CellarWarden is an application that runs on the Raspberry Pi (B, B Plus, RPi 2 and RPi 3 supported; the Pi Zero is not supported, nor is the BeagleBone Black...yet) that monitors and controls temperature and humidity and provides a graphical display of these values over time. This is useful for monitoring wine cellars, kegerators/keezers, humidors, meat cellars, refrigerators, etc. for optimal temperature and humidity. If these values are out of range, CellarWarden can be set to send alarm emails and text messages to designated users.
CellarWarden now also provides controllers for controlling temperature and humidity automatically, useful for maintaining wine cellar temperature and humidity, the temperature of a kegerator or keezer, or to control the temperature of multiple wine/beer fermentation vessels. A virtually unlimited number of controllers can be defined for this purpose. These controllers may use hysteresis (thermostatic) or PID temperature automatic control and can be programmed to follow individual profiles to vary the setpoint over time.
CellarWarden is a client/server application, with a Node.js server running as a service on the RPi perpetually. It continuously logs temperature and humidity data and stores this to a log file. CellarWarden now offers controller function to control temperature or humidity using hysteresis or PID control. A virtually unlimited number of controllers can be associated with temperature or humidity sensors to control the output of refrigerators, wine cellars, fermentation chambers, etc. CellarWarden only requires a Raspberry Pi, and connects to such appliances via relay boards, with the relay boards driving the powering of these attached appliances. CellarWarden also provides controller profiles, a method to vary the setpoint for temperature or humidity over time. These profiles can be generated using a profile editor, and can be saved or loaded for re-use.
To view logged data, or to change configurations, controllers and alarm settings, a web based app is used. Shown is the web client application, with temperature and humidity data plotted over time. Also shown on the graph are annotations indicating alarm conditions that were triggered. These conditions can be set in a dialog opened by clicking on the Alarms button. Alarm notifications are sent to specified email addresses, including those associated with cell phone/SMS accounts. CellarWarden also compresses older data, as can be configured under the Logging Option in the Configure dialog. Alternatively, CellarWarden can maintain data for a set period, deleting older data as time progresses in round-robbin fashion. These logging options prevent the log file from becoming too large and slowing down client side operations. Note that while not shown above, moving the mouse over the graphs will show the data values for each plot in legend to the right of the graph. CellarWarden call also monitor door open events and will plot these on the main screen. Alarms can be set up to notify the user if doors are left open too long.
The minimal hardware for CellarWarden is a single DHT11/DHT22/AM2302 combined temp/humidity sensor connected to a free GPIO pin on a Raspberry Pi B, B Plus or RPi2. As shown in the Fritzing schematic below, this is done by running the specified GPIO input pin to the data line on the sensor, with 3.3V and ground supplied to appropriate pins on the sensor. Note that the DHT22/AM2302 is more accurate than the DHT11, and thus it is recommended that one of these be employed. These sensors use a form of one-wire protocol to communicate, although this is proprietary and is not supported by the Dallas One Wire protocol.
In addition to these, two Dallas One Wire temperature sensors may also be configured. In this case, a single GPIO pin is required, regardless of the number of One Wire sensors (e.g. DS18B20). Each DHT11/DHT22/AM2302 and the Dallas One Wire bus requires the data line to be pulled high (3.3V or 5V) via a 4.7K Ohm resistor in series between Vcc (3.3V or 5V) and the data line (as shown). Note that the Dallas One Wire data line is currently set to use GPIO 4 on the RPiBv2 and RPiB+, as this is set in Raspbian. However, newer implementations of Raspbian use a Device Tree. Thus it is possible to use a different GPIO pin for setting up the Dallas One Wire bus. CellarWarden does not currently change this GPIO setting, although it stores the GPIO number in its configuration for reference.
CellarWarden also supports a hardware LCD character display based on the Hitachi HD44780U controller. By default, CellarWarden will use a 20x4 single led backlit parallel display such as this. CellarWarden also supports LCD displays that connect via I2C backpacks, including this model. While I2C displays are slower than parallel displays, only two GPIO pins are required and these can be shared with other devices, including I2C realtime clock (RTC) boards.
