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Developer Environment

Sia is written in Go. To build and test Sia, you are going to need a working go environment, including having both $GOROOT/bin and $GOPATH/bin in your $PATH. For most Linux distributions, Go will be in the package manager, though it may be an old version that is incompatible with Sia. Once you have a working Go environment, you are set to build the project. If you plan on cross compiling Sia, you may need to install Go from source. You can find information on that here.

Sia has a development build, an automated testing build, and a release build. The release build is the only one that can synchronize to the full network. To get the release build, it is usually sufficient to run go get -u This will download Sia and its dependencies and install binaries in $GOPATH/bin.

After downloading, you can find the Sia source code in $GOPATH/src/ To build the release binary, run make release-std from this directory. To build the release binary with a (slow) race detector and an array of debugging asserts, run make release. To build the developer binary (which has a different genesis block, faster block times, and a few other tweaks), just run make.

If you intend to contribute to Sia, you should start by forking the project on GitHub, and then adding your fork as a "remote" in the Sia git repository via git remote add [fork name] [fork url]. Now you can develop by pulling changes from origin, pushing your modifications to [fork name], and then making a pull request on GitHub.

If you see an error like the one below, it means that you either forgot to run make dependencies, or you cloned the project into a path that the go tool does not recognize (usually the wrong path, or symbolic links were somehow involved).

consensus/fork.go:4:2: cannot find package "" in any of:
    /usr/lib/go/src/ (from $GOROOT)
    /home/user/gopath/src/ (from $GOPATH)

Developer Conventions

This file is meant to help a developer navigate the codebase and develop clean, maintainable code. Knowing all of these conventions will also make it easier to read and code review the Sia project.

The primary purpose of the conventions within Sia is to keep the codebase simple. Simpler constructions means easier code reviews, greater accessibility to newcomers, and less potential for mistakes. It is also to keep things uniform, much in the spirit of go fmt. When everything looks the same, everyone has an easier time reading and reviewing code they did not write themselves.


All structs, functions, and interfaces must have a docstring.

Anytime that something is left unfinished, place a comment containing the string 'TODO:'. This sends a clear message to other developers, and creates a greppable way to find unfinished parts of the codebase. 'TODO' statements are currently discouraged. As the codebase matures, 'TODO' statements will become increasingly frowned upon. 'TODO' statements should not document feature requests, but instead document incompleteness where the incompleteness causes disruption to user experience or causes a security vulnerability.

Documentation should give a sense of what each function does, but should also give a sense of the overall architecture of the code. Where useful, examples should be provided, and common pitfalls should be explained. Anything that breaks other conventions in any way needs to have a comment, even if it is obvious why the convention had to be broken.

The goal of the codebase is to be accessible to newbies. Anything more advanced than what you would expect to remember from an 'Intro to Data Structures' class should have an explanation about what the concept it is and why it was picked over other potential choices.

Code that exists purely to be compatible with previous versions of the software should be tagged with a COMPATvX.X.X comment. Examples below.

// Find and sort the outputs.
outputs := getOutputs()
// TODO: actually sort the outputs.
// Disallow unknown agents.
// COMPATv0.4.0: allow a blank agent to preserve compatibility with
// 'siac' v0.4.0, which did not set an agent.
if agent != "SiaAgent" && agent != "" {
	return errors.New("unrecognized agent!")


Names are used to give readers and reviewers a sense of what is happening in the code. When naming variables, you should assume that the person reading your code is unfamiliar with the codebase. Short names (like cs instead of consensusSet) should only be used when the context is immediately obvious. For example cs := new(ConsensusSet) is immediately obvious context for cs, and so cs is appropriate for the rest of the function.

Data structures should never have shortened names. is confusing to anyone who has not used the data structure extensively. The code should be accessible to people who are unfamiliar with the codebase. One exception is for the variable called mu, which is short for 'mutex'. This exception is made because mu appears in many data structures.

When calling functions with obscure parameters, named variables should be used to indicate what the parameters do. For example, m := NewMiner(1) is confusing. Instead, use threads := 1; m := NewMiner(threads). The name gives readers a sense of what the parameter within NewMiner does even when they are not familiar with the NewMiner function. Where possible, functions with obscure, untyped inputs should be avoided.

The most important thing to remember when choosing names is to cater to people who are unfamiliar with the code. A reader should never have to ask 'What is cs?' on their first pass through the code, even though to experienced developers it is obvious that cs refers to a consensus.ConsensusSet.

Function Prefixes

Sia uses special prefixes for certain functions to hint about their usage to the caller.


Prefix functions with threaded (e.g., threadedMine) to indicate that callers should only call these functions within their own goroutine (e.g., go threadedMine()). These functions must manage their own thread-safety.


Prefix functions with managed (e.g. managedUpdateWorkerPool) if the function acquires any locks in its body.

Control Flow

Where possible, control structures should be minimized or avoided. This includes avoiding nested if statements, and avoiding else statements where possible. Sometimes, complex control structures are necessary, but where possible use alternative code patterns and insert functions to break things up.


// Do not do this:
if err != nil {
} else {

// Instead to this:
if err != nil {


All exported functions from a package and/or object need to be thread safe. Usually, this means that the first lines of the function contain a Lock(); defer Unlock(). Simple locking schemes should be preferred over performant locking schemes. As will everything else, anything unusual or convention breaking should have a comment.

Non-exported functions should not do any locking unless they are named with the proper prefix (see Function Prefixes). The responsibility for thread-safety comes from the exported functions which call the non-exported functions. Maintaining this convention minimizes developer overhead when working with complex objects.

Error Handling

All errors need to be checked as soon as they are received, even if they are known to not cause problems. The statement that checks the error needs to be if err != nil, and if there is a good reason to use an alternative statement (such as err == nil), it must be documented. The body of the if statement should be at most 4 lines, but usually only one. Anything requiring more lines needs to be its own function.


block, err := s.AcceptBlock()
if err != nil {
	handleAcceptBlockErr(block, err)

Sanity Checks

Some functions make assumptions. For example, the addTransaction function assumes that the transaction being added is not in conflict with any other transactions. Where possible, these explicit assumptions should be validated.


if build.DEBUG {
	_, exists := tp.usedOutputs[input.OutputID]
	if exists {
		panic("incorrect use of addTransaction")

In the example, a panic is called for incorrect use of the function, but only in debug mode. This failure will be invisible in production code, but the code will have higher performance because the code should never fail anyway.

If the code is continually checking items that should be universally true, mistakes are easier to catch during testing, and side effects are less likely to go unnoticed.

Sanity checks and panics are purely to check for developer mistakes. A user should not be able to trigger a panic, and no set of network communications or real-world conditions should be able to trigger a panic.


The test suite code should be the same quality as the rest of the codebase. When writing new code in a pull request, the pull request should include test coverage for the code.

Most modules have a tester object, which can be created by calling createXXXTester. Module testers typically have a consensus set, a miner, a wallet, and a few other relevant modules that can be used to build transactions, mine blocks, etc.

In general, testing that uses exclusively exported functions to achieve full coverage is preferred. These types of tests seem to find more bugs and trigger more asserts.

Any testing provided by a third party which is both maintainable and reasonably quick will be accepted. There is little downside to more testing, even when the testing is largely redundant.