BBc-1, a trustable system of record keeping beyond blockchains
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Core system of BBc-1 (Beyond Blockchain One)

This project is a Python-based reference implementation of BBc-1, a trustable system of record keeping beyond blockchains.

The design paper (white paper) and the analysis paper are available here and here. BBc-1 is inspired from blockchain technologies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hyperledger projects, and so on. BBc-1 is a simple but reliable distributed ledger system in contrast with huge and complicated existing blockchain platforms. The heart of BBc-1 is the transaction data structure and the relationship among transactions, which forms a graph topology. A transaction should be signed by the players who are the stake holders of the deal. BBc-1 achieves data integrity and data transparency by the topology of transaction relationship and signatures on transactions. Simply put, BBc-1 does not have blocks, and therefore, requires neither mining nor native cryptocurrency. BBc-1 can be applied to both private/enterprise use and public use. BBc-1 has a concept of domain for determining a region of data management. Any networking implementation (like Kademlia for P2P topology management) can be applied for each domain. Although there are many TODOs in BBc-1, this reference implementation includes most of the concept of BBc-1 and would work in private/enterprise systems. When sophisticated P2P algorithms are ready, BBc-1 will be able to support public use cases.

The source codes in this repository is a platform of BBc-1 and is the main process of a core node. The APIs of BBc-1 is defined in and So application developers should import them in your apps. For building a BBc-1 system, bbc1 package needs to be installed in the hosts and you need to run on each host. In order to configure the BBc-1 network, the utilities in utils/ directory are available. They are a kind of BBc-1 application, so that you can develop your own management tools.

For the details, please read documents in docs/ directory. Not only documents but slide decks (PDF) explain the design of the BBc-1 and its implementation.


Some documents are available in docs/.


  • Python

    • Python 3.5.0 or later
    • virtualenv is recommended
      • python -mvenv venv
    • In some environment, pipenv does not work well.
      • Some bugs seems to be in the installation scripts. So, please do not use pipenv now.
  • tools for macOS by Homebrew

    brew install libtool automake python3 pipenv
  • tools for Linux (Ubuntu 16.04 LTS)

    sudo apt-get install -y git tzdata openssh-server python3 python3-dev libffi-dev net-tools autoconf automake libtool libssl-dev make
    pip install pipenv

Quick start

From source code in github

  1. Install development tools (libtool, automake)

  2. Install python and pip

  3. Clone this project

  4. Prepare OpenSSL-based library in the root directory

  5. Install dependencies by the following command (in the case of python 3.6)

    python -mvenv venv
    source venv/bin/activate
    pip install -r requirements.txt
  6. Start on a terminal

    cd core
  7. Start a sample app in another terminal (should be initially at bbc1/ top directory)

    pipenv shell
    cd examples
    python arg1 arg2..

Use pip

  1. Install development tools (libtool, automake)
  2. Install python and pip
  3. Install BBc1 by pip
    python -mvenv venv
    source venv/bin/activate
    pip install bbc1

Use docker (See in docker/)

  1. Install docker on your host
  2. Clone this project
  3. Build docker image If you want source codes in your container,
    cd docker
    ./ gitbuild
    or, if you just want to use BBc-1,
    cd docker
    ./ pipbuild
  4. Run a docker container
    ./ start
  5. Log in to the container
    ./ shell
    ssh -p 10022 root@localhost
    The initial password is "bbc1".

working directory

The working directory of BBc-1 on the docker container is mounted on docker/data/.bbc1/. You will find a config file, ledger DB and file storage directory in the working directory.


  • bbc1/core/
    • core functions of BBc-1
  • utils/
    • BBc-1 system configuration utilities
  • examples/
    • sample applications on BBc-1
  • docker/
    • docker environments
  • tests/
    • test codes for pytest
  • libs/
    • some libraries used by BBc-1
  • docs/
    • docs about BBc-1 and its reference implementation
  • somewhere/.bbc1/
    • default working directory name of
  • requirements.txt
    • python modules to be required
    • for creatign python modules
    • setup script