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README.md

Azure Security Workshop - Labs

These series of labs are based on the Azure Reference Architecture to deploy an N-Tier application

To simplify and speed up the process of creating this architecture we will only deploy one VM per Tier. Also, the Domain Controller VM and AD Domain Services are removed from the lab template, as this could be run on a separate workshop.

image of 3tier

Getting Set Up

  1. Create a Microsoft Account, redeem your Azure Passes and activate your credit
  2. Configuration needed before starting the labs
  3. Deploy the solution

Lab Series

  1. Lab 1 - Protecting the Network Perimeter – NSG (Network Security Groups)
  2. Lab 2 - Azure Networking logs
  3. Lab 3 - Control outbound security traffic with Azure Firewall
  4. Lab 4 - Protecting the Web Application - Application Gateway and WAF (Web Application Firewall)
  5. Lab 5 - Understand your application security posture in Azure - Azure Security Center for security recommendations
  6. Lab 6 - Storage Security – Encryption at Rest - Apply disk encryption to a running VM
  7. Lab 7 - Extending your Data Centre to Azure in a secure way – Site to Site VPN Access
  8. Lab 8 - Azure Active Directory Labs
  9. Lab 9 - Enable DDoS protection for your resources

1. Create a Microsoft Account, redeem your Azure Passes if you will use your Personal Microsoft Account

If you are setting up an Azure Pass or creating a Microsoft Account for the purposes of this lab, please visit the account creation page.

2. Configuration needed before starting the labs (Time to complete: 15 min)

1. Working with Visual Studio Code

  • If you already have Visual Studio Code, please open it. If not:

    • Install Visual Studio Code from the Visual Studio Code website
    • Allow Visual Studio Code to launch after installation. If you already have Visual Studio Code installed, open it
  • In Visual Studio Code, click the View menu option and select Terminal. This will open a PowerShell terminal command prompt which is a great place to run the Azure CLI commands from in the labs.

2. Powershell AzureRM module

  • Install the AzureRM module. On your Powershell console:

    Install-Module AzureRM
    

    If you get an error about Administrator rights, either open Visual Studio Code with elevated privileges or run the above command with the -Scope CurrentUser parameter.

  • Make sure you have installed AzureRM version 6 (or higher).

    Get-Module AzureRM -ListAvailable | Select-Object -Property Name,Version,Path
    

3. Install Azure CLI 2.0

  • Visit the Azure CLI 2.0 website and install the Azure CLI onto your computer.

  • Open a Command Prompt (or the Terminal Window in Visual Studio Code) and check that running the az command produces command help output (you may need to restart Windows Powershell/Visual Studio Code and re-open again for the installation to register).

  • Note: you might face an issue when you try to run an az command that says

    az : The term 'az' is not recognized as the name of a cmdlet, function, script file, or operable program.
    

    The issue is because the Azure CLI 2.0 is installed in location - C:\Users<username>\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python37-32\Scripts\ which is not added to the PATH variable.*

    1. First make sure you have python installed in your machine. If you don’t have the original CLI (or python) at all, you need that first. Download and install it from here: https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-352/

    2. Uninstall Azure CLI earlier versions with command - pip uninstall azure-cli

    3. Re-install Azure CLI 2.0 - pip install --user azure-cli

    4. Add the path C:\Users<username>\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python37-32\Scripts\ to PATH

    5. Check if the az command is working:

      az --help
      

4. (Optional) Install Visual Studio Code Extensions In Visual Studio Code, go to Extensions, search for Azure CLI Tools and install the package. Reload Visual Studio Code once installed.

5. Install the Azure building blocks npm package

  • Install Node.js from the link above. The LTS version will be fine.

  • You may need to close and re-open PowerShell/Visual Studio Code/Terminal window after the Node.js installation for the following commands to work.

