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Moloch v2

Worship Moloch

Moloch whose love is endless oil and stone! Moloch whose soul is electricity and banks! Moloch whose poverty is the specter of genius! Moloch whose fate is a cloud of sexless hydrogen! Moloch whose name is the Mind!

Moloch! Moloch! Robot apartments! invisible suburbs! skeleton treasuries! blind capitals! demonic industries! spectral nations! invincible madhouses! granite cocks! monstrous bombs!

~ Allen Ginsberg, Howl

Moloch v2 is an upgraded version of MolochDAO that allows the DAO to acquire and spend multiple different tokens, instead of just one. It introduces the Guild Kick proposal type which allows members to forcibly remove another member (their assets are refunded in full). It also also allows for issuing non-voting shares in the form of Loot. Finally, v2 fixes the "unsafe approval" issue raised in the original Nomic Labs audit.

For a primer on Moloch v1, please visit the original documentation.

Design Principles

In developing Moloch v2, we stuck with our ruthless minimalism, deviating as little as possible from the original while dramatically improving utility. We skipped many features again and believe our design represents a Minimally Viable For-Profit DAO, yet one flexible enough to support a variety of use decentralized cases, including venture funds, hedge funds, investment banks, and incubators.


Moloch v2 is designed to extend MolochDAO's operations from purely single-token public goods grants-making to acquiring and spending (or investing in) an unlimited portfolio of assets.

Proposals in Moloch v2 now specify a tribute token and a payment token, which can be any whitelisted ERC20. Membership proposals which offer tribute tokens in exchange for shares can now offer any token, possibly helping balance the DAO portfolio. Grant proposals can now be in both shares and a stablecoin payment token to smooth out volatility risk, or even skip shares entirely to pay external contractors without awarding membership. Members can also propose trades to swap tokens OTC with the guild bank, which could be used for making investments, active portfolio management, selloffs, or just to top off a stablecoin reserve used to pay for planned expenses.

In addition to standard proposals above, there are two special proposals. The first is for whitelisting new tokens to be eligible as tribute, and the second is for removing DAO members via Guild Kick. Both follow the same voting mechanics as standard proposals (no quorum, simple majority rules).


In order to limit legal liability on members of a for-profit deployment of Moloch v2, the members may opt to form a LAO. LAOs are DAOs wrapped in a legally compliant entity, such as an LLC or C-Corp. The LAO can enter legal contracts, custody offchain assets (e.g. SAFTs), and distribute dividends. Investors in a LAO must be accredited, but service providers compensated in LAO shares can earn their shares of the LAO portfolio.

The current Moloch v2 contract standard was designed through a collaborative effort between MetaCartel, ConsenSys’s The LAO, and Moloch. The MetaCartel Venture DAO is expected to be the first deployment of Moloch v2 and blaze the trail for other for-profit DAOs to follow. Check out the Venture DAO whitepaper for more information.

Security Tokens

To interface with offchain securities like SAFTs, the MolochLAO will issue security tokens that follow the Claims Token Standard ERC-1843 and the Simple Restricted Token Standard ERC-1404. Upon distribution of the SAFT tokens, the LAO custodian would send them to the claims token contract to be distributed to the claims token holders.

For equity, debt, or other revenue yielding securities the LAO custodian would receive the proceeds, liquidate to a token suitable for dividends (e.g. DAI) and then send the dividend tokens to the claims token contract to be distributed to the claims token holders.

Members that ragequit and receive their fraction of all LAO-held security claims tokens will still be able to use their various claims token to withdraw their dividends from each claims token contract.

Transfer restrictions will be enforced such that the security claims tokens can only be transferred to other DAO members, or other addresses whitelisted by the LAO admins.


To intall this project run npm install.


To tests the contracts run npm run test.

To compute their code coverage run npm run coverage.

Deploying an interacting with a Moloch DAO and a Pool

This project includes Hardhat tasks for deploying and using DAOs and Pools.

Deploying a new DAO

Follow this instructions to deploy a new DAO:

  1. Edit hardhat.config.js, setting the values for INFURA_API_KEY and MAINNET_PRIVATE_KEY.
  2. Edit deployment-params.js, setting your desired deployment parameters.
  3. Run npx hardhat moloch-deploy --network mainnet
  4. Edit hardhat.config.js, setting the address of the DAO in networks.mainnet.deployedContracts.moloch.

