=DISTRIBUTIONS] [--pypi-servers=PYPI_SERVERS]) [--push-changes]
projector version upload <version> [--distributions=DISTRIBUTIONS] [--pypi-servers=PYPI_SERVERS]

Where the options are:

  • release. Release a new version, including registering and uploading to pypi
  • upload. Upload an existing version to pypi
  • --distributions=DISTRIBUTIONS. Distributions to build [default: sdist,bdist_egg]
  • --pypi-servers=PYPI. PyPI server for publishing [default: pypi,]
  • <version>. x.y.z, or the keywords: major, minor, trivial (for 'release' only) or current, latest (for 'upload' command only)
  • --no-upload. Do not upload the package as part of the release process
  • --no-fetch. Do not fetch origin before releasing
  • --push-changes. We often forget to push the commits and tags to origin. This option does it for you

Packaging applications (not just modules)

If you're developing a complete application, and not just a python package, you probably want to generate a sysadmin-friendly package of your app, bundled with its own iterpreter.

In order to do this, you will have to add the following dependency to your project by running the command:

projector requirements add infi.recipe.console_scripts

Then, you'll need to build the development environment with the isolated python included:

projector devenv build --use-isolated-python

After the environment is ready, you can use projector to build stand-alone, isolated, packages. just run:

projector devenv pack

Based on the platform you're running on, this command will generate a package under the parts directory:

  • MSI on Windows platform
  • DEB on ubuntu
  • RPM on redhat/centos

The target arhicture of the package will also match the platform you are using (x86 for 32bit, x64 for 64bit)

Project/User defaults

In some cases, you'd want to always use a set of command-line arguments for a specific project, or maybe some user will want to use the same arguments for all their projects. You can do so by writing the following configuration file to ./.projector (per-project) or ~/.projector (per-user):

[commandline-arguments]
--use-isolated-python = True
--pypi-servers=pypi,local

This is just an example of course.

Developing projector

Checking out the code

The easiest way to checkout the code is by using projector itself:

easy_install infi.projector
projector clone git://github.com/Infindiat/infi.projector.git
cd infi.projector
projector devenv build

There are two alternatives.