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Allows elements to mutate in response to user actions or data changes via data binding and simple JS-like expressions.

amp-bind

Usage

The amp-bind component enables custom stateful interactivity on AMP pages.

For performance, and to avoid the risk of unexpected content jumping, amp-bind does not evaluate expressions on page load. This means visual elements should be given a default state and not rely on amp-bind for initial render.

Watch this video for an introduction to amp-bind.

amp-bind has three main concepts:

  1. State: A document-scope, mutable JSON state. State variables update in response to user actions. amp-bind does not evaluate expressions on page load. Visual elements should have their default "state" defined and not rely amp-bind for initial render.
  2. Expressions: JavaScript-like expressions that can reference the state.
  3. Bindings: Special attributes that link an element's property to a state via an expression. A property is bound by wrapping it inside brackets, in the form of [property].

Example without declared state

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="'Hello ' + foo">Hello World</p>

<button on="tap:AMP.setState({foo: 'Interactivity'})">
  Say "Hello Interactivity"
</button>

[/example]

In the example above:

  • The state begins as empty.
  • It has a single binding to [text], the text content of a node, on the <p> element.
  • The [text] value contains the expression, 'Hello ' + foo. This expression concatenates the string 'Hello ' and the value of the state variable foo.

When the user taps/clicks the button:

  1. It triggers the tap event.
  2. The tap event invokes the AMP.setState() method.
  3. The AMP.setState() methods sets the foo state variable to the value of Interactivity.
  4. The state is no longer empty, so the page updates the bound property to its state.

[tip type="note"] Calling AMP.setState() in some examples may set or change states of other examples on page. Refresh this page to see examples before AMP.setState(). [/tip]

Example with declared state

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

[example preview="top-frame" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<head>
  <style amp-custom>
    .greenBorder {
      border: 5px solid green;
    }
    .redBorder {
      border: 5px solid red;
    }
    .defaultBorder {
      border: 5px solid transparent;
    }
  </style>
</head>
<body>
  <amp-state id="theFood">
    <script type="application/json">
      {
        "cupcakes": {
          "imageUrl": "https://amp.dev/static/samples/img/image2.jpg",
          "style": "greenBorder"
        },
        "sushi": {
          "imageUrl": "https://amp.dev/static/samples/img/image3.jpg",
          "style": "redBorder"
        }
      }
    </script>
  </amp-state>
  <div class="defaultBorder" [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style || 'defaultBorder'">
    <p>Each food has a different border color.</p>
    <p [text]="'I want to eat ' + currentMeal + '.'">I want to eat cupcakes.</p>
    <amp-img
      width="300"
      height="200"
      src="https://amp.dev/static/samples/img/image2.jpg"
      [src]="theFood[currentMeal].imageUrl"
    >
    </amp-img>
    <button on="tap:AMP.setState({currentMeal: 'sushi'})">Set to sushi</button>
    <button on="tap:AMP.setState({currentMeal: 'cupcakes'})">
      Set to cupcakes
    </button>
  </div>
</body>

[/example]

In the example above:

  • The <amp-state> component declares state using JSON. The <amp-state> element has an id of theFood to allow us to reference the defined data. But because <amp-bind> does not evaluate <amp-state> on page load, the state is empty.
  • The page loads with visual defaults.
    • The <div> element has class="greenBorder" defined.
    • The second <p> element has "I want cupcakes." defined within the tags.
    • The <amp-img> src points to a url.
  • Changeable elements have bindings that point to expressions.
    • The [class] attribute on the <div> is bound to the theFood[currentMeal].style expression.
    • The [text] attribute on the second <p> is bound to the 'I want to eat ' + currentMeal + '.' expression.
    • The [src] attribute is bound to the theFood[currentMeal].imageUrl expression.

If a user clicks the "Set to sushi" button:

  1. The tap event trigger the AMP.setState action.
  2. The setState action turns currentMeal into a state and sets it to sushi.
  3. AMP evaluates bindings with expressions that contain the state currentMeal.
  4. [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style" updates class to redBorder.
  5. [text]="'I want to eat ' + currentMeal + '.'" updates the inner text of the second <p> element to "I want to eat sushi".
  6. [src]="theFood[currentMeal].imageUrl updates the src of <amp-img> to https://amp.dev/static/samples/img/image3.jpg

Using [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style" as an example of expression syntax evaluation:

  • [class] is the property to update.
  • theFood is the id of the <amp-state> component.
  • currentMeal is the state name. In the case of theFood it will be cupcakes or sushi.
  • style is the state variable. It corresponds to the matching JSON key, and sets the bound property to that key's value.

