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Bucketeer is a lightweight web service used for governing other rate limited services via a leaky bucket algorithm. Bucketeer is written in Haskell and uses Redis for persistence.

Project Status

I am currently putting the finishing touches on this project. Suggestions and pull requests are welcome. The minimum viable HTTP interface is tested. Some tasks left to do:

  1. Authentication?
  2. Release to Hackage


Bucketeer has the concepts of consumer and feature. A consumer is a uniquely-identifying name for a user of your api service that may be rate limited. A consumer is entitled to many features. A feature is some uniqely identifying name of a feature in your service that has a particular limit and restore rate.

Say you have an API. Joe is a consumer, making a request to list products in a catalog. You might structure your API with middleware to authenticate the user.

+---------------+    +--------------+    +----------------+             +-----------------+
| Joe's Request |===>| Authenticate |===>| Bucketeer Tick |== 200 OK ==>| Perform Request |
+---------------+    +--------------+    +----------------+             +-----------------+
                                       420 Enhance Your Calm
+---------------+                        +----------------+                                
| Throttle Resp |<=======================|  Render Error  |                                
+---------------+                        +----------------+                                

If the tick request is successful, it will return a 200 with the remaining account in JSON. The user shuld be able to proceed with their action. If a 420 response comes back, the user is throttled and should receive the appropriate status from you, such as 503.


To build Bucketeer you'll need cabal-dev:

cabal install cabal-dev

To build and run the test suite with cabal, run

make spec

If you have all the dependencies installed, it is much easier to just run

make quick_spec

To build the project, simply run


The executable will be dist/build/bucketeer/bucketeer

Running Bucketeer

./bucketeer --help
Help Options:
  -h, --help                  Show option summary.
  --help-all                  Show all help options.

Application Options:
  -p, --port                  Port. Default 3000
  -n, --namespcae             Optional redis namespace so multiple bucketeers can run on the same Redis instance
  --redis-host                Redis host. Default localhost
  --redis-port                Redis port. Default 6379
  --redis-password            Redis password. Default no password.
  --redis-max-connections     Redis max connections. Default 50.
  --redis-max-idle            Redis max idle time in seconds. Default 30.
  -l, --log-file              Log file. Defaults to only logging to stdout.

Bucketeer currently has no authentication system. This should be perfectly fine as long as you don't configure it to be internet-facing.

Bucketeer will persist all data to redis, so if you want your bucket data to be durable, be sure to configure redis appropriately to write to disk. When Bucketeer exits or its list of buckets is modified, it will dump its configuration to redis as JSON under the key "bucketeer:manager". Upon starting Bucketeer, it will reload this config. If the config somehow becomes hosed, you can always delete that key and Bucketeer will start fresh.

If you need to run multiple, logically separate instances of Bucketeer, pass the -n flag to the executable to specify a namespace. This way, Bucketeer will persist and read from separate locations for each instance.


Bucketeer supports deployment through keter.

Make sure to copy config/keter.yaml.sample to config/keter.yaml and make any changes you need for deployment.

running make will generate a bucketeer.keter file. Sync this to your keter incoming directory for zero downtime deployment. Note that Bucketeer will take its port from the PORT environment variable if its set, as keter expects, so you shouldn't set that in your keter.yaml file as a flag, because keter determines this at runtime.


I've set up a poor-man's benchmarking suite. The suite isn't exhaustive, but it hits a few different cases using different levels of concurrency. In order to run benchmarks you need:

  1. gnuplot
  2. apache benchmark (ab)
  3. redis running on the default port
  4. nothing using port 3000

To run benchmarks, run:

make benchmark

This will run ab against the server on several key routes, using increasing levels of concurrency (1 to 15). Output will be generated in benchmark/reports. It will generate csv reports and gnuplot bar graphs.


Bucketeer is managed entirely through HTTP.

Getting List of Buckets

Send a GET to /

curl -X GET http://localhost:3000/


Getting Remaining Request Count

Send a GET to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename

curl -X GET http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages


Creating/Replacing a Bucket

Send a POST to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename Requires the following parameters:

capacity: number of requests their bucket can hold

restore_rate: how many milliseconds to wait before restoring 1 request to that particular bucket.

curl -X POST -d "capacity=10&restore_rate=9000" http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages

This bucket will restore 1 request every 9 seconds.

The URL for the bucket will be returned in the Location header.

Ticking a Bucket

Ticking expends one request in the user's bucket if they have at least one remaining.

Send a POST to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename/tick

If the user has enough remaining requests, the response will be a 200 and will return the remaining count:

curl -X POST http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages/tick


However, if the user does not have enough remaining requests, you will receive a 420 Enhance Your Calm status code and an error message:

curl -X POST http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages/tick

{"description":"check_messages bucket has been exhausted for michael","id":"Bucket Exhausted"}

Refilling a Bucket

Refilling a bucket resets the remaining requests count to the full capacity.

Send a POST to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename/refill

curl -X POST http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages/refill


Draining a Bucket

Draining a bucket sets the remaining requests count to 0. Note that the bucket will still continue to be refilled at the normal rate.

Send a POST to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename/drain

curl -X POST http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages/drain

Deleting a Bucket

Deleting a bucket will remove it from Bucketeer and stop it from refilling. Subsequent requests to this bucket will return 404s.

Send a DELETE to /consumers/consumername/buckets/featurename

curl -X DELETE http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael/buckets/check_messages

Deleting a Consumer

Deleting a consumer will delete and halt all of their buckets.

Send a DELETE to /consumers/consumername

curl -X DELETE http://localhost:3000/consumers/michael


HTTP service for leaky-bucket style rate limiting







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