Skip to content
Go to file

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.


This software is the demo code for the following paper:

  • Yuting Zhang, Kihyuk Sohn, Ruben Villegas, Gang Pan, Honglak Lee, “Improving Object Detection with Deep Convolutional Networks via Bayesian Optimization and Structured Prediction”, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2015.

Please cite the above paper, if you use this software for your publications.

You can find our paper, slides, and poster at



The code can be obtained at

Run the following bash script in the root folder to download necessary dependency, including the Selective Search [1], GPML [2], minFunc [3] toolboxes:

    $ ./

Run the following bash script in the root folder of the code to get the trained models on PASCAL VOC2007 dataset:

    $ ./

After that, run the following bash script to set up the trained models for the test demo by

    $ ./


The code is mainly in MATLAB, and depends on several external toolboxes. Most non-MATLAB code can be compiled automatically when you run the demo code for the first time except for the Caffe toolbox [1]. A customized version of Caffe toolbox is included in “./caffe”. This version is based on an official version release in September, 2014. The main modifications we made in addition to the original Caffe toolbox are as follows:

  • An enhanced MATLAB wrapper: more functions to interact with the Caffe backend.

  • A modified window _data_layer, termed fast_window_data_layer, to fit our data format and to give better data loading efficiency.

  • Command line interfaces with slightly different argument lists.

Please refer to the following instruction to compile the Caffe toolbox and its MATLAB wrapper:

Basically, you need to success in running

    $ make
    $ make matcaffe

The other external dependencies should be compiled automatically when you first run the demo. If not, please do it by yourself. You can find these toolboxes inside the subfolder “./dependency”.

The code is tested on MATLAB R2014a. It should also work with older but recent versions of MATLAB (e.g., R2013b).

Testing with the trained models

The code contains the trained detection models. In this section, we addresses how to run the testing demo with the existing models.

Visualization demo on a single image

Run quick demo with one-line code

We can run detection on a new image as follows:

    >> simple_demo4(image_matrix/image_file_name, [model_type]);

where model_type='struct'/'linear' specifies which classifier to use. If model_type is omitted:

  • if simple_demo4 is called for the first time, model_type='struct' by default

  • otherwise, model_type is kept the same as the previous call.

This is one example:

    >> simple_demo4('000220.jpg');

You will see two figures on the screen: the first one is for the detection results without FGS, and the second one is for the whole pipeline (i.e., with FGS).

Get the boxes and scores

You can obtain the bounding box coordinates and detection scores. First, load the model by

    >> det_model = detInit;

You don’t need to run the command every time as long as it is in the workspace. Then, use the following command do detection:

    >> [boxes,scores] = detSingle(I, det_model, use_gp, thresh);


  • I is an image matrix loaded by imread function (e.g., >> I = imread('000220.jpg');).

  • use_gp = 0/1 indicates whether to run the GP-based FGS.

  • thresh: you can set high threshold value to get less number of bounding boxes, and vice versa. By default, it is set 0.

  • boxes and scores are 20 dim cell array. Each cell corresponds to one object category defined in PASCAL VOC2007.

After this procedure, you can show the boxes by:

    >> detSingle(I, boxes, scores, det_model, thresh);

Here, you have an option to use higher threshold to rule out false positives.

Benchmark on PASCAL VOC 2007

Run the follow command to generate the benchmark results for all the 20 categories of objects on PASCAL VOC2007:

    >> benchmark_voc2007(model_type, use_gp)

where model_type='struct'/'linear' indicates whether to use the linear SVM or the structured SVM classifier, and use_gp=0/1 indicates whether to use the Gaussian process (GP) based fine-grained search (FGS). There are four possible combinations of methods as in the following table.

Methods BBoxReg model_type use_gp
R-CNN (VGGNet) Yes 'linear' 0
+ StructObj Yes 'struct' 0
+ FGS Yes 'linear' 1
+StructObj + FGS Yes 'struct' 1

It will be very time-consuming to generate the results from scratch, if you do it with only one on one GPU. Please distribute the jobs to multiple GPUs by yourself.

When “benchmark_voc2007” is done, the precision, recall and the average precision (AP) for each object category will be displayed on the screen and saved into a mat file.

Model Training on PASCAL VOC 2007

The training procedure consists of multiple stages. The intermediate outputs of all the stages will be cached. Please remove the cached files in the folder “./voc2007_train_cache” to enable retraining from the very scratch. If you do not want to retrain the CNN model, please leave the “./voc2007_train_cache/CaffeModel” untouched, and remove only other subfolders.

CNN fine-tuning

Suppose the the folder “./voc2007_train_cache” is empty (You can keep PrepDataset and RegionProposal). To finetune the pretrained CNN model on the PASCAL VOC2007 database, you run the following commands in MATLAB:

    >> trainInit_svmLinear
    >> trainCallStage('PrepDataset');
    >> trainCallStage('RegionProposal'); 
    % You may ignore the above two steps if you have kept the cache
    >> trainCallStage('BoxList4Finetune');

You will get the list of bounding boxes that is required to finetune the CNN under the following folder:


Then, run the following script in bash to finetune the pretrained CNN model:

    $ ./ [gpu_id(0 as default)]

Your GPUs should have at least 12GB memory (e.g., K40c) to do the finetuning. There are several CNN models pretrained on ImageNet that are publicly available, and the 16-layer CNN model that we used in the experiment can be downloaded from the following:

Learning detection models

With the CNN model finetuned on PASCAL VOC2007, you can train the detection models by running the following command in MATLAB:

    >> train_demo(model_type);

where model_type = 'struct'/'linear'. This indicates whether to use the linear SVM or the structured SVM for the classifier. The stages shared between the two cases will run only once if you want to train both the two models. We include a stage-by-stage description of the training procedure in “train_demo.m”.

Models for PASCAL VOC2012

Run the following bash script in the root folder of the code to get the trained models on PASCAL VOC2007 dataset:

    $ ./

Run the following bash script to set up the trained models for the test demo by

    $ ./

Note that the symlinks for VOC 2007 models will be removed by running this command (the original files are still there). To revert to VOC 2007 models, run ./

After that, simple_demo4 will use the VOC 2012 models.

For benchmarking and training models on VOC 2012, please modify the code for VOC 2007.


[1] Caffe toolbox:

[2] Selective search toolbox:

[3] GPML toolbox:

[4] minFunc toolbox:

You can’t perform that action at this time.