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README.md

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Catalyst info

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Catalyst-info is a series of posts about Catalyst library development and its ecosystem.

You can suggest a topic for the next release via telegram, gitter or in issues to this repository 😉

Check also our maintained Awesome list

Contents

Catalyst-info #5. Callbacks

catalyst-version: 19.11 date: 2019-11-07

Hi, everybody! It's November, there's a new version 19.11 and we're back with the new Catalyst-info. The topic is Callbacks.


Let's look at the minimalistic train-loop for PyTorch:

image 5.1

We do a lot of nested iterations, going through different learning stages (warmup, train, finetune, etc.), iterate by epochs, iterate by all our dataloaders (train, valid, etc.) and finally, process batches inside each dataloader in some way.

This works, but how to make it customizable? To be able to add the necessary logic over the standard train-loop, we have introduced the Callbacks.


Any callback is the inherited of the catalyst.dl.core.Callback class with one or more methods implemented:

image 5.2 From ML-REPA #2 Deep dive into Catalyst by Roman Tezikov

By implementing these methods you can make any additional logic possible.


Each method takes catalyst.dl.core.RunnerState:

def on_stage_start(self, state: RunnerState):
    pass

def on_stage_end(self, state: RunnerState):
    pass

This class is a mediator for communication between Runner and Callbacks. Inside it, there are such important things as the current loader state.loader_name, the input batch state.input, the output of the model state.output, which metric is used in the pipeline state.main_metric, whether it needs to be minimized state.minimize_metric and many others. Any parameter from RunnerState can be used in any callback.

The runner takes the Callbacks from Experiment and invokes them. There can be a lot of callbacks per Experiment.


A lot of callbacks are already available from the "box", for example:

  • CheckpointCallback to save the best / last checkpoint
  • TensorboardLogger for logging metrics in tensorboard
  • EarlyStoppingCallback for an early exit if the metric has stopped changing
  • AccuracyCallback / AUCCallback / PrecisionRecallF1ScoreCallback - classification metrics
  • DiceCallback / IouCallback - segmentation metrics
  • and many others.

A complete list of prepared callbacks can be received by executing the command:

>>> from catalyst.dl.registry import CALLBACKS
>>> CALLBACKS

How are system calls executed inside the trainloop, for example, optimizer.step()?

In Catalyst's philosophy even such things are also a call-up of certain callbacks. For example:


The order parameter is required so that the callbacks for scheduler are not called before optimizer, and callbacks for metrics are not called before for loss.

class Callback:
    def __init__(self, order: int):
        """
        For order see ``CallbackOrder`` class
        """
        self.order = order

Formally it can be any integer, but Catalyst provides enum with standard CallbackOrder values.

class CallbackOrder(IntFlag):
    Unknown = -100
    Internal = 0  # some of the callbacks that need to be executed first
    Criterion = 20  # for any criterion callbacks
    Optimizer = 40  # for optimizer
    Scheduler = 60  # for lr_scheduler
    Metric = 80  # for metric calculations
    External = 100  # for logs / checkpoints etc
    Other = 200  # everything else that needs to be executed at the end

Let us have the task of preserving the predictions of the model. To do this, we can create a callback, subscribe to the event on_batch_end and take the logits from the state. Then, add a scalar to tensorboard from the state.

from catalyst.dl.core import Callback

class MyCallback(Callback):
  # override 
  def on_batch_end(self, state: RunnerState):
        # every train loader
        if not state.need_backward:
          return
        
        model_prediction = state.output["logits"]
        max_class = model_prediction.sigmoid().argmax()
        
        tensorboard = state.loggers["tensorboard"].loggers[state.loader_name]
        tensorboard.add_scalar("max_class", max_class)

Usually, to calculate metrics it is enough to implement your callback, inherited from catalyst.dl.core.MetricCallback, which takes prefix on which it will save the metric in state and metric_fn - a function that calculates the metric.

outputs = state.output[self.output_key]
targets = state.input[self.input_key]
metric = self.metric_fn(outputs, targets, **self.metric_params)

A specific callback catalyst.dl.core.LoggerCallback is also implemented for loggers. Its feature is only that on on_<event>_start it is executed before all other callbacks, and on on_<event>_end and on_exception after all of them.

