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spanner-cli CircleCI

Interactive command line tool for Cloud Spanner.

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Description

spanner-cli is an interactive command line tool for Google Cloud Spanner.
You can control your Spanner databases with idiomatic SQL commands.

Install

Install Go and run the following command.

# For Go 1.16+
go install github.com/cloudspannerecosystem/spanner-cli@latest

# For Go <1.16
go get -u github.com/cloudspannerecosystem/spanner-cli

Or you can download the old binary from the releases.

Usage

Usage:
  spanner-cli [OPTIONS]

spanner:
  -p, --project=    (required) GCP Project ID. [$SPANNER_PROJECT_ID]
  -i, --instance=   (required) Cloud Spanner Instance ID [$SPANNER_INSTANCE_ID]
  -d, --database=   (required) Cloud Spanner Database ID. [$SPANNER_DATABASE_ID]
  -e, --execute=    Execute SQL statement and quit.
  -f, --file=       Execute SQL statement from file and quit.
  -t, --table       Display output in table format for batch mode.
  -v, --verbose     Display verbose output.
      --credential= Use the specific credential file
      --prompt=     Set the prompt to the specified format
      --priority=   Set default request priority (HIGH|MEDIUM|LOW)

Help Options:
  -h, --help        Show this help message

Unless you specify a credential file with --credential, this tool uses Application Default Credentials as credential source to connect to Spanner databases.
Please make sure to prepare your credential by gcloud auth application-default login.

Example

Interactive mode

$ spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb
Connected.
spanner> CREATE TABLE users (
      ->   id INT64 NOT NULL,
      ->   name STRING(16) NOT NULL,
      ->   active BOOL NOT NULL
      -> ) PRIMARY KEY (id);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (30.60 sec)

spanner> SHOW TABLES;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_mydb |
+----------------+
| users          |
+----------------+
1 rows in set (18.66 msecs)

spanner> INSERT INTO users (id, name, active) VALUES (1, "foo", true), (2, "bar", false);
Query OK, 2 rows affected (5.08 sec)

spanner> SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id ASC;
+----+------+--------+
| id | name | active |
+----+------+--------+
| 1  | foo  | true   |
| 2  | bar  | false  |
+----+------+--------+
2 rows in set (3.09 msecs)

spanner> BEGIN;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

spanner(rw txn)> DELETE FROM users WHERE active = false;
Query OK, 1 rows affected (0.61 sec)

spanner(rw txn)> COMMIT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.20 sec)

spanner> SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id ASC;
+----+------+--------+
| id | name | active |
+----+------+--------+
| 1  | foo  | true   |
+----+------+--------+
1 rows in set (2.58 msecs)

spanner> DROP TABLE users;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (25.20 sec)

spanner> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (2.02 msecs)

spanner> EXIT;
Bye

Batch mode

By passing SQL from standard input, spanner-cli runs in batch mode.

$ echo 'SELECT * FROM users;' | spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb
id      name    active
1       foo     true
2       bar     false

You can also pass SQL with command line option -e.

$ spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb -e 'SELECT * FROM users;'
id      name    active
1       foo     true
2       bar     false

With -t option, results are displayed in table format.

$ spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb -e 'SELECT * FROM users;' -t
+----+------+--------+
| id | name | active |
+----+------+--------+
| 1  | foo  | true   |
| 2  | bar  | false  |
+----+------+--------+

Syntax

In the following syntax, we use <> for a placeholder, [] for an optional keyword, and {} for a mutually exclusive keyword.

  • The syntax is case-insensitive.
  • \G delimiter is also supported for displaying results vertically.
Usage Syntax Note
List databases SHOW DATABASES;
Switch database USE <database>;
Create database CREATE DATABSE <database>;
Drop database DROP DATABASE <database>;
List tables SHOW TABLES;
Show table schema SHOW CREATE TABLE <table>;
Show columns SHOW COLUMNS FROM <table>;
Show indexes SHOW INDEX FROM <table>;
Create table CREATE TABLE ...;
Change table schema ALTER TABLE ...;
Delete table DROP TABLE ...;
Truncate table TRUNCATE TABLE <table>; Only rows are deleted. Note: Non-atomically because executed as a partitioned DML statement.
Create index CREATE INDEX ...;
Delete index DROP INDEX ...;
Query SELECT ...;
DML {INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE} ...;
Partitioned DML PARTITIONED {UPDATE|DELETE} ...;
Show Query Execution Plan EXPLAIN SELECT ...;
Show DML Execution Plan EXPLAIN {INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE} ...;
Show Query Execution Plan with Stats EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT ...;
Show DML Execution Plan with Stats EXPLAIN ANALYZE {INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE} ...;
Start Read-Write Transaction BEGIN [RW] [PRIORITY {HIGH|MEDIUM|LOW}] [TAG <tag>]; See Request Priority for details on the priority. The tag you set is used as both transaction tag and request tag. See also Transaction Tags and Request Tags.
Commit Read-Write Transaction COMMIT;
Rollback Read-Write Transaction ROLLBACK;
Start Read-Only Transaction BEGIN RO [{<seconds>|<RFC3339-formatted time>}] [PRIORITY {HIGH|MEDIUM|LOW}] [TAG <tag>]; <seconds> and <RFC3339-formatted time> is used for stale read. See Request Priority for details on the priority. The tag you set is used as request tag. See also Transaction Tags and Request Tags.
End Read-Only Transaction CLOSE;
Exit CLI EXIT;

Customize prompt

You can customize the prompt by --prompt option.
There are some defined variables for being used in prompt.