In addition, up to two GPIO pins may be specified to monitor door opening via microswitches. As shown in the schematic, such a door switch may also be used to switch on the LCD backlight (if used). Thus, a simple SPDT microswitch may be used in which the common is connected to Vcc, and the normally open contact is connected to the backlight pin on the LCD
Note: CellarWarden uses the GPIO numbers as specified by Broadcom, not the actual pin numbers. GPIO numbers can be determined for different RPi boards here.
This is a relatively minimal setup involving one DHT22 to measure the cellar air temperature and humidity, a single DS18B20 One Wire temperature sensor for measuring bottle temperature (using a thermowell), and a door microswitch. Note that while some DS18B20 sensors are available wired in a waterproof probe, I prefer to use a thermowell to simplify insertion of the probe into a wine bottle. Fill an empty bottle with water, drill a 1/4" hole through the cork and then insert the thermowell through the hole in the cork. Place the cork tightly into the bottle and check for leaks. Put the bottle in the cellar and insert the DS18B20 probe into the thermowell. A good source for such thermowells is here.
Additional hardware configurations can be found in the Hardware Examples help page.
Purchase an RPi B, B+, RPi2 or RPi3 along with an SD Card (8GB+, Class 10 recommended) and a micro-USB power adapter. A WiFi dongle such as this is highly recommended (although this is not needed on the RPi3 as this board has a built-in WiFi chip). A micro-USB charger will also be needed to provide power to the RPi and any attached peripherals (e.g. relay boards, LCD displays, sensors, etc); purchase one that puts out at least 1A (1000 mA) to provide sufficient power.
Follow the instructions on the Raspberry Pi site to set up the SD card before booting the RPi for the first time using the latest version of the Raspbian Wheezy operating system.
After installing the software on the SD card, place this into the microSD card slot on the RPi and plug the microUSB power adapter in to power it up. The RPi can be accessed by connecting a keyboard to one of the USB ports, as well as a monitor to is HDMI port. However, it is possible to access the RPi command line shell through an ethernet connection via SSH (Secure Shell) using PuTTY (Windows) or the Mac OS X Terminal. Thus, it is recommended that the RPi be connected by an ethernet cable into an empty port on a nearby router or switch. More information about this can be found here.
Once you have access to the command line, it is recommended that the local timezone be set and the filesystem expanded so the RPi has access to all of the SD card's capacity. This is done by typing at the command line:
Note: commands and settings shown in the grey boxes can be copied here and then pasted into your command line shell. If you are using PuTTY, right click in the shell, and this will paste the command onto the command line. Press enter to submit the command. While editing files in nano, you can do the same.
Also, make sure to change the "pi" user password from "raspberry" to your own unique password.
Update the operating system:
sudo apt-get update -y && apt-get upgrade
With the RPi functioning properly, we can now install CellarWarden.
First, we must install Node.js (Node versions 4.2.1 and 4.4.2 are currently supported). Note that recent versions of Raspian Jesse include an older version of Node.js, and this must be uninstalled in order to run CellarWarden. To determine if node.js is already installed, type:
If either node.js or npm is installed, use the following commands to remove them so we can install a new copy of node.js:
sudo apt-get remove nodejs
sudo apt-get remove npm
To install the latest Raspbian version of Node.js, type the following:
curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_4.x | sudo bash -
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential python-dev nodejs npm
Verify that Node.js is properly installed by typing:
Install the BCM2835 library (needed for reading the DHT sensors):
tar zxvf bcm2835-1.50.tar.gz
sudo make check
sudo make install
To install CellarWarden, type the following:
sudo apt-get install git-core
git clone https://github.com/craigmw/CellarWarden /home/pi/CellarW
To ensure that CellarWarden starts on bootup:
sudo nano rc.local
Add the following toward the end of rc.local (but before the "exit 0" line):
#Load CellarWarden on startup
su root -c 'node cwdaemon.js'
To save the changes to rc.local, press Ctrl-X, Y and Enter.
