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README.md

Chariot

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Just another routing library. Makes human-friendly URLs and programmer-friendly code. Uses trees for the best performance.

github.com/awesomite/chariot

Why?

To simplify creating human-friendly URLs.

<?php

/** @var Awesomite\Chariot\RouterInterface $router */
echo $router->linkTo('showArticle')->withParam('id', 5);

Table of contents

How does it work?

Patterns

Patterns are designed to maximally simplify creating routing in your application. Patterns can have parameters packed in {{ double curly brackets }}.

Parameters

Parameters contains three values separated by one or more white characters. Second and third values are optional. First value is just a name. Second value is a regular expression or name of registered regular expression, default value is equal to [^/]+. Third value contains default value of parameter (used for generating links).

Examples

I believe that the best documentation are examples from the real world. The following patterns should help you to understand how does it work.

  • /page/{{ page :uint }}
  • /page/{{page:uint}} (white space between first and second parameter is not required, if second parameter begins with :)
  • /page/{{page \d+ 1}}
  • /categories/{{ name [a-zA-Z0-9-]+ }}
  • /categories/{{ categoryName }}/item-{{ itemId :uint }}

Routing

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\HttpMethods;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Exceptions\HttpException;

$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->addRoute(HttpMethods::METHOD_GET, '/', 'home');

$method = 'GET';
$path = '/';

try {
    $route = $router->match($method, $path);
    $handler = $route->getHandler();
    echo $handler, "\n";
} catch (HttpException $exception) {
    echo $exception->getMessage(), "\n";
    
    // code can be equal to 404 or 405
    if ($exception->getCode() === HttpException::HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED) {
        echo 'Allow: ', implode(', ', $router->getAllowedMethods($path)), "\n";   
    }
}

Generating links

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\HttpMethods;

$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->addRoute(HttpMethods::METHOD_GET, '/category-{{ category :int }}', 'showCategory');

echo $router->linkTo('showCategory')->withParam('category', 5), "\n";
/*
 * Output:
 * /category-5 
 */

Hidden parameters

Hidden parameters are a very useful mechanism. Using them allows you to completely change routing in your application without changing code in a lot of places. Let's look at the following scenario:

  1. You have a category page in your website.
  2. Path pattern to category page is equal to /category-{{ id :uint }}.
  3. Link to category page is generated in many places in your code. Let's say 100.
  4. You want to change approach. Category's id in a link is not expected anymore. You want to have human-friendly links, e.g. /books instead of /category-15.
  5. Using old school way of generating links forced you to rewrite code in 100 places. You have to spend time to rewriting code. The risk of error is high.

Instead of monotonous rewriting code you can change only one thing in routing. This approuch helps you to save your time and protects your code from bugs. The following pieces of code should help you understand how to rewrite routing.

Old code

$router->get('/category-{{ id :uint }}', 'showCategory');

New code

$router
    ->get('/fantasy', 'showCategory', ['id' => 1])
    ->get('/comedy', 'showCategory', ['id' => 2]);

Note: In this case small number of categories (let's say 100) will not cause performance issue. But keep in your mind - big number of routes assigned to one handler can slow down generating links. I encourage you to execute performance tests on your machine. Exemplary test is attached to this repository, execute the following commands to perform it:

git clone --depth 1 git@github.com:awesomite/chariot.git
cd chariot
composer update
php speedtest/console.php test-links

Bigger example

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;

$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->get('/show-first-page', 'showPage', [
    'page' => 1,
]);
$router->get('/page-{{ page :uint }}', 'showPage');

$route = $router->match('GET', '/show-first-page');
echo $route->getHandler(), "\n";
var_dump($route->getParams());
/*
 * Output:
 * showPage
 * array(1) {
 *   'page' =>
 *   int(1)
 * }
 */

echo $router->linkTo('showPage')->withParam('page', 1), "\n"; // /show-first-page
echo $router->linkTo('showPage')->withParam('page', 2), "\n"; // /page-2
/*
 * Output:
 * /show-first-page
 * /page-2
 */

Caching

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;

class RouterFactory
{
    private $cacheFile;

    public function __construct(string $cacheFile)
    {
        $this->cacheFile = $cacheFile;
    }

    public function rebuildRouter()
    {
        $router = $this->createRouter();
        file_put_contents($this->cacheFile, '<?php return ' . $router->exportToExecutable() . ';');
    }

    public function getRouter(): PatternRouter
    {
        return require $this->cacheFile;
    }

    private function createRouter(): PatternRouter
    {
        return PatternRouter::createDefault()
            ->get('/', 'showHome')
            ->get('/news', 'showNews', ['page' => 1])
            ->get('/news/{{ page :int }}', 'showNews');
    }
}

$factory = new RouterFactory(__DIR__ . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR . 'router.cache');
// Executing this function once is enough, e.g. during warmup
$factory->rebuildRouter();
$router = $factory->getRouter();
// decorators are not cacheable, you must add them each time
// $router->addParamDecorator(new MyParamDecorator());

Defining custom patterns

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\Patterns;

$categories = [
    'action',
    'adventure',
    'comedy',
];

$router = new PatternRouter(new Patterns());
$router->getPatterns()
    ->addPattern(':date', '[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{2}')
    ->addEnumPattern(':category', $categories);

$router->get('/day-{{ date :date }}', 'showDay');
$route = $router->match('GET', '/day-2017-01-01');
echo $route->getParams()['date'], "\n"; // 2017-01-01

$router->get('/category-{{ category :category }}', 'showCategory');
$route = $router->match('GET', '/category-comedy');
echo $route->getParams()['category'], "\n"; // comedy

Validation

Chariot checks correctness of values incoming (routing) and outcoming (generating links).