Variables:

  • \p : GCP Project ID
  • \i : Cloud Spanner Instance ID
  • \d : Cloud Spanner Database ID
  • \t : In transaction

Example:

$ spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb --prompt='[\p:\i:\d]\t> '
Connected.
[myproject:myinstance:mydb]> SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id ASC;
+----+------+--------+
| id | name | active |
+----+------+--------+
| 1  | foo  | true   |
| 2  | bar  | false  |
+----+------+--------+
2 rows in set (3.09 msecs)

[myproject:myinstance:mydb]> begin;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.08 sec)

[myproject:myinstance:mydb](rw txn)> ...

The default prompt is spanner\t> .

Config file

This tool supports a configuration file called spanner_cli.cnf, similar to my.cnf.
The config file path must be ~/.spanner_cli.cnf.
In the config file, you can set default option values for command line options.

Example:

[spanner]
project = myproject
instance = myinstance
prompt = "[\\p:\\i:\\d]\\t> "

Configuration Precedence

  1. Command line flags(highest)
  2. Environment variables
  3. .spanner_cli.cnf in current directory
  4. .spanner_cli.cnf in home directory(lowest)

Request Priority

You can set request priority for command level or transaction level. By default MEDIUM priority is used for every request.

To set a priority for command line level, you can use --priority={HIGH|MEDIUM|LOW} command line option.

To set a priority for transaction level, you can use PRIORITY {HIGH|MEDIUM|LOW} keyword.

Here are some examples for transaction-level priority.

# Read-write transaction with low priority
BEGIN PRIORITY LOW;

# Read-only transaction with low priority
BEGIN RO PRIORITY LOW;

# Read-only transaction with 60s stale read and medium priority
BEGIN RO 60 PRIORITY MEDIUM;

# Read-only transaction with exact timestamp and medium priority
BEGIN RO 2021-04-01T23:47:44+00:00 PRIORITY MEDIUM;

Note that transaction-level priority takes precedence over command-level priority.

Transaction Tags and Request Tags

In a read-write transaction, you can add a tag following BEGIN RW TAG <tag>. spanner-cli adds the tag set in BEGIN RW TAG as a transaction tag. The tag will also be used as request tags within the transaction.

# Read-write transaction
# transaction_tag = tx1
+--------------------+
| BEGIN RW TAG tx1;  |
|                    |
| SELECT val         |
| FROM tab1      +-----request_tag = tx1
| WHERE id = 1;      |
|                    |
| UPDATE tab1        |
| SET val = 10   +-----request_tag = tx1
| WHERE id = 1;      |
|                    |
| COMMIT;            |
+--------------------+

In a read-only transaction, you can add a tag following BEGIN RO TAG <tag>. Since read-only transaction doesn't support transaction tag, spanner-cli adds the tag set in BEGIN RO TAG as request tags.

# Read-only transaction
# transaction_tag = N/A
+--------------------+
| BEGIN RO TAG tx2;  |
|                    |
| SELECT SUM(val)    |
| FROM tab1      +-----request_tag = tx2
| WHERE id = 1;      |
|                    |
| CLOSE;             |
+--------------------+

Using with the Cloud Spanner Emulator

This tool supports the Cloud Spanner Emulator via the SPANNER_EMULATOR_HOST environment variable.

$ export SPANNER_EMULATOR_HOST=localhost:9010
# Or with gcloud env-init:
$ $(gcloud emulators spanner env-init)

$ spanner-cli -p myproject -i myinstance -d mydb

How to develop

Run unit tests.

$ make test

Run integration tests, which connects to real Cloud Spanner database.

$ PROJECT=${PROJECT_ID} INSTANCE=${INSTANCE_ID} DATABASE=${DATABASE_ID} CREDENTIAL=${CREDENTIAL} make test

Run integration tests in CircleCI Local CLI, which connects to Cloud Spanner Emulator.

$ circleci local execute

TODO

  • Show secondary index by "SHOW CREATE TABLE"

Disclaimer

Do not use this tool for production databases as the tool is still alpha quality.

Please feel free to report issues and send pull requests, but note that this application is not officially supported as part of the Cloud Spanner product.