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"]

[example preview="top-frame" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

  <style amp-custom>
    .greenBorder {
      border: 5px solid green;
    }
    .redBorder {
      border: 5px solid red;
    }
  </style>
</head>
<body>
<amp-state id="theFood">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "cupcakes": {
        "style": "greenBorder",
        "text": "Just kidding, I want to eat cupcakes."
      },
      "sushi": {
        "style": "redBorder",
        "text": "Actually, I want to eat sushi."
      }
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<div class="greenBorder" [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style">
  <p>Each food has a different border color.</p>
  <p [text]="theFood[currentMeal].text">I want to eat cupcakes.</p>
  <button on="tap:AMP.setState({currentMeal: 'sushi'})">Set to sushi</button>
  <button on="tap:AMP.setState({currentMeal: 'cupcakes'})">Set to cupcakes</button>
</div>

[/example]

  • The <amp-state> component declares state using a JSON object. It has an id of theFood to allow us to reference the defined data. But because <amp-bind> does not evaluate <amp-state> on email load, the state is empty.
  • The page loads with visual defaults.
  • The <div> element has class="greenBorder" defined.
  • The second <p> element has "I want cupcakes." defined within the tags.
  • The <amp-img> src points to a url.
  • Changeable elements have bindings that point to expressions.
  • The [class] attribute on the <div> is bound to the theFood[currentMeal].style expression.
  • The [text] attribute on the second <p> is bound to the theFood[currentMeal].text expression.

If a user clicks the "Set to sushi" button:

  1. The tap event trigger the AMP.setState action.
  2. The setState action turns currentMeal into a state and sets it to sushi.
  3. AMP evaluates bindings with expressions that contain the state currentMeal.
  4. [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style updates class to redBorder.
  5. theFood[currentMeal].text updates the inner text of the second <p> element to "Actually, I want to eat sushi.".

Using [class]="theFood[currentMeal].style" as an example of expression syntax evaluation:

  • [class] is the property to update
  • theFood is the id of the <amp-state> component.
  • currentMeal is the state name. In the case of theFood it will be cupcakes or sushi.
  • style is the state variable. It corresponds to the matching JSON key, and sets the bound property to that key's value.

[/filter]

<amp-state> specification

[filter formats="websites, ads"] An amp-state element may contain either a child <script> element OR a src attribute containing a CORS URL to a remote JSON endpoint, but not both.

<amp-state id="myLocalState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "bar"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>

<amp-state id="myRemoteState" src="https://data.com/articles.json"> </amp-state>

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"] An amp-state element must contain a child <script> element.

<amp-state id="myLocalState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "bar"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

Attributes

src (optional)

The URL of the remote endpoint that must return JSON, which is used to this amp-state. This must be a HTTP service with a proper CORS configuration for the page. The src attribute allows all standard URL variable substitutions. See the Substitutions Guide for more info.

AMP batches XMLHttpRequests (XHRs) to JSON endpoints, that is, you can use a single JSON data request as a data source for multiple consumers (e.g., multiple amp-state elements) on an AMP page.

For example, if your amp-state element makes an XHR to an endpoint, while the XHR is in flight, all subsequent XHRs to the same endpoint won't trigger and will instead return the results from the first XHR.

[tip type="important"] The endpoint must implement the requirements specified in the CORS Requests in AMP spec. [/tip]

credentials (optional)

Defines a credentials option as specified by the Fetch API.

  • Supported values: omit, include
  • Default: omit

To send credentials, pass the value of include. If this value is set, the response must follow the AMP CORS security guidelines.

Actions

refresh

The refresh action refetches data from data point the src attribute points to. This action will make a network request bypassing the browser's caching mechanisms.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="currentTime" src="/documentation/examples/api/time"></amp-state>
<button on="tap:currentTime.refresh">
  Refresh
</button>
<div [text]="currentTime.time"></div>

[/example]

We recommend amp-script for most use cases working with live content. In a subset of cases, refresh with amp-bind will work.