Deploying a new Pool

Follow this instructions to deploy a new Pool:

  1. Edit hardhat.config.js, setting the values for INFURA_API_KEY and MAINNET_PRIVATE_KEY.
  2. Make sure you have the right address in hardhat.config.js's networks.mainnet.deployedContracts.moloch field.
  3. Run npx hardhat pool-deploy --network mainnet --shares <shares> --tokens <tokens> with the initial amount of tokens you want to donate to the pool, and how many shares you want in return.

Interacting with the smart contracts

This project has tasks to work with DAOs and Pools. To use them, you should first follow this instructions:

  1. Edit hardhat.config.js, setting the values for INFURA_API_KEY and MAINNET_PRIVATE_KEY.
  2. Make sure you have the right address in hardhat.config.js's networks.mainnet.deployedContracts.moloch field.
  3. If you want to use a Pool, make sure you have the right address in hardhat.config.js's networks.mainnet.deployedContracts.pool field.

After following those instructions, you can run npx hardhat to get a list with all the tasks:

$ npx hardhat

  clean                         Clears the cache and deletes all artifacts
  compile                       Compiles the entire project, building all artifacts
  console                       Opens a hardhat console
  flatten                       Flattens and prints all contracts and their dependencies
  help                          Prints this message
  moloch-deploy                 Deploys a new instance of the Moloch DAO
  moloch-process-proposal       Processes a proposal
  moloch-ragequit               Ragequits, burning some shares and getting tokens back
  moloch-submit-proposal        Submits a proposal
  moloch-submit-vote            Submits a vote
  moloch-update-delegate        Updates your delegate
  pool-add-keeper               Adds a keeper
  pool-deploy                   Deploys a new instance of the pool and activates it
  pool-deposit                  Donates tokens to the pool
  pool-keeper-withdraw          Withdraw other users' tokens from the pool
  pool-remove-keeper            Removes a keeper
  pool-sync                     Syncs the pool
  pool-withdraw                 Withdraw tokens from the pool
  run                           Runs a user-defined script after compiling the project
  test                          Runs mocha tests

You can run npx hardhat help <task> to get help about each tasks and their parameters. For example:

$ npx hardhat help moloch-submit-proposal
hardhat version 2.0.0

Usage: hardhat [GLOBAL OPTIONS] moloch-submit-proposal --applicant <STRING> --details <STRING> --shares <STRING> --tribute <STRING>


  --applicant   The address of the applicant
  --details     The proposal's details
  --shares      The number of shares requested
  --tribute     The number of token's wei offered as tribute

moloch-submit-proposal: Submits a proposal

For global options help run: hardhat help

Changelog v2

Many Molochs

To expect God to care about you or your personal values or the values of your civilization, that’s hubris.

To expect God to bargain with you, to allow you to survive and prosper as long as you submit to Him, that’s hubris.

To expect to wall off a garden where God can’t get to you and hurt you, that’s hubris.

To expect to be able to remove God from the picture entirely…well, at least it’s an actionable strategy.

I am a transhumanist because I do not have enough hubris not to try to kill God.

~ Scott Alexander, Meditations on Moloch

Moloch v2 is minimally different from Moloch v1, please read the original documentation first, and then the changelog below.


General Changes

In order to circumvent Solidity's 16 parameter "stack too deep" error we combined several proposal flags in the Proposal struct into the flags array.

struct Proposal {
  // ...
  bool[6] flags; // [sponsored, processed, didPass, cancelled, whitelist, guildkick]
  // 0. sponsored - true only if the proposal has been submitted by a member
  // 1. processed - true only if the proposal has been processed
  // 2. didPass - true only if the proposal passed
  // 3. cancelled - true only if the proposer called cancelProposal before a member sponsored the proposal
  // 4. whitelist - true only if this is a whitelist proposal, NOTE - tributeToken is target of whitelist
  // 5. guildkick - true only if this is a guild kick proposal, NOTE - applicant is target of guild kick
  // ...

Pull Pattern

In order to mitigate a number of potential vulnerabilities around token transfers, all token transfers now follow the "pull pattern". This means that functions that would have previously called into an ERC20 token contract to move a balance now simply update an internal record of token balances instead. This prevents suddenly implemented token transfer restrictions from halting the proper execution of Moloch.sol, especially the processProposal function.

As a result, the GuildBank.sol contract has been removed.

Note - in this documentation we still refer to the "Guild Bank" as it remains a useful concept, but the balance is no longer tracked in the GuildBank.sol contract, but instead the userTokenBalances[GUILD] mapping of balances per token.