Note: Method PatternRouter->linkTo() returns instance of LinkInterface. Read description to understand difference between toString() and __toString() methods.

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Exceptions\HttpException;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Exceptions\CannotGenerateLinkException;

$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->get('/category-{{ categoryId :int }}', 'showCategory');

/*
 * The following code displays "Error 404"
 */
try {
    $route = $router->match('GET', '/category-books');
    echo "Handler:\n", $route->getHandler(), "\n";
    echo "Params:\n";
    var_dump($route->getParams());
} catch (HttpException $exception) {
    echo 'Error ', $exception->getCode(), "\n";
}

/*
 * The following code displays "Cannot generate link"
 */
try {
    echo $router->linkTo('showCategory')->withParam('categoryId', 'books')->toString(), "\n";
} catch (CannotGenerateLinkException $exception) {
    echo "Cannot generate link\n";
}

Default parameters

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;

$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->get('/articles/{{ page :uint 1 }}', 'articles');
echo $router->linkTo('articles'), "\n";
echo $router->linkTo('articles')->withParam('page', 2), "\n";

/*
 * Output:
 * /articles/1
 * /articles/2
 */

Transforming parameters

Router can transform parameter extracted from URL (and parameter passed to URL). Passed object to method addPattern() must implements interface PatternInterface. @See PatternInterface.

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternInterface;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\Patterns;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\StdPatterns\DatePattern;

$router = new PatternRouter(new Patterns());
/*
 * Passed object to method addPattern() must implement interface PatternInterface
 */
$router->getPatterns()->addPattern(':date', new DatePattern());
$router->get('/day/{{ day :date }}', 'showDay');
echo $router->linkTo('showDay')->withParam('day', new \DateTime('2017-07-07')), "\n";

/*
 * Output:
 * /day/2017-07-07
 */

Providers / Decorators

Let's imagine the following scenario:

  1. You have prepared big web-application.
  2. Application is using the following pattern to display items /items/{{ id :int }}.
  3. Next goal is add title of item to url (/items/{{ id :int }}-{{ title }}).

You can just change URL pattern and add code withParam('title', $title) wherever application generates url to item. Chariot allows resolve such issues better and faster. The following code explains how to use providers. See:

<?php

use Awesomite\Chariot\ParamDecorators\ParamDecoratorInterface;
use Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\PatternRouter;
use Awesomite\Chariot\ParamDecorators\ContextInterface;

class TitleProvider implements ParamDecoratorInterface
{
    private $mapping;
    
    public function __construct(array $mapping)
    {
        $this->mapping = $mapping;
    }

    public function decorate(ContextInterface $context)
    {
        if ('showItem' !== $context->getHandler()) {
            return;
        }
        
        $id = $context->getParams()['id'] ?? null;
        $title = $this->mapping[$id] ?? null;
        
        if (null !== $title) {
            $context->setParam('title', $title);
        }
    }
}

$titleMapping = [
    1 => 'my-first-item',
    2 => 'my-second-item',
    3 => 'my-third-item',
];
$router = PatternRouter::createDefault();
$router->get('/items/{{ id :int }}-{{ title }}', 'showItem');

/*
 * Error, because title is not defined
 */
echo 'Without provider: ';
echo $router->linkTo('showItem')->withParam('id', 1), PHP_EOL;

/*
 * Valid URL, because title will be provided automatically
 */
$router->addParamDecorator(new TitleProvider($titleMapping));
echo 'With provider: ';
echo $router->linkTo('showItem')->withParam('id', 1), PHP_EOL;

/*
 * Output:
 * 
 * Without provider: __ERROR_CANNOT_GENERATE_LINK
 * With provider: /items/1-my-first-item
 */

Default patterns

Method Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\Patterns::createDefault() returns instance of Awesomite\Chariot\Pattern\Patterns with set of standard patterns:

name input output class/regex
:int -5 (int) -5 IntPattern
:uint 5 (int) 5 UnsignedIntPattern
:float -5.05 (float) -5.05 FloatPattern
:ufloat 5.05 (float) 5.05 UnsignedFloatPattern
:date 2017-01-01 new DateTimeImmutable("2017-01-01") DatePattern
:list red,green,blue (array) ["red", "green", "blue"] ListPattern
:ip4 8.8.8.8 (string) "8.8.8.8" Ip4Pattern
:alphanum nickname2000 (string) "nickname2000" [a-zA-Z0-9]+

More examples

License

MIT - read license

Versioning

The version numbers follow the Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 scheme.

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