[/filter]

State

Each AMP document that uses amp-bind has document-scope mutable JSON data, or state.

Size

An <amp-state> element's JSON data has a maximum size of 100KB.

Defining and initializing state with <amp-state>

Expressions are not evaluated on page load, but you may define an initial state. The <amp-state> component contains different states and their state variables. While this defines a state, it will not reflect on the page until after a user interacts.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myDefinedState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "bar"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="myDefinedState.foo"></p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">See value of initialized state</button>

[/example]

Use expressions to reference state variables. If the JSON data is not nested in the <amp-state> component, reference the states via dot syntax. In the above example, myState.foo evaluates to "bar".

An <amp-state> element can also specify a CORS URL instead of a child JSON script. See the <amp-state> specification for details.

<amp-state id="myRemoteState" src="/static/samples/json/websites.json">
</amp-state>

Updating state variables with AMP.setState()

The AMP.setState() action merges an object literal into the state. This means you can update the value of a defined state variable.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myUpdateState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "bar",
      "baz": "hello"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="myUpdateState.foo"></p>
<p [text]="myUpdateState.baz"></p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">See value of set state</button>
<!-- Like JavaScript, you can reference existing
     variables in the values of the  object literal. -->
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myUpdateState:{baz: myUpdateState.foo}})">
  Set value of baz to value of foo
</button>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myUpdateState:{baz: 'world'}})">
  Set value of baz to "world"
</button>

[/example]

In the example above, triggering the AMP.setState({}) action on the first button evaluates the [text] binding expression. It then inserts the defined state variable's value into the <p> tag.

When the clicking the second button, with AMP.setState({myState:{baz: myState.foo}}) action defined, it deep-merges the "baz" state variable value to the same as the "foo" state variable value. Both <p> tags display "bar".

State variable values can update to values not defined in the initial state. When clicking the third button, with "tap:AMP.setState({myState:{baz: 'world'}})" action defined, it deep merges the "baz" state variable value, overriding it to "world".

Clicking the first button after the other two sets the current state. Nothing will change.

The state variables reverts back to the defined JSON in <amp-state> on page refresh.

Event triggering and data

When triggered by certain events, AMP.setState() can access event-related data on the event property.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<!-- The "change" event of this <input> element contains
     a "value" variable that can be referenced via "event.value". -->
<select on="change:AMP.setState({ option: event.value })">
  <option value="0">No selection</option>
  <option value="1">Option 1</option>
  <option value="2">Option 2</option>
</select>
<div hidden [hidden]="option != 1">
  Option 1
</div>
<div hidden [hidden]="option != 2">
  Option 2
</div>

[/example]

Updating nested variables

Nested objects are generally merged to a maximum depth of 10. All variables, including those defined in <amp-state>, can be overidden.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "bar",
      "first": {
        "a": "nested once",
        "ab": {
          "b": "nested twice",
          "bc": {
            "c": "nested three times",
            "cd": {
              "d": "nested four times",
              "de": {
                "e": "nested five times",
                "ef": {
                  "f": "nested six times",
                  "fg": {
                    "g": "nested seven times",
                    "gh": {
                      "h": "nested nine times",
                      "hi": {
                        "i": "nested ten times"
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="myState.foo"></p>
<p [text]="myState.first.ab.bc.cd.de.ef.fg.gh.hi.i"></p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">See value of set state</button>
<button
  on="tap:AMP.setState({ myState: {first: {ab: {bc: {cd: {de: {ef: {fg: {gh: {hi: {i:'this is as far as you should merge nested values'} } } } } } } } } } })"
>
  Merge 10th nested object
</button>

[/example]

Circular references

AMP.setState(object) throws an error if object contains a circular reference.

Removing a variable

Remove an existing state variable by setting its value to null in AMP.setState().