We add the nested mapping userTokenBalances to track balances by user & token. userTokenBalances[userAddress][tokenAddress] = balance.

    address public constant GUILD = address(0xdead);
    address public constant ESCROW = address(0xbeef);
    mapping (address => mapping(address => uint256)) public userTokenBalances;

The Guild balance is the sum of accepted tributes and would have previously been held in the GuildBank.sol contract, and the Escrow balance is the sum of pending tributes and would have previously been held on the Moloch.sol contract. A user's balance is the sum of token payments, ragequit proceeds, processor rewards, and returns proposal deposits that would have previously been automatically transferred to them, but is now held on their behalf until they withdraw.


New function to withdraw a single token balance.


New function to withdraw multiple token balances at once. Can be called with max = true to withdraw 100% of each provided token address.


No longer transfers payment tokens, returned deposits, and processor rewards automatically, instead updates internal token balances.

ragequit & ragekick

No longer transfers token balances automatically, instead updates internal token balances.

Multi-Token Support

Proposal Struct

Add the following tribute/payment params to allow proposals to offer tribute and request payment in ERC20 tokens specified at the time. In theory they can be the same token, although that wouldn't make a lot of sense.

  • add uint256 tributeOffered (renamed from tokenTribute)
  • add IERC20 tributeToken
  • add uint256 paymentRequested
  • add IERC20 paymentToken

Track the whitelisted tokens in a mapping (to check if that token is on the whitelist) and an array (to iterate over them when ragequitting to give members a proportional share of all assets).

  • add mapping (address => IERC20) public tokenWhitelist
  • add IERC20[] public approvedTokens
  • replace single approvedToken with an array: approvedTokens
  • iterate through approvedTokens and save them to storage
  • add tribute/payment token params
  • enforce tribute/payment tokens are on whitelist
  • save tribute/payment to proposal
  • auto-fail the proposal if guild bank doesn't have enough tokens for requested payment
  • on successful proposal, update applicant's balance with payment tokens requested
  • withdraw proportional share of all whitelisted tokens, deducting from the internal guild bank balance and updating the user's internal balance

Adding Tokens to Whitelist

Proposal Struct
  • tributeToken -> token to whitelist
  • proposal.flags[4] -> whitelist flag
  • add mapping (address => bool) public proposedToWhitelist to prevent duplicate active token whitelist proposals
  • new function to propose adding a token to the whitelist
  • enforces that the token address isn't null or already whitelisted
  • saves a proposal with all other params set to null except the whitelist flag and tributeToken address (tributeToken acts as token to whitelist)
  • new function to process whitelist proposals
  • on a passing whitelist proposal, add the token to whitelist
  • remove token from proposedToWhitelist so another proposal to whitelist the token can be made (assuming it failed)

Submit -> Sponsor Flow

As Nomic Labs explained in their audit report, approving ERC20 tokens to Moloch is unsafe.

Approving the Moloch DAO to transfer your tokens is, in general, unsafe. Users need to approve tokens to be a proposer or an applicant, but they can end up as the applicant of an unwanted proposal if someone attacks them, as explained in [MOL-L01].

This also has an impact in the UX, as submitting a proposal requires three transactions (2 approvals, 1 submitProposal call). This is in contrast to one of the most common UX pattern for approval, which consists of only calling approve once, with MAX_INT as value. If someone were to use that pattern, she will be in a vulnerable situation.

To fix this, we change the submission process from only allowing members to submit proposals to allowing anyone to submit proposals but then only adding them to the proposal queue when a member sponsors the proposal.

Proposal Struct
  • address proposer is now whoever calls submitProposal (can be non-member)
  • add address sponsor which is the member that calls sponsorProposal
  • add cancelled to indicate if the proposal has been cancelled by its proposer
  • remove aborted which existed to address the unsafe approval vulnerability
  • add mapping (uint256 => Proposal) public proposals to store all proposals by ID
  • change uint256[] public proposalQueue to only store a reference to the proposal by its ID
  • add proposalCount which monotonically increases on each proposal submission and acts as the ID

Note - as a result of this change, getting the proposal details from the proposal index changed across the codebase from proposalQueue[proposalIndex] to proposals[proposalQueue[proposalIndex]] as the former now only returns the proposal ID, which must be used to lookup the proposal details from the proposals mapping.

  • saves proposal by ID, but does not add it to the proposalQueue
  • transfers tribute tokens from the msg.sender (proposer)

Because tribute always comes from the proposer and not the applicant, there is never a situation where someone else can initiate an action to pull your tokens into Moloch, so you are safe to approve Moloch once for the maximum amount of any token you wish to offer as tribute.