Catalyst-info #4. Ecosystem

catalyst-version: 19.10 date: 2019-10-06

Hi, everybody! Today we'll tell you about the Catalyst ecosystem, namely MLComp, Reaction, and Safitty

image 4.1


Let's start with MLComp.

In an ecosystem of Catalyst, MLComp acts as an framework for creating complex DAGs for training/validation/inference and even submitting results on Kaggle! All this is wrapped in a beautiful UI.

image 4.1

You can do a lot of things through this UI, for example:

Configurations for MLComp are specified in YAML

image 4.1

When executing a DAG, it can be stopped at any time and then continued, the weights will be taken directly from the Catalyst logs.

As an executor, you can specify the Submit on Kaggle and then, after the infer, the predictions will be automatically uploaded.


Safitty

A small addition to the Catalyst is Safitty, a mini library for reading YAML/JSON configures in a uniform format.

import safitty

# Reading from a file
config = safitty.load("/path/to/config.yml")

# File recording
safitty.save(config, "/path/to/config.json")

And wrapping nested structures in a convenient readable format.

grayscale = safitty.get(config, "reader", "params", "grayscale")

# much more readable than a regular Python
grayscale = config.get("reader", {}).get("params", {}).get("grayscale")

And it helps to get values safely, including from arrays (safe in this case - without exceptions)

paths:
  some_key:
    - first: "value"
    - second: "value"
    - third:
      - 0
      - 1
      - 2
      - 3
  images: important/path/to/images/
value = safitty.get(config, "paths", "some_key", 1, "third", 3)
print(value) # 3

value = safitty.get(config, "paths", "some_key", 109, "third", 3)
print(value) # None

Through the properties of a normal Python we would get exception

config["paths"]["some_key"][109]["third"][3]
---------------------------------------------
IndexError Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-21-bbd29787aaba> in <module>
----> 1 config["paths"]["jsons"][5]["third"][3]

IndexError: list index out of range

Reaction. The youngest project from Catalyst-team

Reaction was created as a framework for serving Catalyst models in production.

With only a couple of hundred lines of code inside, Reaction allows you to run your models via API. All you need to do is describe the model and how it will predict the requests. Everything else is handled by Reaction.

The service configuration is described in YAML.

It already has:

  • Asyncs
  • Queues on RabbitMQ
  • Docker
  • Serialization/deserialization of any Python class
  • Predicts of the model, via telegram-bot

In the near future:

  • Handler support (you write a handler and your queries started to be logged, sent to the database, drawn on the client's chart, etc.)
  • Wrapper for starting the service by one command catalyst-serve run --config <path>

Catalyst-info #3. Runners

catalyst-version: 19.09.4 date: 2019-09-20

Hi, everybody! This is Catalyst-Team and the new issue of Catalyst-info #3. Today we will talk about an important framework concept - Runner.


There are two classes at the head of Catalyst.DL philosophy:

  • Experiment is a class that contains information about the experiment - a model, a criterion, an optimizer, a scheduler and their hyperparameters. It also contains information about the data and the columns used. In general, the Experiment knows what to run. It is very important and we will talk about it next time.
  • Runner is a class that knows how to run an experiment. It contains all the logic of how to run the experiment, stages (another distinctive feature of Catalyst), epoch and batches.

Runner's overall concept:

for stage in experimnet.stages:
    for epoch in stage.epochs:
        for loader in epoch.loaders:
            for batch_in in loader:
                batch_out = runner.forward(batch_in)
                metrics = metrics_fn(batch_in, batch_out)
                optimize_fn(metrics)

Runner has only one abstract method - forward, which is responsible for the logic of processing incoming data by the model.


Runner uses the RunnerState class to communicate with Callbacks.

It records the current Runner parameters. For example, batch_in and batch_out , metrics and many others.


In addition, if you look at the classification and segmentation tasks, you can see a lot in common. For example, only Experiment will be different for such tasks, not Runner. For this purpose, SupervisedRunner appeared in Catalyst.

Specialized for these tasks, it additionally implements methods train , infer and predict_loader . The basic purpose - to give additional syntactic sugar for faster and more convenient R&D. Suitable both for work in Notebook API, and in Config API.