<button on="tap:AMP.setState({removeMe: null})"></button>

Deep-merge with AMP.setState()

Calling AMP.setState() deep-merges the provided object literal with the current state. amp-bind writes all literals to the state directly, except for nested objects, which are recursively merged. Primitives and arrays are in the state are always overwritten by variables of the same name in the object literal.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="employee.name">Name</p>
<p [text]="employee.age">Age</p>
<p [text]="employee.vehicle">Vehicle</p>
<!-- Pressing this button changes state to: -->
<button
  on="tap:AMP.setState({
              employee: {
                name: 'John Smith',
                age: 47,
                vehicle: 'Car'
              }
            })"
>
  Set employee to John Smith
</button>
<!-- Pressing this button recursively merges the object literal argument,  -->
<!-- `{employee: {age: 64}}`, into the existing state. -->

<button
  on="tap:AMP.setState({
              employee: {
                age: 64
              }
            })"
>
  Set employee age to 64
</button>
<!-- The value updates from 47 to 64 at employee.age.  -->
<!-- No other values change. -->

[/example]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

Modifying history with AMP.pushState()

AMP.pushState() writes state changes to the history. Navigating back, will restore the previous state. To test this, increase the count in the example below and use your browser's back button to decrease the count.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="count">
  <script type="application/json">
    1
  </script>
</amp-state>
<div>Item <span [text]="count">1</span></div>
<button on="tap:AMP.pushState({ count: count + 1 })">Increase count</button>

[/example]

Using AMP.pushState() sets the current state to the most recent pushed state.

[/filter]

Expressions

amp-bind uses JavaScript-like expressions that can reference the state.

Differences from JavaScript

  • Expressions may only access the containing document's state.
  • Expressions do not have access to window or document. global references the top-level state.
  • Only amp-bind allowlisted functions and operators are usable. are usable. Use of arrow functions are allowed as function parameters, e.g. [1, 2, 3].map(x => x + 1).
    • Custom functions, classes and loops are disallowed.
  • Undefined variables and array-index-out-of-bounds return null instead of undefined or throwing errors.
  • A single expression is currently capped at 50 operands for performance. Please contact us if this is insufficient for your use case.

The following are all valid expressions:

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="myExpressionsState.foo"></p>
<!-- 1 + '1'; // 11 -->
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myExpressionsState: {foo: 1 + '1'}})">
  foo: 1 + "1"
</button>
<!-- 1 + +'1'; // 2 -->
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myExpressionsState: {foo: 1 + + '1'}})">
  foo: 1 + + "1"
</button>
<!-- !0; // true -->
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myExpressionsState: {foo: !0}})">foo: !0</button>
<!-- null || 'default'; // 'default' -->
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({myExpressionsState: {foo: null || 'default'}})">
  null || "default"
</button>
<!-- [1, 2, 3].map(x => x + 1); // 2,3,4 -->
<button
  on="tap:AMP.setState({myExpressionsState: {foo: [1, 2, 3].map(x => x + 1)}})"
>
  [1, 2, 3].map(x => x + 1)
</button>

[/example]

Find the full expression grammar and implementation in bind-expr-impl.jison and bind-expression.js.

Allowlisted functions

Array

Single-parameter arrow functions can't have parentheses, e.g. use x => x + 1 instead of (x) => x + 1. sort() and splice() return modified copies instead of operating in-place.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myArrayState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": [1, 2, 3],
      "bar": ["hello", "world", "bar", "baz"],
      "baz": "Hello world, welcome to amp-bind"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="'concat: ' + myArrayState.foo.concat(4)">concat: 1, 2, 3</p>
<p [text]="'filter: ' + myArrayState.bar.filter(word => word.length > 3)">
  filter: words with less than three letter
</p>
<p [text]="'includes: ' + myArrayState.bar.includes('hello' || 'world')">
  includes: "hello" or "world"
</p>
<p [text]="'indexOf: ' + myArrayState.bar.indexOf('world')">indexOf: "world"</p>
<p [text]="'join: ' + myArrayState.bar.join('-')">
  join: all words with a dash
</p>
<p [text]="'lastIndexOf: ' + myArrayState.baz.lastIndexOf('amp-bind')">
  lastIndexOf: "amp-bind"
</p>
<p [text]="'map: ' + myArrayState.foo.map((x, i) => x + i)">
  map: add each number to previous number
</p>
<p [text]="'reduce: ' + myArrayState.foo.reduce((x, i) => x + i)">
  reduce: add all numbers in array together
</p>
<p [text]="'slice: ' + myArrayState.bar.slice(1,3)">
  slice: return words at index 1 and 3
</p>
<p [text]="'some: ' + myArrayState.foo.some(x => x < 2)">
  some: some numbers are less than 2
</p>
<p [text]="'sort: ' + myArrayState.bar.sort()">
  sort: place words in alphabetical order
</p>
<p [text]="'splice: ' + myArrayState.bar.splice(2, 0, 'amp-bind')">
  splice: place "amp-bind" at index 2
</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