  • can only be called by a member
  • sponsor escrows the proposal deposit
  • checks that proposal has not been sponsored or cancelled
  • checks to prevent duplicate tokenWhitelist and guildKick proposals
  • adds the proposal to the proposalQueue
  • if failing, refunds escrowed tribute to the proposer, not the applicant

If a proposal has been submitted but no members are interested in sponsoring it, the proposer needs a way to withdraw their escrowed tribute. They do this by calling cancelProposal, which they can only do before a member sponsors the proposal.

  • can only be called by proposal proposer (whoever called submitProposal)
  • checks that the proposal has not been already sponsored
  • sets cancelled to true on the proposal
  • returns escrowed tribute to the proposer
remove abort function

The abort functionality existed primarily to address the unsafe approval vulnerability by allowing applicants to abort unexpected and/or malicious proposals and have their tribute returned. However, with the new submit -> sponsor process, there is no risk to approved funds and the abort function and all references can be safely removed.

Guild Kick

To allow the members to take risks on new members, we add the guild kick proposal type. The guild kick proposal, if it passes, puts the member in "jail" until all proposals they have voted YES on have been processed, forcing them to stay in the DAO and be party to any consequences of those proposals. When a member is jailed, 100% of their shares are converted to loot and thus they lose the ability to sponsor, vote on, or be the beneficiary (applicant) of any further proposals.

Proposal Struct
  • applicant -> member to kick
  • proposal.flags[5] -> guild kick flag
Member Struct
  • add jailed -> the index of the proposal which jailed the member was jailed
  • add mapping (address => bool) public proposedToKick to prevent duplicate active guild kick proposals
  • new function to propose kicking a member
  • enforces that the member exists (has shares or loot)
  • saves a proposal with all other params set to null except the guild kick flag and the applicant address (applicant acts as member to kick)
  • a new function to process guild kick proposals
  • on a passing guild kick proposal, convert 100% of the member's shares into loot and set jailed to the proposal index
  • remove member address from proposedToKick so another proposal to kick the member can be made (assuming it failed)


After a member has been jailed as a result of a passing guild kick proposal, once all the proposals they have voted YES on are processed, anyone can call the ragekick function to forcibly redeem the member's loot for their proportional share of the guild bank's tokens. This is effectively the same thing as the member calling ragequit themselves.

  • a new function to kick jailed members
  • checks that member is jailed and has loot


To allow the DAO to issue non-voting shares, we introduce the concept of Loot. Just like shares, loot is requested via proposal, issued to specific members and non-transferrable, and can be redeemed (via ragequit) on par with shares for a proportional fraction of assets in the Guild Bank. However, loot do not count towards votes and DAO members with only loot will not be able to sponsor proposals or vote on them. Non-shareholder members with loot will also be prevented from updating their delegate keys as they wouldn't be able to use them for anything anyways.

Proposal Struct
  • add lootRequested
  • update maxTotalSharesAtYesVote -> maxTotalSharesAndLootAtYesVote
Member Struct
  • add loot
  • add totalLoot
  • update totalSharesRequested -> totalSharesAndLootRequested
  • add onlyShareholder modifier to be members with at least 1 share (not loot)
  • update onlyMember modifier to be members with at least 1 share or 1 loot
  • add lootRequested param
  • check that MAX_NUMBER_OF_SHARES_AND_LOOT won't be exceeded
  • update totalSharesAndLootRequested
  • update maxTotalSharesAndLootAtYesVote if necessary
  • update totalSharesAndLootRequested
  • assign loot to member if proposal passes
  • update totalLoot if proposal passes

Note - the dilution bound exists to prevent share based overpayment resulting from mass ragequit, and thus takes loot into account when calculating the anticipated dilution.

  • use updated onlyMember modifier (so loot holders can ragequit)
  • add lootToBurn param
  • use updated onlyMember modifier (so loot holders can ragequit)
  • add lootToBurn param
  • use onlyShareholder modifier to prevent loot-only members from updating delegate keys

Deposit Token

To enforce consistency of the proposal deposits and processing fees (which were previously simply the sole approvedToken) we set a fixed depositToken at contract deployment.

  • add IERC20 public depositToken
  • save depositToken from the first value of the approvedTokens array
  • collect proposal deposit from the sponsor
  • transfer processing reward in depositToken to whoever called processProposal
  • return remaining deposit to proposer

Goodbye Goodbye


👹 Moloch whose mind is pure machinery! Moloch whose blood is running money!




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