Bluetooth utility library, mainly for Android.
Java
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README.md

nv-bluetooth

Overview

Bluetooth utility library, mainly for Android.

The main purpose of this library is to provide a parser for the payload part of BLE advertising packets. According to the specification, the payload part should be parsed as a list of AD Structures. This library does it correctly.

License

Apache License, Version 2.0

Maven

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.neovisionaries</groupId>
    <artifactId>nv-bluetooth</artifactId>
    <version>1.8</version>
</dependency>

Gradle

dependencies {
    compile 'com.neovisionaries:nv-bluetooth:1.8'
}

Source Code

https://github.com/TakahikoKawasaki/nv-bluetooth

JavaDoc

http://TakahikoKawasaki.github.io/nv-bluetooth/

Supported AD Types

Value Name Implementation Class
0x01 Flags Flags
0x02 Incomplete List of 16-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x03 Complete List of 16-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x04 Incomplete List of 32-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x05 Complete List of 32-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x06 Incomplete List of 128-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x07 Complete List of 128-bit Service Class UUIDs UUIDs
0x08 Shortened Local Name LocalName
0x09 Complete Local Name LocalName
0x0A Tx Power Level TxPowerLevel
0x14 List of 16-bit Service Solicitation UUIDs UUIDs
0x15 List of 128-bit Service Solicitation UUIDs UUIDs
0x16 Service Data - 16-bit UUID ServiceData
0x1F List of 32-bit Service Solicitation UUIDs UUIDs
0x20 Service Data - 32-bit UUID ServiceData
0x21 Service Data - 128-bit UUID ServiceData
0xFF Manufacturer Specific Data ADManufacturerSpecific

The assigned numbers of AD types are listed in "[Generic Access Profile] (https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/assigned-numbers/generic-access-profile)" page.

Supported Manufacturer Specific Data

Company ID Company Name Format Implementation Class
0x004C Apple, Inc. iBeacon IBeacon
0x0105 Ubiquitous Computing Technology Corporation ucode Ucode
0x019A T-Engine Forum ucode Ucode

Supported Service Data

Service UUID Format Implementation Class
0xFEAA (Eddystone) Eddystone UID EddystoneUID
0xFEAA (Eddystone) Eddystone URL EddystoneURL
0xFEAA (Eddystone) Eddystone TLM EddystoneTLM
0xFEAA (Eddystone) Eddystone EID EddystoneEID

Description

ADPayloadParser is a parser for the payload part of BLE advertising packets. Its parse method parses a byte array as a list of AD Structures and returns a list of ADStructure instances. The following is an example to parse the payload part of an advertising packet.

// onLeScan() method of BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback interface.
public void onLeScan(BluetoothDevice device, int rssi, byte[] scanRecord)
{
    // Parse the payload of the advertising packet.
    List<ADStructure> structures =
        ADPayloadParser.getInstance().parse(scanRecord);

Each ADStructure instance may be able to be cast to a subclass. For example, if an instance represents an iBeacon, it can be cast to IBeacon class. The code example below checks if an ADStructure instance can be cast to IBeacon by using instanceof.

// For each AD structure contained in the advertising packet.
for (ADStructure structure : structures)
{
    // If the ADStructure instance can be cast to IBeacon.
    if (structure instanceof IBeacon)
    {
        // An iBeacon was found.
        IBeacon iBeacon = (IBeacon)structure;
        ......
    }

iBeacon

Subclasses of ADStructure class have their own specialized methods. For instance, IBeacon class provides methods to get (1) the proximity UUID, (2) the major number, (3) the minor number, and (4) the tx power.

IBeacon iBeacon = (IBeacon)structure;

// (1) Proximity UUID
UUID uuid = iBeacon.getUUID();

// (2) Major number
int major = iBeacon.getMajor();

// (3) Minor number
int minor = iBeacon.getMinor();

// (4) Tx Power
int power = iBeacon.getPower();

Eddystone

There are four ADStructure subclasses for Eddystone. EddystoneUID class is for Eddystone UID, EddystoneURL class is for Eddystone URL, EddystoneTLM class is for Eddystone TLM, and EddystoneEID class is for Eddystone EID. The exact inheritance tree is illustrated below.

ADStructure
  |
  +-- ServiceData
        |
        +-- Eddystone
              |
              +-- EddystoneUID
              +-- EddystoneURL
              +-- EddystoneTLM
              +-- EddystoneEID
// Eddystone UID
EddystoneUID es = (EddystoneUID)structure;

// (1) Calibrated Tx power at 0 m.
int power = es.getTxPower();

// (2) 10-byte Namespace ID
byte[] namespaceId = es.getNamespaceId();
String namespaceIdAsString = es.getNamespaceIdAsString();

// (3) 6-byte Instance ID
byte[] instanceId = es.getInstanceId();
String instanceIdAsString = es.getInstanceIdAsString();

// (4) 16-byte Beacon ID
byte[] beaconId = es.getBeaconId();
String beaconIdAsString = es.getBeaconIdAsString();
// Eddystone URL
EddystoneURL es = (EddystoneURL)structure;

// (1) Calibrated Tx power at 0 m.
int power = es.getTxPower();

// (2) URL
URL url = es.getURL();
// Eddystone TLM
EddystoneTLM es = (EddystoneTLM)structure;

// (1) TLM Version
int version = es.getTLMVersion();

// (2) Battery Voltage
int voltage = es.getBatteryVoltage();

// (3) Beacon Temperature
float temperature = es.getBeaconTemperature();

// (4) Advertisement count since power-on or reboot.
long count = es.getAdvertisementCount();

// (5) Elapsed time in milliseconds since power-on or reboot.
long elapsed = es.getElapsedTime();
// Eddystone EID
EddystoneEID es = (EddystoneEID)structure;

// (1) Calibrated Tx power at 0 m.
int power = es.getTxPower();

// (2) 8-byte EID
byte[] eid = es.getEID();
String eidAsString = es.getEIDAsString();

Flags

The following shows the usage of Flags class's methods.