Number

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="'toExponential: ' + (100).toExponential(5)">
  toExponential: 100 to the exponent of 5
</p>
<p [text]="'toFixed: ' + (1.99).toFixed(1)">
  toFixed: 1.99 rounded and fixed to first decimal
</p>
<p [text]="'toPrecision: ' + (1.234567).toPrecision(3)">
  toPrecision: 1.234567 returned as a string to the third digit
</p>
<p [text]="'toString ' + (3.14).toString()">
  toString: 3.14 returned as a string
</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

String

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myStringState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "foo": "Hello world",
      "bar": ", welcome to amp-bind"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="'charAt: ' + myStringState.foo.charAt(6)">
  charAt: The character at index 6
</p>
<p [text]="'charCodeAt: ' + myStringState.foo.charCodeAt(6)">
  charCodeAt: The UTF-16 code unit of the character at index 6
</p>
<p [text]="'concat: ' + myStringState.foo.concat(myState.bar)">
  concat: Combine foo and bar
</p>
<p [text]="'lastIndexOf: ' + myStringState.foo.lastIndexOf('w')">
  lastIndexOf: The index of "w"
</p>
<p [text]="'replace: ' + myStringState.foo.replace('world', 'amp-bind')">
  replace: Replace "world" with "amp-bind"
</p>
<p [text]="'slice: ' + myStringState.foo.slice(5)">
  slice: Extract the first 5 characters
</p>
<p [text]="'split: ' + myStringState.foo.split(' ')">
  split: Split words at space and return as array
</p>
<p [text]="'toLowerCase: ' + myStringState.foo.toLowerCase()">
  toLowerCase: Make all letters lower case
</p>
<p [text]="'toUpperCase: ' + myStringState.foo.toUpperCase()">
  toUpperCase: Make all letters upper case
</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

Math

Static functions are not namespaced, e.g. use abs(-1) instead of Math.abs(-1)

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="'abs: ' + abs(5 - 9)">abs: absolute number of 5 - 9</p>
<p [text]="'ceil: ' + ceil(1.01)">
  abs: round 1.01 up to the next largest whole number
</p>
<p [text]="'floor: ' + floor(1.99)">floor: round 1.99 down to a whole number</p>
<p [text]="'max: ' + max(100, 4, 98)">max: return largest number</p>
<p [text]="'min: ' + min(100, 4, 98)">min: return smalled number</p>
<p [text]="'pow: ' + pow(5, 3)">pow: return 5 to the power of 3</p>
<p [text]="'random: ' + random()">
  random: return a number greater than 0 and less than 1
</p>
<p [text]="'round: ' + round(1.51)">round: round 1.51</p>
<p [text]="'sign: ' + sign(-9)">sign: evaluate if positive or negative</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

Object

Static functions are not namespaced, e.g. use keys(Object) instead of Object.abs(Object)

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-state id="myObjectState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {
      "hello": "world",
      "foo": "bar"
    }
  </script>
</amp-state>
<p [text]="'keys: ' + keys(myObjectState)">
  keys: myObjectState JSON object keys
</p>
<p [text]="'values: ' + values(myObjectState)">
  values: myObjectState JSON object values
</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

Global

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [text]="'encodeURI: ' + encodeURI('https://amp.dev/😉')">
  encodeURI: Encode a URI and ignore protocol prefix
</p>
<p [text]="'encodeURIComponent: ' + encodeURIComponent('https://amp.dev/😉')">
  encodeURIComponent: Encode a URI
</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({})">Evaluate</button>

[/example]

Defining macros with amp-bind-macro

Reuse amp-bind expression fragments by defining an amp-bind-macro. The amp-bind-macro element allows an expression that takes zero or more arguments and references the current state. Invoke amp-bind-macros like a function, referencing the id attribute value from anywhere in the document.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-bind-macro
  id="circleArea"
  arguments="radius"
  expression="3.14 * radius * radius"
></amp-bind-macro>
<p>
  Input a radius value
</p>
<input
  type="number"
  min="0"
  max="100"
  value="0"
  on="input-throttled:AMP.setState({myCircle:{radius: event.value}})"
/>
<p>
  The circle has an area of
  <span [text]="circleArea(myCircle.radius)">0</span>.
</p>

[/example]

A macro can also call other macros defined before itself. A macro cannot call itself recursively.