If you plan to use Dallas One Wire DS18B20 temperature sensors, additional configuration is required. The One Wire bus can be activated on the RPi by typing:
sudo modprobe w1-gpio
sudo modprobe w1-therm
For recent versions of Raspbian Wheezy (and Jessie), One Wire devices are handled by the Device Tree. So it will be necessary to change the configuration in /boot/config.txt. To do so:
sudo nano config.txt
At the bottom of this file, add the following lines:
#For OneWire functionality
Note that other GPIO pins can be used for the OneWire data bus, so changing gpiopin to a different number should accomplish this. To save the changes to config.txt, press Ctrl-X, Y and Enter.
If you intend to use an I2C-based LCD display or an I2C connected RTC board, see the Hardware Examples page for more details about how to set up and configure these devices.
Now, reboot the RPi by issuing the following command:
Once the RPi restarts, the CellarWarden server should start up. This can be checked by logging back into the RPi and typing:
Look near the top of the list and you should see node under the Command column, indicating that CellarWarden is running in the background. Also, point your browser to the IP address of your RPi (which you should know by now if you are using SSH, if not, type ifconfig at the command line and look at the eth0 IP address listing), along with the default port address 8888 for the CellarWarden server. For example, type the following (with your RPi's local IP address) into the address bar of your browser:
If successful, this should bring up the CellarWarden web app. Here you can configure CellarWarden for the hardware you wish to set up by clicking on the Configure button on the top right. Make sure to set up the proper server address (the IP address of the RPi) and port number (default 8888) so that the web app communicates properly with the server daemon.
It is unlikely that an ethernet port is located near your wine cellar or refrigerator. For this reason, it is recommended to use a WiFi dongle to access your WiFi network. Note that a WiFi dongle is not necessary if you are using an RPi3, as these have built-in WiFi. This information is useful for setting up WiFi access with typical WiFi dongles that can be plugged into an open USB port on the RPi.
Sometimes, such WiFi connections are dropped by the RPi. If you experience WiFi dropouts, you can use this method to force the RPi to reconnect to the WiFi network.
Note that the CellarWarden daemon will continue to function, logging temperature and humidity, even if the WiFi connection drops. However, the web app will be unable to connect until the WiFi is re-established.
CellarWarden is highly dependent on the correct time, as it logs significant amounts of time-sensitive data. The RPi does not have a built-in RTC, and instead, obtains its time from the internet. If the RPi is unable to connect to the internet, the time on the RPi will be incorrect and this will adversely affect operations of CellarWarden. To address this and ensure that CellarWarden always has the correct time regardless of internet connectivity, an RTC board may be connected to the RPi via its I2C pins. Adafruit offers a DS1307-based I2C RTC board in kit form that requires minimal soldering and can be directly connected to the RPi's 3.3V line and I2C pins without the need for logic level shifters. More information about this is included in the Hardware Examples page and is also available here.
CellarWarden can send alarm notifications to specified email addresses if conditions are set in the Alarms dialog. For emails and SMS messages, it is necessary to provide an email account name and password to serve as the sender, as well as email addresses for the alarm notifications to be sent to. It is recommended that a unique email account be set up using Gmail (or Yahoo, etc) for this purpose. Several email addresses can be set in the alarms configuration for receivers of alarm notifications. These can include addresses for cell phone accounts to receive SMS text messages on these cell phones. For example, to send an email to a Verizon cell phone account, use the number followed by vtext.com as the email address (e.g. email@example.com). Different cell providers have different email addresses associated with SMS/text messaging. You can click on the Send Test Email button in the Alarms dialog to test the alarms function to ensure the settings work.
