Library for composing WPF forms with validation using LINQ in C#.
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  • LinqToForms is a library for composing WPF forms using LINQ.
  • It only helps you build a ViewModel. It doesn't generate a View. Although this is something you could easily do yourself.
  • It works with XAML.
  • It is a toy project and hasn't been well tested yet.


  • To make the construction of forms using MVVM feel more natural.
  • To simplify ViewModel validation logic by removing things like mutable state.
  • To make it possible to compose forms.



Tomas Petricek wrote a great blog entry here on formlets. The basic idea is that a formlet represents part of a form. For example, a text field or an address section. Also, a formlet can include other formlets. For example, a company formlet might include an address formlet.

Construction and validation

The code below demonstrates how you might construct an address formlet with LinqToForms.

  public IFormlet<Address> Create()
     var postCodeRegex = new Regex(@"[A-Za-z]+[0-9]+\s+[0-9]+[A-Za-z]+");

     return from firstLine in Formlet.Text("First Line")
            from secondLine in Formlet.Text("Second Line")
            from postCode in Formlet.Text("Post Code")
            where firstLine != ""
            where secondLine != ""
            where postCodeRegex.IsMatch(postCode)
            select new Address(firstLine, secondLine, postCode);

In the first three lines from the return statement we declare some text fields that should be available on the address form using the from operation. We pass a string into the Fomlet.Text(string id) method for each field. Later we will use these string values as keys into a dictionary of fields so that we can interact with the form from XAML.

The lines starting with where clauses constitute the validation logic for the formlet. Here we check that the "First Line" and "Second Line" fields are filled and that the "Post Code" field matches a regular expression.


The code below demonstrates how you might construct a company formlet that makes use of the address formlet above.

  public IFormlet<Company> Create()
     return from name in Formlet.Text("Name")
            from address in new AddressFormletFactory().Create()
            where name != ""
            select new Company(name, address);

Once again we declare a field, "Name", that we expect in the form. In the following line we use the from operation again but this time to import a child formlet and all of its validation logic. The address variable has the type Address and it is used in the construction of a new Company instance.

Note: At present, LinqToForms only supports where clauses after all fields have been declared. This includes where clauses in child formlets. This needs to be fixed. It limits composability.

Forms and ViewModels

The value of a formlet changes over time. More specifically, it changes when the user updates a field in the form. Furthermore, any change in a child formlet propagates to its parents. For example, when a user changes the "First Line" field in the "Address Section" the address formlet produces a new Address instance if it passes validation. This new Address causes the company formlet to produce a new Company instance with an updated Address field.

A Form is wrapper around a formlet. It listens to the formlet values over time and provides a command for submitting the current value of the formlet. This command is only executable when the formlet passes validation. It also exposes a dictionary from identifier to form field. This allows the view to interact with the form values.

Below is an example of a form for the company formlet.

class CompanyForm : Form<Company>
  	public CompanyForm(string submitAction, Action<Company> onSubmit, Action onCancel) 
     : base(submitAction, onSubmit, onCancel)
     	Definition = new CompanyFormletFactory().Create();

We assign the formlet to the Definition property of the Form sub type. In the constructor of Form we pass in several arguments. The submitAction argument is the label we give the submit button on the form, e.g., "Update Company" or "Add Company". The onSubmit argument is a continuation for when the user submits a validated form.


Text field bindings
	<Label Grid.Column="0">Name</Label>
	<TextBox Grid.Column="1" Text="{Binding Fields[Name].Value, Mode=TwoWay}" />
  • Name is the identifier provided in the formlet for the field.
Int/decimal field bindings
	<Label Grid.Column="0">Age</Label>
	<xctk:IntegerUpDown Grid.Column="1"
		Value="{Binding Fields[Age].Value, Mode=TwoWay}" 
		Increment="{Binding Fields[Age].Stepping}" 
		Maximum="{Binding Fields[Age].MaxValue}" 
		Minimum="{Binding Fields[Age].MinValue}" />
  • Age is the identifier provided in the formlet for the field.
  • The initial Value, Stepping, Minimum and Maximum can be defined in the formlet. See the UserFormletFactory in the example project.
Other field bindings

Feel free to add more and send us a pull request.


  • Where clause problem. See bold note above.
  • Identifier re-use (in child formlets) is not supported.
  • Probably some other stuff too!

Copyright and license

Copyright 2012 Zachary Bray.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.