Bindings

A binding is a special attribute of the form [property] that links an element's property to an expression. Use the alternative,XML-compatible syntax if developing in XML.

When the state changes, expressions tied to that state are evaluated. The element properties bound to the state are updated with the new expression results.

Boolean expression results toggle boolean attributes. For example: <amp-video [controls]="expr"...>. When expr evaluates to true, the <amp-video> element has the controls attribute. When expr evaluates to false, the controls attribute is removed.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind, amp-video"]

<amp-video
  [controls]="controls"
  width="640"
  height="360"
  layout="responsive"
  poster="/static/inline-examples/images/kitten-playing.png"
>
  <source
    src="/static/inline-examples/videos/kitten-playing.webm"
    type="video/webm"
  />
  <source
    src="/static/inline-examples/videos/kitten-playing.mp4"
    type="video/mp4"
  />
  <div fallback>
    <p>This browser does not support the video element.</p>
  </div>
</amp-video>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({ controls: true })">
  Controls
</button>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({ controls: false })">
  No Controls
</button>

[/example]

React and XML compatibility

If developing with React or XML, use the alternative data-amp-bind-property syntax. The [ and ] characters in attribute names is invalid XML, making the [property] syntax unavailable.

Replace the property field with the name of the property you would like to define in data-amp-bind-property.

For example, [text]="myState.foo" would become data-amp-bind-text="myState.foo".

Binding types

amp-bind supports data bindings on five types of element state.

Node.textContent

Bind Node.textContent using the [text] attribute. The [text] attribute is supported on most text elements.

<p [text]="'Hello ' + myState.foo">Hello World</p>
<p></p>

CSS classes

Bind an element's class using the [class] attribute. A [class] expression must result in a space-delimited string. Meaning, if you are binding multiple classes, use a space between names. A comma or dash will be evaluated as the class name.

[example preview="top-frame" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<head>
  <style amp-custom>
    .background-green {
      background: green;
    }
    .background-red {
      background: red;
    }
    .border-red {
      border-color: red;
      border-width: 5px;
      border-style: solid;
    }
  </style>
</head>
<body>
  <div class="background-red" [class]="myClass">Hello World</div>
  <!-- This button adds both classes -->
  <button on="tap:AMP.setState({ myClass: 'background-green border-red' })">
    Working: Change Class
  </button>
  <!-- String arrays also work -->
  <button
    on="tap:AMP.setState({ myClass: ['background-green', 'border-red'] })"
  >
    Working string array: Change Class
  </button>
  <!-- This expression evaluates to class="background-green,border-red" -->
  <button on="tap:AMP.setState({ myClass: 'background-green,border-red' })">
    Broken: Change Class
  </button>
</body>

[/example]

the hidden attribute

Hide and reveal and element using the [hidden] attribute. A [hidden] expression should be a boolean expression.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<p [hidden]="hiddenState">Hello there!</p>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({hiddenState: true})">Hide</button>
<button on="tap:AMP.setState({hiddenState: false})">Show</button>

[/example]

Size of AMP components

Change the width and height using the [width] and [height] attributes.

[example preview="inline" playground="true" imports="amp-bind"]

<amp-img
  src="https://unsplash.it/400/200"
  width="200"
  [width]="myImageDimension.width"
  height="100"
  [height]="myImageDimension.height"
>
</amp-img>
<button
  on="tap:AMP.setState({
              myImageDimension: {
              width: 400,
              height: 200
              }
              })"
>
  Change size
</button>

[/example]

Accessibility states and properties

Use to dynamically update information available to assistive technologies, such as screen readers. All [aria-*] attributes are bindable.

AMP Component specific and HTML attributes

Some AMP components and HTML elements have specific bindable attributes. They are listed below.

AMP component specific attributes

[filter formats="websites"]

<amp-brightcove>

  • [data-account]
  • [data-embed]
  • [data-player]
  • [data-player-id]
  • [data-playlist-id]
  • [data-video-id] Changes the displayed Brightcove video.

[/filter]

<amp-carousel type=slides>

  • [slide] Changes the currently displayed slide index.

See an example.