If you receive an alarm notification by email or SMS, log into your web app as soon as possible to check on the status of your cellar/refrigerator. Click on the Alarms button and then click on the Clear Active Alarms button. This will turn off alarm triggering until the problem can be rectified. This will prevent additional alarms from being triggered (although CellarWarden can automatically do this if the Block Mult. Emails option is set to True). Note that the web app will show a dialog notification if an alarm has been triggered, and will continue to show this whenever the page is loaded until the Clear Active Alarms button is clicked. If the web app is connected when an alarm is triggered, a dialog will pop up showing the alarm condition. As well, the LCD display (both virtual and on the hardware display, if the latter is installed) will also report the alarm condition until the Clear Active Alarms button is pressed.
To access CellarWarden from a remote computer or smart phone, it is possible to use a web browser as with on a local LAN. However, this requires a means to connect to the RPi through the internet to the proper LAN address. There are two issues that complicate this. First, many internet service providers provide dynamic instead of static IP addresses, meaning that the IP used to connect the home LAN will change over time. Thus, it is difficult to access the RPi if this IP address changes. To address this issue, it is necessary to use a dynamic IP address service like dyndns.org or no-ip.com. Once you sign up for this service, it is possible to access the RPi using your dynamic IP service, such myname.dyndns.org. A second issue is that while the router that connects to the outside internet may have a particular IP address, this single address is not sufficient to identify the RPi on the local LAN. Thus, while the RPi may have a local IP address like 192.168.1.50, typing this address in the address bar of a web browser on a device outside of that LAN would not find the RPi. To address this issue, it is necessary to use port forwarding, a method to assign a unique address to a device on the home LAN that can be accessed from outside of that LAN. Port forwarding is typically set up in your router (e.g. "wireless router"). Since each router's software handles port forwarding in a different manner, you will need to consult your router's instruction manual for information about how to do so. Note that some routers allow you to specify a remote port address that is different from the local port address. CellarWarden defaults to port 8888 for access to its web server. However, if you have another device on your RPi that uses this port, you can either set this port to a different number (in the Configure dialog), or use your router's port translation function to translate the remote port to point to 8888 on the RPi's IP. While unnecessary for alarm functionality, setting up remote access provides a means to check on the status of your cellar or refrigerator while away from your local LAN.
With the provision of controller functionality, reliability is of paramount concern. If the RPi crashes for some unforseen reason, this could leave an actuator on or off, resulting in potentially disasterous results. To prevent the potential for dangerous conditions, it is strongly recommended that appliances connected to the RPi via relay boards be rated to power levels that will not result in hazardous situations. For example, only low wattage heaters should be used to control fermentation temperatures so that, should the RPi become unstable, an actuator stuck "on" would not lead to significant overheating of associated appliances that might constitute a hazard. Similarly, if the RPi crashes with a cooling actuator stuck in an energized state, there is the potential that the freezer may remain active, leading to freezing of contents inside the appliance. The user of this software thus acknowledges the potential for such situations and assumes all responsibilities associated with the implementation and usage of this software. To mitigate these situations, it is suggested that hardware methods be employed to minimize the impact of a crashed RPi. For example, on chest freezers and refrigerators with thermostatic controls, it is suggested that the thermostat be set to a point that will avoid temperatures below freezing. If the actuator on the RPi remains active due to software or hardware malfunction, the hardware thermostat will turn off the compressor before the freezer reaches a temperature below freezing. As an additional measure to address such concerns, the user may employ a software "watchdog timer," as described in this article. This method utilizes a watchdog timer built into the Broadcom processor on board the RPi, although this will not ensure that all crash conditions on the RPi are caught. As a better method, hardware "watchdog" circuits are available to monitor the RPi to ensure that the RPi remains operational and will automatically reboot the RPi if it should crash. An example of such circuits is available here. More information about the use of such a hardware watchdog timer is described in this Instructable.
CellarWarden will be updated from time to time, and this will be apparent by changes noted at the Github repository. To update your copy of CellarWarden, open the command line shell (using Putty, etc) and type:
sudo git pull
This will copy any modified files from the Github repository into your CellarWarden folder and then reboot the RPi to institute the changes.