  • Install the Azure Building Blocks package:

    npm install -g @mspnp/azure-building-blocks
    
  • Test Azure Building Blocks with the following command on PowerShell or VS Code:

    azbb
    

6. From a command prompt, bash prompt, or PowerShell prompt, sign into your Azure account as follows:

az login

7. Set the CLI to use the correct subscription (Enterprise or Azure Pass) To get your Subscription ID, run the following command to list the Subscriptions within your account:

az account list --query "[].{id:id,name:name}" --output tsv

Make a note of the relevant ID for your Subscription, and set the CLI to use this as the active subscription:

az account set --subscription  "<subscription-ID>"

3. Deploy the Solution (Time to complete: 35 to 40 min)

  1. Run the following command to create a Resource Group

    VERY IMPORTANT: Use location 'WestEurope' to deploy your infrastructure for all labs. This will guarantee that you won't have issues with the Azure Pass credits and availability of Virtual Machine types.

    az group create --location <location> --name <resource-group-name>
    
  2. Run the following command to create a Storage Account for your Cloud resources, making sure that the Resource Group created in step 1 above is used in place of <resource-group-name> as the value for the --resource-group parameter.

    Note: Storage account name must be between 3 and 24 characters in length and use numbers and lower-case letters only.

    az storage account create --location <location> --name <storage-account-name> --resource-group <resource-group-name> --sku Standard_LRS
    
  3. In your browser, navigate to https://github.com/davisanc/AzureSecurityLabs

  4. Open the n-tier-windows-security-labs.json file. This file is an Azure Resource Manager (ARM) Template which describes, as code, the infrastructure resources we need to use for this lab. When deployed, the template will instruct Azure Resource Manager to create the resources as described in the text.

    For more on ARM Templates, please visit: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/azure-resource-manager/resource-group-overview#template-deployment

  5. IMPORTANT: Just above the main text panel on the Github page, click the Raw button to show the JSON file as unformatted text. Copy this text into the clipboard. It is important that the Raw version of the text is copied because Github adds additional formatting to text when displayed on the site which, when copied, creates errors in deploying the template.

  6. In Visual Studio Code, create a new file and paste the text copied to the clipboard in the previous step.

  7. Find all instances of adminUsername and adminPassword within the JSON text. Each pair of these properties represent the values which will be set for the Administrator user account and password on each Virtual Machine.

    Replace each of these property values with values of your own, following these guidlines:

    Username Guidelines

    • The user name cannot contain special characters /"[]:¦<>+=;,?*& or end with a full stop
    • The user name must not include reserved words. For example:
      • admin
      • administrator
      • guest
      • user
    • The value is between 1 and 32 characters long

    Password Rules

    • Password value should not be empty.
    • Password must have 3 of the following: 1 lower case character, 1 upper case character, 1 number, and 1 special character that is not '' or '-'.
    • The value must be between 12 and 72 characters long.
    • Passwords must not include reserved words or unsupported characters.

    As an example, the template may contain the following username and password combination for each Virtual Machine:

    "size": "Standard_DS1_v2",
    "computerNamePrefix": "biz",
    "adminUsername": "adminUser",     << Administrator User Name
    "adminPassword": "P4ssw0rd123$%", << Admin Account Password
    "virtualNetwork": {
        "name": "ra-ntier-vnet"
    },                    
    

    These are valid user names and passwords and the solution could be deployed using them. However, considering that this is a security lab, and that this content is available online, there is always risk that a malicious user has this combination and is waiting for services to be deployed. This is why usernames and passwords should never be posted as part of a template into a code repository (see Additional Notes below).

    In reality, when configuring a server, alternative usernames and passwords would be used for the local account and cloud based Virtual Machines should be treated no different. Therefore, continuing the example, the Web Server Admin Account Name could be set to WebServerAdmin and the password to C4ndY*Fl0$S19 by making the changes to the property values as shown below:

    "adminUsername": "WebServerAdmin",
    "adminPassword": "C4ndY*Fl0$S19",
    

    Additional Thoughts

    Some additional things to consider when sending credentials into templated deployments:

    1. Use parameters for each value, passing them in either by
      • embedding the username and password as part of the command line call which deploys the templates
      • running the template deployment alongside a parameter file which passes in the parameters.
    2. Use Azure KeyVault for storing the username and passwords, and allow the deployment to call on KeyVault when creating the resources. This keeps the usernames and passwords secure and hidden from users running the deployment.
    3. As mentioned above, never store user names, passwords or encryption key data in repositories. This is a prime source of data leaks.
  8. Save the file locally as "n-tier-windows-security-labs.json".