[filter formats="websites"]

<amp-date-picker>

  • [min] Sets the earliest selectable date
  • [max] Sets the latest selectable date

<amp-google-document-embed>

  • [src] Displays the document at the updated URL.
  • [title] Changes the document's title.

<amp-iframe>

  • [src] Changes the iframe's source URL.

[/filter] [filter formats="websites, ads"]

<amp-img>

  • [alt]
  • [attribution]
  • [src]
  • [srcset]

Bind to [srcset] instead of [src] to support responsive images. See corresponding amp-img attributes. [/filter] [filter formats="email"]

<amp-img>

  • [alt]
  • [attribution]

[/filter]

<amp-lightbox>

  • [open] Toggles display of the lightbox.

[tip type="default"] Use on="lightboxClose: AMP.setState(...)" to update variables when the lightbox is closed. [/tip]

[filter formats="websites"]

<amp-list>

  • [src]

If the expression is a string, it fetches and renders JSON from the string URL. If the expression is an object or array, it renders the expression data.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, email"]

<amp-selector>

  • [selected] Changes the currently selected children element(s) identified by their option attribute values. Supports a comma-separated list of values for multiple selection. See an example.
  • [disabled]

[tip type="note"] [selected] does not have a non-bindable attribute. The AMP Validator will throw an error if selected is used. [/tip]

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<amp-state>

  • [src]

Fetches JSON from the new URL and merges it into the existing state. The following update will ignore <amp-state>elements to prevent cycles.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites"]

<amp-twitter>

  • [data-tweetid] Changes the displayed Tweet.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<amp-video>

  • [alt]
  • [attribution]
  • [controls]
  • [loop]
  • [poster]
  • [preload]
  • [src]

See corresponding amp-video attributes. [/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<amp-youtube>

  • [data-videoid] Changes the displayed YouTube video.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

HTML attributes

<a>

  • [href] Changes the link.

<button>

  • [disabled]
  • [type]
  • [value]

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"]

<button>

  • [disabled]
  • [value]

See corresponding button attributes.

[/filter]

<details>

  • [open]

See corresponding details attributes.

<fieldset>

  • [disabled] Enables or disables the fieldset.

<image>

  • [xlink:href]

See corresponding image attributes.

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<input>

  • [accept]
  • [accessKey]
  • [autocomplete]
  • [checked]
  • [disabled]
  • [height]
  • [inputmode]
  • [max]
  • [maxlength]
  • [multiple]
  • [pattern]
  • [placeholder]
  • [readonly]
  • [required]
  • [selectiondirection]
  • [size]
  • [spellcheck]
  • [step]
  • [type]
  • [value]
  • [width]

See corresponding input attributes.

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"]

<input>

  • [autocomplete]
  • [disabled]
  • [height]
  • [max]
  • [maxlength]
  • [multiple]
  • [pattern]
  • [placeholder]
  • [readonly]
  • [required]
  • [size]
  • [spellcheck]
  • [step]
  • [value]
  • [width]

See corresponding input attributes.

[/filter]

<option>

  • [disabled]
  • [label]
  • [selected]
  • [value]

See corresponding option attributes.

<optgroup>

  • [disabled]
  • [label]

See corresponding optgroup attributes.

<section>

  • [data-expand] Changes the expansion of a section in an amp-accordion.

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<select>

  • [autofocus]
  • [disabled]
  • [multiple]
  • [required]
  • [size]

See corresponding select attributes.

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"]

<select>

  • [disabled]
  • [multiple]
  • [required]
  • [size]

See corresponding select attributes.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<source>

  • [src]
  • [type]

See corresponding source attributes.

<track>

  • [label]
  • [src]
  • [srclang]

See corresponding track attributes.

[/filter]

[filter formats="websites, ads"]

<textarea>

  • [autocomplete]
  • [autofocus]
  • [cols]
  • [disabled]
  • [defaultText]
  • [maxlength]
  • [minlength]
  • [placeholder]
  • [readonly]
  • [required]
  • [rows]
  • [selectiondirection]
  • [selectionend]
  • [selectionstart]
  • [spellcheck]
  • [wrap]

Use [defaultText] to update initial text, and [text] to update current text. See corresponding textarea attributes.

