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CoreFreq is a CPU monitoring software designed for the 64-bits Processors.
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Makefile Copyright (C) 2015-2019 CYRIL INGENIERIE Jan 5, 2019
README.md Version 1.44 Apr 8, 2019
amdmsr.h AMD Bulldozer Topology (phase 2 : Piledriver Sub-Caching) (issue #91) Jan 26, 2019
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corefreq-cli-rsc-en.h Addtionnal code for errors tracking. Mar 17, 2019
corefreq-cli-rsc-fr.h
corefreq-cli-rsc.c Resources for the Hot Event Box // Resize the OC selector. Apr 13, 2019
corefreq-cli-rsc.h Resources for the Hot Event Box // Resize the OC selector. Apr 13, 2019
corefreq-cli.c HWP and HDC enablement status // Turbo is a function of the P-State + 1 Apr 21, 2019
corefreq-cli.h
corefreq-ui.c Return to the previous window when closing the current one. Apr 21, 2019
corefreq-ui.h Resources for the Hot Event Box // Resize the OC selector. Apr 13, 2019
corefreq.h Provides the Chipset ID with the Memory Controller info. Apr 14, 2019
corefreqd.c Provides the Chipset ID with the Memory Controller info. Apr 14, 2019
corefreqd.service Copyright (C) 2015-2019 CYRIL INGENIERIE Jan 5, 2019
corefreqk.c HWP and HDC enablement status // Turbo is a function of the P-State + 1 Apr 21, 2019
corefreqk.h HWP and HDC enablement status // Turbo is a function of the P-State + 1 Apr 21, 2019
corefreqm.c Refactoring the classes of errors (issue #94). Mar 16, 2019
corefreqm.h Tools: count the CPUs calculus errors. Feb 10, 2019
coretypes.h Return to the previous window when closing the current one. Apr 21, 2019
dkms.conf
intelmsr.h HWP and HDC enablement status // Turbo is a function of the P-State + 1 Apr 21, 2019
scripter.sh Copyright (C) 2015-2019 CYRIL INGENIERIE Jan 5, 2019

README.md

CoreFreq

Purpose

CoreFreq is a CPU monitoring software designed for 64-bits Processors w/ architectures Intel Atom, Core2, Nehalem, SandyBridge and superior; AMD Families 0Fh, 17h (Zen)

alt text

CoreFreq provides a framework to retrieve CPU data with a high degree of precision:

  • Core frequencies & ratios; SpeedStep (EIST), Turbo Boost, Hyper-Threading (HTT) and Base Clock
  • Performance counters including Time Stamp Counter (TSC), Unhalted Core Cycles (UCC), Unhalted Reference Cycles (URC)
  • Number of instructions per cycle or second, IPS, IPC, or CPI
  • CPU C-States C0 C1 C3 C6 C7 - C1E - Auto/UnDemotion of C1 C3
  • DTS Temperature and Tjunction Max, Thermal Monitoring TM1 TM2 state
  • Topology map including Caches for boostrap & application CPU
  • Processor features, brand & architecture strings
  • In progress: Uncore, Memory Controller channels & geometry, DIMM timings, Stress tools, Power & Energy (RAPL), Overclocking

To reach this goal, CoreFreq implements a Linux Kernel module which employs the followings:

  • asm code to keep as near as possible the readings of the performance counters;
  • per-CPU, implements slab data memory and high-resolution timer;
  • compliant with suspend / resume and CPU Hot-Plug;
  • a shared memory to protect kernel from the user-space part of the software;
  • atomic synchronization of threads to avoid mutexes and deadlock.

Build & Run

Prerequisites

a- For a better accuracy, disable the Kernel NMI Watchdog

Add the below parameter in the kernel boot loader (Grub, SysLinux)
The NMI Watchdog and the CoreFreq driver are conflicting on the ownership of the fixed performance counters

nmi_watchdog=0

b- No Virtualization

VMs don't provide access to the registers that the CoreFreq driver employs :

  • Fixed Performance Counters
  • Model Specific Registers
  • PCI Registers

c- Rendering

The UI renders best with an ASCII 7-Bit console or Xterm with VT100 and ANSI colors support

Build

1- Clone the source code into a working directory.
💲git clone https://github.com/cyring/CoreFreq.git

2- Build the programs.
💲cd CoreFreq
💲make

cc -Wall -pthread -c corefreqd.c -o corefreqd.o
cc -Wall -c corefreqm.c -o corefreqm.o
cc corefreqd.c corefreqm.c -o corefreqd -lpthread -lm -lrt
cc -Wall -c corefreq-cli.c -o corefreq-cli.o
cc -Wall -c corefreq-ui.c -o corefreq-ui.o
cc corefreq-cli.c corefreq-ui.c -o corefreq-cli -lm -lrt
make -C /lib/modules/x.y.z/build M=/workdir/CoreFreq modules
make[1]: Entering directory '/usr/lib/modules/x.y.z/build'
  CC [M]  /workdir/CoreFreq/corefreqk.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /workdir/CoreFreq/corefreqk.mod.o
  LD [M]  /workdir/CoreFreq/corefreqk.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory '/usr/lib/modules/x.y.z/build'

Start

3- Load the kernel module, as root.
#️⃣insmod corefreqk.ko
4- Start the daemon, as root.
#️⃣corefreqd
5- Start the client, as a user (in another terminal or console).
💲corefreq-cli

Stop

6- Press [CTRL]+[C] to stop the client.