  9. Run the following azbb command to deploy the base resources required for the lab using the ARM template modified above. This will include a Jumpbox, Web VM, Application VM and a SQL Server VM. Make sure you are on the right folder where you have saved the JSON file:

    azbb -s <Subscription-ID> -g <Resource-Group-Name> -l <Location> -p .\<name-of-your-template.json> --deploy
    

Deployment Notes

  • Note: this environment will need about 35-45 minutes to deploy. Once the last command completes, report to your proctors that you have reached this point.

  • The Application and Database tier should have an internal Load Balancer in front of them as per the Azure Reference Architecture, so you can scale up the tier with more VMs if needed and the Load Balancer will distribute the traffic accordingly. However, to speed up the process of creating this architecture, there will be no Load Balancers at the Application and Database Tiers.

  • The Web Tier is not currently load balanced, as we will create an external Application Gateway in front of the web tier later in the labs.

  • For now, the only Internet access to the environment is through the Jump Box as it is the only VM with a Public IP address.

Testing the deployment

Make sure you can ping from the Jump Box to the Web Server (and if time permits, the Biz and DB virtual machines). To do this:

  1. Connect via Remote Desktop to the Public IP Address of the Jump Box using the security credentials passed in to the template file for that specific server
  2. Connect to the target server (in this case the Web VM) via Remote Desktop using the Internal IP Address of the target server, again using the username and password created for that server.
  3. Enable ICMP/Ping on the target server Windows Firewall (under File and Print Server settings)
  4. From the Jump Box, ping the Internal IP Address of the Web Server VM.

4 - Lab 1 - Protecting the Network Perimeter with Network Security Groups

Network Security Groups filter traffic to and from resources in an Azure virtual network. They can be applied at subnet or virtual machine level, and filter the traffic based on a set of rules.

Further information on network security groups (NSG) can be found in the Azure documentation:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-network/security-overview

From a security point of view, the infrastructure we have deployed is very open. All traffic can flow between all subnets and all servers with only the Windows Firewall preventing access.

We can use security groups as an additional tool to protect/restrict traffic between tiers. In the 3-tier architecture shown, the web tier should not communicate directly with any resource in the database tier. To enforce this, security needs to be put in place which blocks all but the necessary incoming traffic from the web tier subnet in to the database subnet. This can be done using a security group.

4.1 - Creating the security group

This section creates the security group and the relevant rules to protect the database tier.

  1. In the VS Code terminal, enter the following CLI command to create the security group named SQL-NSG:

    az network nsg create --name SQL-NSG --resource-group <resource-group-name> --location <location>
    

    When the command completes, the terminal will output all properties of the security group, and you can also see the new NSG in the Azure console.

    By default, a security group will be pre-populated with three inbound rules (in order of execution):

    1. allow any VNet to VNet traffic
    2. allow any traffic from the Azure load balancer to the VNet
    3. deny all inbound traffic (that does not match any other rule)

    There are also three outbound rules:

    1. allow any traffic outbound to the VNet
    2. allow all traffic outbound to the Internet
    3. deny all outbound traffic

    You can view these rules in the Azure Console by selecting the security group object within the Resource Group, and also by running this CLI command:

    az network nsg show --resource-group <resource-group-name> --name SQL-NSG --query "defaultSecurityRules[]" --output table
    

    These rules cannot be deleted. What we can do however, is create a new series of rules in the security group with a higher priority, (a higher execution order) to filter the traffic before these default rules are evaluated.

  2. Allow inbound traffic from the business tier subnet.

    Create a new rule within your new security group. Security group rules are based on information about the source, destination, protocol, port and action (allow/deny), similar to traditional firewall rules.

    The new rule will allow any traffic into the database tier from the business tier. This is done by specifying the CIDR of the business tier subnet (10.0.2.0/24) as the source. Any resource within this subnet can communicate with the database tier.

    az network nsg rule create --name AllowFromBiz --nsg-name SQL-NSG --priority 110 --resource-group <resource-group-name> --description "Allow all traffic from the Business Tier" --access Allow --direction Inbound --source-address-prefix 10.0.2.0/24 --source-port-ranges * --protocol * --destination-address-prefix * --destination-port-ranges *
    