Additionally, for integration with Weights & Biases, there are realizations WandbRunner and SupervisedWandbRunner . They do the same thing, but additionally log all the information on the wandb.app, which is very convenient if you have a lot of experiments.


And finally, we're working on GANRunner now.

That will bring everyone's favorite GANs to Catalyst. Let's make GAN reproducible once again!

Catalyst-info #2. Tracing with Torch.Jit

catalyst-version: 19.08.6 date: 2019-08-27

Hey, everybody! This is the Catalyst-info 🎉 part two!

Today's post grew out of the question is any method to trace a Catalyst checkpoint with torch.jit.

What's it for?

Traceability of Pytorch models allows you to speed up the model inference and allows you to run it not only with Python, but also with C++. It becomes like a binary file, without any code requirements – one step from research to production.

Additionally it can reduce the size of the Catalyst-checkpoint, removing all but the model.

before tracing image 1

after tracing image 2


How do you get the checkpoint in Catalyst?

To do this, there is a command catalyst-dl trace <logdir>

For example...

catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs

For model's tracing, Catalyst uses the same code that was dumped during experiment, so that you can always recreate your model, even if the code in the production has already changed – reproducibility first 👍


You are free to choose which of the checkpoints you want to trace (default is best) by the argument --checkpoint or, shortly, -c

catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs -c last
# or
catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs --checkpoint stage1.1

In this case the output will look like this: image 3


The forward method is executed by default, but this can be changed by selecting the necessary method in the --method argument, for example, our model has inference method:

catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs --method inference
# or
catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs -m inference

By default, traced models are saved in logdir/trace, but you can change it using one of the flags:

  1. --out-dir changes the directory in which the model is saved, but the name of the model is generated by Catalyst, for example --out-dir /path/to/output/
  2. --out-model indicates the path to a new file, for example --out-model /path/to/output/traced-model-1.pth

How do I download the model after training?

Once we've traced the model, it can be loaded into the python as

model = torch.jit.load(path)

and in C++.

module = torch::jit::load(path);

From interesting facts, in a format "and also ...": it is possible to trace a model not only in eval mode, but also in train + in addition to specify that we need to accumulate gradients. To change the mode to train:

catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs --mode train

To indicate that we need gradients

catalyst-dl trace /path/to/logs --with-grad

These flags can be combined

Catalyst-info #1. Segmentation models

catalyst-version: 19.08.6 date: 2019-08-22

Hello, everyone!

After the release of Catalyst in February it has a lot of new features, which, unfortunately, not everyone still knows about. Finally, we came up with an idea to post a random fact about catalyst every. So, the first release of catalyst-info!


In Catalyst we all have implemented our favorite Unet's: Unet, Linknet, FPNUnet, PSPnet and their brothers with resnet-encoders ResnetUnet, ResnetLinknet, ResnetFPNUnet, ResnetPSPnet. Any Resnet model can be fitted with any pre-trained encoder (resnet18, resnet34, resnet50, resnet101, resnet152)

Usage

from catalyst.contrib.models.segmentation import ResnetUnet # or any other
model = ResnetUnet(arch="resnet34", pretrained=True)

It's easy to load up a state_dict

model = ResnetUnet(arch="resnet34", pretrained=False, encoder_params=dict(state_dict="/model/path/resnet34-5c106cde.pth")

Link to the model's code.

All models have a common general structure encoder-bridge-decoder-head, each of this part can be adjusted separately or even replaced by their own modules!

# In the UnetMetaSpec class
def forward(self, x: torch.Tensor) -> torch.Tensor:
    encoder_features: List[torch.Tensor] = self.encoder(x)
    bridge_features: List[torch.Tensor] = self.bridge(encoder_features)
    decoder_features: List[torch.Tensor] = self.decoder(bridge_features)
    output: torch.Tensor = self.head(decoder_features)
    return output

To bolt your model as an encoder for segmentation, you need to inherit it from catalyst.contrib.models.segmentation.encoder.core.EncoderSpec (Code).


When creating your own block (for any encoder/bridge/decoder/head) using the function _get_block you can specify the complexity parameter, which will create a sequence of complexity times by Conv2d + BN + activation


The Upsample part can be specified either by interpolation or by convolution.

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