This library contains a couple functions to assist in doing client-side routing in Elm. The way this library achieves this is by introducing the concepts of routes and routers and a
match function to match url paths to different routes.
Note: This library offers very simplistic mechanisms for routing and is mainly intended for small applications and to serve as an example API for what can be achieved in Elm in terms of routing. Please do not consider this API as a definitive solution to routing or that it somehow represents how routing should be done. I'd like to think that it merely represents one way routing could be done.
elm-router allows you do define routes as follows:
mainRoute : Route Html mainRoute = match [ "/" :-> displayHomePage , "/index.html" :-> displayHomePage , "/blog" :-> blogRoute , "/contacts.html" :-> displayContactsPage ] display404Page blogRoute : Route Html blogRoute = match [ "/" :-> displayBlogListing , "/entry1.html" :-> displayEntry1 , "/entry2.html" :-> displayEntry2 ] display404Page
Routes are created with the
match function. Match takes a list of strings and functions (or Routers) and a default route and creates a route from them. In this example, if the user were to go to "/contacts.html", the
displayContactsPage function would be called. You may also notice that these routes nest, as shown with
blogRoute. In this example, if the user were to go to "/blog/entry2.html", the
displayEntry2 function would be called.
Hopefully, you can see from this example that the DSL provided by
elm-router makes it easy to work with routes. The only thing you might notice is that these routes require other routes. So, how do you make those? To this, we will explore what are routes.
Routes and Routers
Route is defined as a function from a
String to some value or computation.
type alias Route a = String -> a
String of a
Route, in the case of the example, would be a url path. So, in our example,
mainRoute is simply a function that, given a url path, produces
Html. This is exactly what we intend with routers, to produce different views based on an input url path.
An example function that would fit this description could be:
displayHelloWorld : Route Html displayHelloWorld _ = text "Hello World"
This is a function which ignores the input path and displays "Hello World" as text.
Router is simply defined as a tuple of
type alias Router a = (String, Route a)
As such, a
Router contains sufficient information for performing a simple pattern match on strings. We can trivially take a string, match on the Router's string, and if the match succeeds, call the Router's route.
So, now that we understand the fundamental types, let's understand how
As stated in the example,
match takes a list of routers and a default route and returns a route.
match : List (Router a) -> Route a -> Route a
Basically what happens is that
match will take an input string and go through each router one by one to see if there is a match. If there is one, it will call on the matched router's route. If no strings match, then it will call on the default route.
So, in our example above, the default route is
display404Page. This is the common catch-all for websites where they refer you to a 404 page to tell the user that they have entered an unknown url.
A minimal example
match would be:
route : Route String route = match ["/index.html" :-> (\_ -> "Hello world")] (\_ -> "Nothing Here") -- route "/index.html" == "Hello world" -- route "/someotherthing" == "Nothing Here" -- route "/" == "Nothing Here" -- route "/index.htmlejnuz" == "Hello world" -- route "/index.htm" == "Nothing Here"
From this example we can see that, if the given string starts with one of the reference strings in the list of routers, the appropriate function will be called, even if the given string is non-sensical. If the given string is not matched completely, then
match will default to the given default route.
match sees if the given string starts with one of the reference strings and then calls the appropriate route. But what does it call that route with?
To answer this, let's tweak our minimal example a bit.
route : Route String route = match ["/index.html" :-> (\string -> string)] (\string -> string) -- route "/index.html" == "" -- route "/someotherthing" == "/someotherthing" -- route "/" == "/" -- route "/index.htmlejnuz" == "ejnuz" -- route "/index.htm" == "/index.htm"
So, now we have modified our route to simply output what it was given. We can already see the behavior of
match from this example.
In the case that an input string was matched against a reference string in a router,
match will pass the remainder of the input string to the route. In essence,
match will string the part of the input string that is matched and pass what is left to the route.
So, if we had "hello" as input and matched against "he",
match would pass "llo" to the route.
In the case that an input string was not matched, it will pass the entire input to the default route. This is partly because, since there is nothing to match, there is nothing to string and partly because this may be useful for debugging and analytics purposes.
It is also important to note that
match matches routers in the order you state them. This means that in the following example:
route = match [ "/user" :-> userRoute , "/users.html" :-> displayUserListing ] display404Page
the "/users.html" router will never be matched. This is because if you pass "/users.html" to
route, then the "/user" router will be matched and
userRoute will be called with the string "s.html". In order to solve this issue, you must re-order the routers as follows:
route = match [ "/users.html" :-> displayUserListing , "/user" :-> userRoute ] display404Page
match will try "/users.html" first.
At this point, you may note that in our very first example, we used "/" as a router before all the other routers. You would assume that all the other routes are unreachable. This is not the case because
match special cases the empty string and "/" due to their prevalence.
Finally, you may have noticed the weird
:-> operator. This is just an alias for the
(,) tuple constructor.
(:->) : String -> Route a -> Router a (:->) = (,)
For more details on usage, please refer to the examples in the repo. Note that this library is best used in conjunction with
elm-history as it allows you to capture the url path as it changes and thus match on it.