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An 8 bit Emulator of some sort
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README.md

Web page --> http://lerc.github.io/kwak-8/

Emulator for an 8 bit machine that never existed

Hardware Specifications

  • 8-bit AVR compatible instruction set.
  • 128k Program memory
  • 64k RAM
  • Display lowres(240x180) Hires(480x360)
  • Predominantly 16 color (more available in some circumstances)

The Emulator aims to occupy a middle ground between 8-bit hardware of old and efficient emulation.

Most emulators that emulate real systems have to emulate all of the timing and hardware of a video beam based display. A Video beam output could be considered a write only display, with the limitation that the image must be written serially and with precice timing.

This emulator reduces the emulation cost by providing a write-only framebuffer which must be updated every frame. The framebuffer does not need precice timing for each pixel, nor do the pixels need to be written in any particular order.

The framebuffer reduces the workload of the emulator greatly. It does come at a cost in that an entire class of tricks that old computers could do are not available in this emulator. There are no raster interrupts and there is no beam-racing.

In compensation, what is provided is an emulated harware mechanism more appropriate to a frame-buffer output. You may think of this as a kind of blitter if you wish.

There are 'display mode' operations that update the entire display from RAM and hardware register settings. There are image drawing fuctions that work analogous to sprites, they get drawn on top of the dispaly mode with additional harware operations.

There is a 256 colour serial output mode with some rudimentary blending options, A clever person should be able to get 24 bit images out of the system, but not likely at interactive speeds.

How To Develop for it?

The emulator supports hex files. You can write programs in assembler or compile c programs with avr-gcc.

You can see a guide to developing C for AVR microcontrollers here

avr-gcc seems to need a commandline option to specify the architecture. Since this is a device from my own imagination, it is not explicitly supported. I use -mmcu=atmega1284p which is close.

There are some example programs in the c directory. There are examples that contain the entire program in the .c file so you can see exactly what is needed.

Hardware Registers

While the Instruction set is 8-bit AVR compatible. The port mapped hardware is not intended to match any particular microcontroller.

The main Display output control is at address 0x28. Writing 0x00 to that port puts the framebuffer onscreen in lowres mode. Writing 0x01 displays hires mode.

The file IOMapping.md lists all hardware ports. Should there be an inconsistancy in the documentation, IOMapping.md should be taken as the correct form.

You may write byte sized pixels (one of 256 colours in a fixed palette) to the framebuffer serially. Logically the frameBuffer is 512x392 and addressed with a 18 bit address in 0x20,0x21,0x22 for SerialPixel address Low, Middle and High respectively.

Writing to addrwess 0x25 adds to the pixel at the pixel addrress to the colour of the value

Writing to port 0x26 subtracts colour of the value from the pixel at the pixel addrress

Writing to address 0x27 multiplies the pixel at the pixel addrress by the colour of the value

An additional control register lets you use a constant base colour instead of the destination pixel as well as allowing auto increment on the pixel address when writing to any of the ADD MUL SUB

You cannot write directly from Program Memory to the display. Serial output must be conveyed by the CPU. Blitting operations can read from RAM. Consequently, image data will usually be transferred from Program Memory to RAM before it can be actively used.

Input

Reading from ports 0x30 to 0x37 provides state based inputs

  input base = 0x30
  button_state_0 = input base + 0  Left Up Right Down Enter Esc Ctrl Shift  
  button_state_1 = input base + 1  A W D S SPACE Mouse1 Mouse2 Mouse3
  mouseX = input base +2
  mouseY = input base +3   mouse coordinates are in lowres pixels
  ticker = input base +4   increments on each frame of host device.
  timer  = input base +5   increments once per second
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