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An advanced keyboard manager
Haskell C Nix
Branch: master
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Welcome to KMonad! If you are currently running Linux and want to experiment with this new way of defining keyboard layouts, either:

We now have (limited) Windows support! Look down below for instructions on how to build your Windows-version of KMonad, or check out our Windows binary. Check out the limitations on windows support below.

What is KMonad?

KMonad is a keyboard remapping utility written to provide functionality that aligns with that provided by the amazing QMK firmware. The QMK firmware is compiled and installed on programmable keyboards and allows your keyboards to transform from comfortable clacky ("Wahaay!" for mechanical switches) to amazingly useful, by introducing the ability to overlap various maps of keys, have different functionality for the same key when held or tapped, or create buttons that can be tapped multiple times to have different effects.

However, we can't always have our programmable keyboard with us, and I personally don't like using it with my laptop, because it either becomes a balancing act, or I have to sit at a table with my laptop uncomfortably far away from me. Additionally, there are loads of people who do not have programmable keyboards who might enjoy all the bells and whistles that QMK has to offer, and so KMonad was born.

What about that name, KMonad?

The name KMonad is a wink at my favorite window manager: XMonad, but where XMonad manages your X Window in its X-monad, we manage your Keys in our K-monad (actually, we call it App, but who's checking).

What can I do with KMonad?

Well, there are a variety of customizations you can make. For example, this duplicates the functionality of another popular Linux utility: XCAPE, which allows you to specify mod-buttons that also emit events when you simply tap them.

For example, look at that useless CapsLock key on your keyboard. It is in a great position, but do we ever use it? Well, what if you could remap CapsLock to a button that behaves like a Ctrl key? That's already quite nice. What if it could also emit 'Esc' when you tap it? Yep: all of that is possible (Note: some of this is already possible through existing tools or udev rules).

Do you write a lot of Haskell code and define your own operators? Do you want your operators to look like this: =>=->->>? That's a lot to type. Why not just define a macro that does it for you?

The same technique can be used to create macros that insert a variety of accented or umlauted characters, depending on your OS. Why type Right-Alt " e when you can put this macro in a layer on a button close to home row?

Or more practically: do you really like the Dvorak layout, but do you also wish you had very simple, left-handed access to the common Control z x c v shortcuts? Have a look at this dvorak example to see an easy solution.

For more ideas, check the example subdirectory, or the syntax guide for an overview of different button-types.

Getting KMonad

KMonad is written in Haskell (with a tiny bit of C). You can either compile it yourself using the instructions mentioned below. Alternatively, the lovely people over at have helped me figure how to compile a static binary that should work basically on any standard 64-bit Linux system. You can find the most recent release on the releases page.



Probably the easiest way to compile KMonad is using stack. If you do not have stack installed, check for instructions on installing it. After compilation, it can be removed again, since kmomad does not need to be recompiled upon configuration.

After potentially installing stack and cloning this repo, you can build kmonad by calling:

stack build

Or call the following (CURRENTLY BROKEN, documentation will be fixed up in the future):

stack haddock --no-haddock-deps

to build a KMonad binary and the Haddock documentation. I have put some effort into documenting the code if you want to have a look around. It is nowhere near perfect, and I hope to do more in the future.

stack will tell you where it saved the compiled binary after which you can copy it to somewhere on your path.


Windows support was added under Windows10 using a Haskell Platform installation. Additionally, you might need to install MinGW to provide gcc for windows to compile the C-interface to Windows. Once both the Haskell Platform and MinGW are installed and available on the path, compiling KMonad should be identical to Linux, i.e.:

stack build


KMonad currently requires 1, and exactly 1 input argument: a path to a configuration file that describes the keyboard layout to run. For a guide to writing valid configuration files, see the syntax guide or some of the examples.

Once the compiled binary is on the PATH, running KMonad is as simple as:

kmonad /path/to/config/file.kbd

The method of running KMonad under Windows is exactly the same: you use the shell (for example: Powershell) to start KMonad. For example, put the compiled KMonad executable and config file in the same directory, start Powershell, cd to the directory, and run:

./kmonad config_file.kbd

This has the added benefit that, if KMonad experiences issues, you can use your mouse to close the powershell and hopefully release the keyboard-hook.

Note that this interface is extremely provisional and subject to change.

Any kind of internal KMonad error that indicates that something has gone seriously wrong with our representation of the computation will terminate KMonad and display the error to stdout. It is however not uncommon for KMonad to have to reacquire a uinput keyboard on resume from suspend. To that extent, any core IO exception will cause KMonad to pause for a second and attempt a restart, ad infinitum. This means its fine to unplug the mapped keyboard and plug it back in, without crashing KMonad.