[/filter]

[filter formats="email"]

<textarea>

  • [autocomplete]
  • [cols]
  • [disabled]
  • [defaultText]
  • [maxlength]
  • [minlength]
  • [placeholder]
  • [readonly]
  • [required]
  • [rows]
  • [spellcheck]
  • [wrap]

Use [defaultText] to update initial text, and [text] to update current text. See corresponding textarea attributes.

[/filter]

Disallowed bindings

For security reasons, binding to innerHTML is disallowed.

All attribute bindings are sanitized for unsafe values (e.g., javascript:).

Debugging

[filter formats="websites, ads"] Test in development mode. Enter development by adding the fragment #development=1 to the end of the URL. This highlights warnings and errors in the browser console during development and grants access to special debugging functions. [/filter]

[filter formats="email"] Test in development mode by saving the email as an HTML file. Test in the browser by adding the fragment #development=1 to the end of the URL. This highlights warnings and errors in the browser console during development and grants access to special debugging functions. [/filter]

Warnings

In development mode, amp-bind will issue a warning when the default value of a bound attribute doesn't match its corresponding expression's initial result. This can help prevent unintended mutations caused by changes in other state variables. For example:

<!-- The element's default class value ('def') doesn't match the expression result for [class] ('abc'),
     so a warning will be issued in development mode. -->
<p [class]="'abc'" class="def"></p>

In development mode, amp-bind will also issue a warning when dereferencing undefined variables or properties. This can also help prevent unintended mutations due to null expression results. For example:

<amp-state id="myAmpState">
  <script type="application/json">
    {"foo": 123}
  </script>
</amp-state>

<!-- The amp-state#myAmpState does not have a `bar` variable, so a warning
     will be issued in development mode. -->
<p [text]="myAmpState.bar">Some placeholder text.</p>

Errors

Below outlines the types of errors that may arise when working with amp-bind.

Type Message Suggestion
Invalid binding Binding to [foo] on <P> is not allowed. Use only allowlisted bindings.
Syntax error Expression compilation error in... Verify the expression for typos.
Non-allowlisted functions alert is not a supported function. Use only allow-listed functions.
Sanitized result "javascript:alert(1)" is not a valid result for [href]. Avoid banned URL protocols or expressions that would fail the AMP Validator.
CSP violation Refused to create a worker from 'blob:...' because it violates the following Content Security Policy directive... Add default-src blob: to your origin's Content Security Policy. amp-bind delegates expensive work to a dedicated Web Worker to ensure good performance.

Debugging State

Use AMP.printState() to print the current state to the console. To make this work, you need to enable the development mode.

Expression grammar

The BNF-like grammar for amp-bind expressions:

expr:
    operation
  | invocation
  | member_access
  | '(' expr ')'
  | variable
  | literal
  ;

operation:
    '!' expr
  | '-' expr %prec UMINUS
  | '+' expr %prec UPLUS
  |  expr '+' expr
  | expr '-' expr
  | expr '*' expr
  | expr '/' expr
  | expr '%' expr
  | expr '&&' expr
  | expr '||' expr
  | expr '<=' expr
  | expr '<' expr
  | expr '>=' expr
  | expr '>' expr
  | expr '!=' expr
  | expr '==' expr
  | expr '?' expr ':' expr
  ;

invocation:
    NAME args
  | expr '.' NAME args
  | expr '.' NAME '(' arrow_function ')'
  | expr '.' NAME '(' arrow_function ',' expr ')'
  ;

arrow_function:
    '(' ')' '=>' expr
  | NAME '=>' expr
  | '(' params ')' '=>' expr
  ;

params:
    NAME ',' NAME
  | params ',' NAME
  ;

args:
    '(' ')'
  | '(' array ')'
  ;

member_access:
    expr member
  ;

member:
    '.' NAME
  | '[' expr ']'
  ;

variable:
    NAME
  ;

literal:
    primitive
  | object_literal
  | array_literal
  ;

primitive:
    STRING
  | NUMBER
  | TRUE
  | FALSE
  | NULL
  ;

array_literal:
    '[' ']'
  | '[' array ']'
  | '[' array ',' ']'
  ;

array:
    expr
  | array ',' expr
  ;

object_literal:
    '{' '}'
  | '{' object '}'
  | '{' object ',' '}'
  ;

object:
    key_value
  | object ',' key_value
  ;

key_value:
  key ':' expr
  ;

key:
    NAME
  | primitive
  | '[' expr ']'
  ;