Flags flags = (Flags)structure;

// (1) LE Limited Discoverable Mode
boolean limited = flags.isLimitedDiscoverable();

// (2) LE General Discoverable Mode
boolean general = flags.isGeneralDiscoverable();

// (3) (inverted) BR/EDR Not Supported
boolean legacySupported = flags.isLegacySupported();

// (4) Simultaneous LE and BR/EDR to Same Device Capable (Controller)
boolean controllerSimultaneity = flags.isControllerSimultaneitySupported();

// (5) Simultaneous LE and BR/EDR to Same Device Capable (Host)
boolean hostSimultaneity = flags.isHostSimultaneitySupported();

ucode

Below is the usage of Ucode class's methods. FYI: [ucode] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ucode_system) is an identification number system that has officially been defined as "ITU-T H.642".

Ucode ucode = (Ucode)structure;

// (1) Version
int version = ucode.getVersion();

// (2) Ucode (32 upper-case hex letters)
String ucode = ucode.getUcode();

// (3) Status
int status = ucode.getStatus();

// (4) The state of the battery
boolean low = ucode.isBatteryLow();

// (5) Transmission interval
int interval = ucode.getInterval();

// (6) Transmission power
int power = ucode.getPower();

// (7) Transmission count
int count = ucode.getCount();

GATT status code

This library contains some utility classes. GattStatusCode is an enum that represents result codes of GATT API (which are defined in gatt_api.h). Using the enum, a result code can be converted to a string like below. Note that Android's BluetoothGatt class contains some result code constants but many others are not defined.

// onConnectionStateChange() method of BluetoothGattCallback class.
public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status, int newState)
{
    Log.d(TAG, "status = " + stringifyGattStatus(status));

    ......
}

private static String stringifyGattStatus(int status)
{
    GattStatusCode code = GattStatusCode.getByValue(status);

    if (code != null)
    {
        return code.name();
    }
    else
    {
        return String.format("UNKNOWN (%d)", status);
    }
}

Support Your Own Format

You may want to handle AD structures whose formats are not standard ones.

This happens typically when your company makes beacons that emit special packets. In this case, as the first step, your company asks Bluetooth SIG to assign a new company ID for your company. Then, your company defines a special format as a kind of Manufacturer Specific Data. The assigned company ID is embedded in the format.

An AD structure whose format is defined by a company looks like below.

Length AD Type Company ID Special Format
1 byte 1 byte 2 bytes (Length - 3) bytes

The first byte holds the value of (the length of the AD structure - 1). The second byte represents the AD type of the AD structure. When an AD structure is defined by a company, its value is 0xFF. This value means Manufacturer Specific Data and you can find it listed at the bottom of the table in [Generic Access Profile] (https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/assigned-numbers/generic-access-profile) page.

When AD Type is 0xFF, the following two bytes represent a company ID. You can find the list of assigned company IDs in [Company Identifiers] (https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/assigned-numbers/company-identifiers) page. For example, 0x004C represents Apple, Inc.

The format of the remaining bytes after the company ID field is defined freely by the company. For example, iBeacon is a format defined by Apple.

In any case, you can register a parser for your special format into ADPayloadParser. All you have to do is to implement a class that implements ADManufacturerSpecificBuilder interface and to register it by ADPayloaderParser.registerManufacturerSpecificBuilder().

The following code is a real example in nv-bluetooth. UcodeBuilder builds an instance of Ucode class from AD data (byte array). Ucode class itself is a subclass of ADManufacturerSpecific class.

class UcodeBuilder implements ADManufacturerSpecificBuilder
{
    @Override
    public ADManufacturerSpecific build(int length, int type, byte[] data, int companyId)
    {
        return Ucode.create(length, type, data, companyId);
    }
}

This builder can be registered as follows.

// Register UcodeBuilder for the company ID 0x019A (T-Engine Forum).
// (The equivalent is done in the constructor of ADPayloadParser, though.)
ADPayloadParser.getInstance()
    .registerManufacturerSpecificBuilder(0x019A, new UcodeBuilder());

After this, you can write a code like below.

List<ADStructure> structures
    = ADPayloadParser.getInstance().parse(payload);

for (ADStructure structure : structures)
{
    // If the AD structure can be cast to Ucode.
    if (structure instanceof Ucode)
    {
        Ucode ucode = (Ucode)structure;
    }
}

If you want to register a parser that is not for Manufacture Specific Data, implement ADStructureBuilder interface instead of ADManufacturerSpecificBuilder. See the implementation of TxPowerLevelBuilder and TxPowerLevel as they are the simplest examples.

See Also

TODO

  • Support more standard AD structures.
  • Testing.

Author

Authlete, Inc. & Neo Visionaries Inc.
Takahiko Kawasaki <taka@authlete.com>