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This Universal Dependencies (UD) Portuguese treebank is based on the Constraint Grammar converted version of the Bosque, which is part of the Floresta Sintá(c)tica treebank. It contains both European (CETEMPúblico) and Brazilian (CETENFolha) variants.


This Universal Dependencies (UD) Portuguese treebank is based on the Constraint Grammar converted version of the Bosque, which is part of the Floresta Sintá(c)tica treebank.

Eckhard Bick has maintained since 2008 an experimental version of the dependency Bosque for research, which was not aligned with either the Linguateca published constituent version or the 7.4 dependency version of the Bosque. In 2016, Eckhard Bick wrote UD conversion rules for Constraint Grammar input, and applied these to the updated version of the dependency Bosque (Linguateca site version 7.5 of March 2016).

In October 2016, Alexandre Rademaker, Cláudia Freitas, Fabricio Chalub, Valeria de Paiva and Livy Maria Real Coelho, aiming at full compatibility with ConLL UD specifications, consistency-checked and discussed the 7.5 UD Bosque, leading to a further round of manual treebank corrections and conversion rule changes by Bick. The conversion grammar used contains some 530 rules. Of these 70 were simple feature mapping rules, and 130 were local MWE splitting rules, assigning internal structure, POS and features to MWE's from the Bosque. The remainder of the rules handle UD-specific dependency and function label changes in a context-dependent fashion. The main issues were raising of copula dependents to subject complements, inversion of prepositional dependency and a change from syntactic to semantic verb chain dependency.

The new UD treebank retains the additional tags for NP definiteness and complex tenses, as well as the original syntactic function tags and secondary morphological tags of the original Bosque. Thus the treebank retains its original linguistic focus, in addition to coping with the machine learning uses targeted by the ConLL UD format.


The UD_Portuguese releases 1.2 to 1.4 were based on a different conversion of Bosque, used in the CoNLL-X Shared Task in dependency parsing (2006); the CoNLL version was taken and converted to the Prague dependency style as a part of HamleDT (since 2011). Later versions of HamleDT added a conversion to the Stanford dependencies (2014) and to Universal Dependencies (HamleDT 3.0, 2015).

UD release 1.4 contained two conversions of Bosque: one labeled UD_Portuguese (via CoNLL 2006 and HamleDT) and another labeled UD_Portuguese-Bosque (the new conversion described above).

The two versions were merged (and labeled UD_Portuguese) in UD release 2.0. The merged version is based mostly on the new conversion by Bick et al.. The conversion by Zeman et al. was used to cross-validate. After the alignment of the sentences from the two versions, the data was split in dev, test and train following the distribution of sentences from Zeman et al.

The conversion was implemented by Eckhard Bick and revised mainly by:

  • Alexandre Rademaker
  • Claudia Freitas
  • Fabricio Chalub

(see other contributors below)

The HamleDT conversion was implemented by Dan Zeman and revised by:

  • Martin Popel
  • David Mareček
  • Daniel Zeman
  • Natalia Silveira
  • André Martins


See file LICENSE.txt

How to cite

   author =  {Alexandre Rademaker and Fabricio Chalub and Livy
              Real and Cláudia Freitas and Eckhard Bick and
              Valeria de Paiva},
   title = 	 {Universal Dependencies for Portuguese},
   booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Dependency
                Linguistics (Depling)},
   year =	 {2017},
   pages =	 {197-206},
   month =	 {September},
   address =	 {Pisa, Italy},
   url = {}



2018-04-15 v2.2

  • Repository renamed from UD_Portuguese to UD_Portuguese-Bosque. The 'fixed' relations were revised.

2017-11-07 v2.1

  • Minor changes in some sentences.

2017-03-01 v2.0

  • The two conversions merged into UD_Portuguese.
  • Annotation adjusted to UD v2 guidelines.

2016-11-15 v1.4

  • Initial UD release of the new conversion (UD_Portuguese-Bosque).
  • The older conversion (UD_Portuguese) is also part of the release.
  • Annotation of multi-word tokens added by André Martins.

2016-05-15 v1.3

  • Split underscore-glued multi-word tokens.
  • "US$" and similar words are now SYM, not NOUN.
  • Recognized some determiners that were mistakenly tagged PRON.
  • Copulas with clausal complements are now heads.

2015-11-15 v1.2

  • Initial UD release: Copied from HamleDT 3.0 and slightly improved.
=== Machine-readable metadata =================================================
Data available since: UD v1.2
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Genre: news 
Includes text: yes
Lemmas: converted with corrections
UPOS: converted with corrections
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted with corrections
Relations: converted with corrections
Contributors: Rademaker, Alexandre; Freitas, Cláudia; de Souza, Elvis; Silveira, Aline; Cavalcanti, Tatiana; Evelyn, Wograine; Rocha, Luisa; Soares-Bastos, Isabela; Bick, Eckhard; Chalub, Fabricio; Paulino-Passos, Guilherme; Real, Livy; de Paiva, Valeria; Zeman, Daniel; Popel, Martin; Mareček, David; Silveira, Natalia; Martins, André
Contributing: elsewhere