7- Press [CTRL]+[C] to stop the daemon (in foreground) or kill its background job.

8- Unload the kernel module
#️⃣rmmod corefreqk.ko

Try

Download the CoreFreq Live CD from the Wiki
alt text

Screenshots

Linux kernel module

Use dmesg or journalctl -k to check if the module is started

CoreFreq: Processor [06_1A] Architecture [Nehalem/Bloomfield] CPU [8/8]

Daemon

CoreFreq Daemon.  Copyright (C) 2015-2019 CYRIL INGENIERIE

  Processor [Intel(R) Core(TM) i7 CPU 920 @ 2.67GHz]
  Architecture [Nehalem/Bloomfield] 8/8 CPU Online.

Client

Without arguments, the corefreq-cli program displays Top Monitoring
alt text

  • Remark: Drawing will stall if the terminal width is lower than 80 columns, or its height is less than required.

  • With the option '-c', the client traces counters. alt text

  • Using option '-m' corefreq-cli shows the CPU topology alt text

  • With the option '-i' corefreq-cli traces the number of instructions per second / cycle

CPU     IPS            IPC            CPI
#00     0.000579/s     0.059728/c    16.742698/i
#01     0.000334/s     0.150569/c     6.641471/i
#02     0.000598/s     0.161326/c     6.198641/i
#03     0.000294/s     0.233535/c     4.282013/i
#04     0.000240/s     0.042931/c    23.293141/i
#05     0.000284/s     0.158661/c     6.302765/i
#06     0.000128/s     0.128031/c     7.810631/i
#07     0.000088/s     0.150406/c     6.648674/i
  • Use the option '-s' to show the Processor information (BSP)

alt text

ArchLinux

corefreq-git can be installed from the Arch User Repository.

Debian, Ubuntu

  • Development packages prerequisites.
    #️⃣apt-get install libpthread-stubs0-dev

Red Hat, CentOS

  • Development packages prerequisites.
    #️⃣yum install kernel-devel
    #️⃣yum group install "Development Tools"

Q&A

  • Q: Turbo Technology is activated however CPUs don't reach those frequencies ?

  • Q: The CPU ratio does not go above its minimum value ?

  • Q: The UI shows erratic counters values !

    A: In the kernel boot command argument line, disable the NMI Watchdog

nmi_watchdog=0

A: The NMI alternative is proposed by the Makefile to make use of the APERF/MPERF registers

make help	# for instructions usage
make info	# for current settings
  • Q: The deep sleep states do not produce any value ?
    A: Check if the intel_idle module is running.
    Accordingly to the Processor specs, provide a max_cstate value in the kernel argument as below.
intel_idle.max_cstate=value
  • Q: The CoreFreq UI refreshes itself slowly, with a delay after the actual CPUs usage ?
    A: The sampling time to read the counters can be reduced or increased using a CoreFreq module argument:
    #️⃣insmod corefreqk.ko SleepInterval=value
    where <value> is supplied in milliseconds between a minimum of 100 ms and a maximum of 4500 ms. 1000 ms is the default value.

  • Q: The base clock reports a wrong frequency value ?
    A: CoreFreq uses various algorithms to estimate the base clock.

  1. The delta of two TimeStamp counters during a defined interval

  2. The value provided in the Processor brand string divided by the maximum ratio (without Turbo)

  3. A static value advertised by the manufacturer specs.

  4. The MSR_FSB_FREQ bits provided with the Core, Core2 and Atom architectures.

    The CoreFreq module can be started as follow to ignore the first algorithm (frequency estimation):
    #️⃣insmod corefreqk.ko AutoClock=0
    Remark: algorithms # 2, 3 and 4 will not return any under/over-clock frequency.

  • Q: The CPU temperature is wrong ?
    A: CoreFreq employs two msr to calculate the temperature.
MSR_IA32_TEMPERATURE_TARGET - MSR_IA32_THERM_STATUS [DTS]

    If the MSR_IA32_TEMPERATURE_TARGET is not provided by the Processor, a default value of 100 degree Celsius is considered as a target.

  • Q: The menu option "Memory Controller" does not open any window ?
    A: Although Uncore and IMC features are under development, they can be activated with the Experimental driver argument:
    #️⃣insmod corefreqk.ko Experimental=1

  • Q: The Instructions and PMC0 counters are stuck to zero ?
    A: The PCE bit of control register CR4 allows RDPMC in ring 3
    #️⃣echo "2" > /sys/devices/cpu/rdpmc
    #️⃣insmod corefreqk.ko RDPMC_Enable=1

  • Q: The CPU freeze or the System crash.
    A: This Processor is not or partially implemented in CoreFreq.
    Please open an issue in the CPU support Wiki page.

Algorithm

alt text

About

CyrIng

Copyright (C) 2015-2019 CYRIL INGENIERIE

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