Common issues

Uinput permissions

Currently, the only supported operating system is Linux. KMonad uses the uinput subsystem to write events to the operating system. If you want to be able to run KMonad without using sudo (highly recommended to avoid sudo wherever possible), you will need to ensure that your user is part of the uinput group. On most Linux's this can be achieved by:

sudo usermod -aG uinput username

If the uinput group does not exist, check whether your system has an input group and try adding your user to that one instead. If this does not work, create a new group with:

sudo groupadd uinput

You then have to add a udev rule (in either /etc/dev/rules.d or /lib/udev/rules.d) with the following content:

KERNEL=="uinput", MODE="0660", GROUP="uinput", OPTIONS+="static_node=uinput"

Additionally, you might need to ensure that the uinput drivers are loaded before starting KMonad, this can be achieved through:

sudo modprobe uinput

This might have to be repeated whenever you restart your computer. There are various techniques for getting the uinput subsystem to load automatically, but I didn't manage to get any of them to work.

Figuring out which event-file corresponds to your keyboard

Sometimes you can find your keyboard listed under /dev/input/by-id. If so, this is by far the best solution, since there is no guarantee that a keyboard will be assigned the same numbered event-file. If this is not the case, however, the easiest way to figure out which event-file corresponds to your keyboard is probably to use the evtest Linux utility.

Getting special characters to work

Since KMonad only deals in 'raw', primitive keyboard events, there is no such thing at that level as a special symbol. Instead we emit common keyboard sequences that the operating system needs to map to special characters. To that extent, you need to indicate to X11 what key is supposed to trigger a special-character macro.

There are two ways of doing this:

  1. Manually, after launching KMonad, use either xmodmap or setxkbmap to indicate to your OS that 'Right-Alt' should be used as the compose key (support for other compose keys is coming in the future). For example:
# Either
xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_R = Multi_key" 
# or:
setxkbmap option compose:ralt

It is probably better to use setxkbmap here, since it resets your config before applying modifications, whereas repeated calls to xmodmap can run into errors because you are trying to map to buttons that have already been remapped.

  1. Automatically, through the UINPUT_SINK token. If you consult the syntax guide you will see exactly how you can provide KMonad with a shell-command to execute whenever a new uinput sink is created. This has the added benefit that, whenever we need to recreate the uinput sink (this is sometimes necessary after resuming from suspend, for example), the command is automatically called again for you.

Note that there is a small interval between creating a uinput sink and it actually being registered by the OS, so whether you manually call setxkbmap or use the UINPUT_SINK token to pass a shell command, you need to ensure that it contains a small period of time for the OS to register the keyboard. I have found that 1 second is more than sufficient, but experiment yourself.

Windows Limitations

Cannot distinguish between keyboards

The low-level API to the operating system differs significantly between Windows and Linux, which means that the Windows version is currently more limited in what it can do. There is an active issue on this topic over here, and if you have experience with Win32 programming, any help would be greatly appreciated. So if you want to help, or just want a more technical overview of the windows limitations head on over there.

Currently, we cannot distinguish between different input keyboards, so whereas a Linux version of KMonad can be started for a variety of different keyboards, and handle them all in different ways, the Windows version of KMonad catches all keyboard input signals. The only distinction KMonad makes under Windows is between 'real' keyboard events and simulated keyboard events. Anything simulated is automatically passed on to the OS (that is also how KMonad avoids handling its own simulated output).

No native support for compose sequences

Windows does not support the same compose-sequences as X11, meaning that the special-character-emitting macros won't work out of the box. Luckily there is WinCompose, a windows utility that maps compose-key sequences to special characters. They say they have full support for all X11 based compose-sequences, and in my limited test I did not run into any problems. We currently do not support remapping the compose-key internally, but the KMonad default lines up with the X11 default and the WinCompose default (right Alt).

NOTE: For WinCompose to work with KMonad you have to enable support for handling injected key events, which is off by default.

No idea how this interacts with AHK

Since KMonad essentially grabs all standard keyboard input and lets through only simulated events, there is no guarantee at all of this playing nice with AutoHotKey at the moment. Additionally, I am not entirely sure how Windows deals with its low-level keyboard hooks and how AHK tries to get at keyboard input, but it might even be the case that different startup-orders could result in different behavior. I have no experience with AHK at all, and rarely use Windows. If you run into any issues, please file them, and I'm sure that in time we can resolve everything.

Why can't I remap the Fn key on my laptop?

Many laptops have a Fn key that mimics some of the functionality that KMonad tries to offer: it changes the mapping of certain keys, like creating a numpad in the middle of the laptop keyboard. This remapping happens in the hardware, before any event is ever registered with the operating system, therefore KMonad has no way to 'get' at any of those events. This means that we cannot remap them in any way.

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