  3. Allow inbound traffic from the database tier subnet itself.

    This rule allows communication between the database VMs, which is needed for database replication and failover. Use the database (SQL) subnet range 10.0.3.0/24 as the source:

    az network nsg rule create --name AllowFromSQL --nsg-name SQL-NSG --priority 120 --resource-group <resource-group-name> --description "Allow all intra SQL traffic within the Database Tier" --access Allow --direction Inbound --source-address-prefix 10.0.3.0/24 --source-port-ranges * --protocol * --destination-address-prefix * --destination-port-ranges *
    
  4. Allow RDP access from the Jump Box.

    Allowing RDP traffic on the RDP port (3389) from the Jump Box lets remote administrators connect to the database servers from the Jump Box. By only specifying the RDP port, users of the Jump Box will not be able to connect to these servers via any other method, port or protocol.

    Use the management subnet range 10.0.0.128/25 as the source:

    az network nsg rule create --name AllowRDPFromJB --nsg-name SQL-NSG --priority 130 --resource-group <resource-group-name> --description "Allow RDP traffic from the Jump Box" --access Allow --direction Inbound --source-address-prefix 10.0.0.128/25 --source-port-ranges * --protocol TCP --destination-address-prefix * --destination-port-ranges 3389
    
  5. Deny all other inbound traffic from the VNet.

    Now we have set up the base access requirements, we need to block all other traffic from within the VNet. Instead of a source address, we can use the VirtualNetwork tag in the rule:

    az network nsg rule create --name DenyFromVNet --nsg-name SQL-NSG --priority 140 --resource-group <resource-group-name> --description "Deny general VNet traffic" --access Deny --direction Inbound --source-address-prefix VirtualNetwork --destination-port-ranges *
    
  6. Deny all inbound traffic from the Internet.

    Create the final rule yourself using the commands above as the pattern. Set your own description, and use these properties:

    • Name: DenyFromInternet
    • Priority: 150
    • Source Address: Internet

Rule Priority

Consider the following when creating security group rules...

  • Security group rules run in priority order, with the rule given the lowest priority number being evaluated first.
  • Leave a reasonable gap between your rule numbers. It makes for a lot of work to try and retro-fit a new rule with a higher priority in between rules with priority numbers 4,5 and 6 than it does with numbers 140, 150 and 160.
  • The first Deny rule encountered by the evaluation instantly denies the access.

4.2 - Attach the security group to the SQL Server Network Interface Card (NIC)

Follow these steps to attach the new NSG to the virtual network interface of the SQL VM...

NSG-inbound-sql

Alternatively you can use the following CLI command to make this attachment. The command references the NIC resource and attaches the security group to the NIC.

Note: The name of the NIC for the SQL server is sql-vm1-nic1

az network nic update --resource-group <resource-group-name> --name sql-vm1-nic1 --network-security-group SQL-NSG

4.3 - Overview and final steps

Your NSG rule set should look similar to this...

NSG-inbound-sql

Confirm that you can RDP from the Jump Box to the SQL server and also from the Business VM but not from the Web VM (you will need to RDP to the Jump Box first, then RDP to the Business and Web VMs to finally RDP to the SQL VM)

RDP blocked

An earlier test saw you try and ping the SQL server from the Jump Box. If you try this test again, despite the traffic being allowed on the Windows Firewall, the ping test should fail.

5. Lab 2 - Azure networking logs

Network logging and monitoring in Azure is comprehensive and covers two broad categories:

  • Network Watcher: Scenario-based network monitoring is provided with the features in Network Watcher. This service includes packet capture, next hop, IP flow verify, security group view and NSG flow logs. Scenario level monitoring provides an end to end view of network resources in contrast to individual network resource monitoring.
  • Resource monitoring: Resource level monitoring comprises four features: diagnostics logs, metrics, troubleshooting, and resource health. All of these features are built at the network resource level.

To troubleshoot your NSG rules, enable NSG flow logs. This will enable Network watcher.

Go to the search bar on the Portal, look for Network Watcher. Filter by your Subscription ID and Resource Group.

network watcher

IMPORTANT! First thing, in order for flow logging to work successfully, the Microsoft.Insights provider must be registered. If you are not sure if the Microsoft.Insights provider is registered, run the following script.

az provider register --namespace Microsoft.Insights

Then go ahead and enable NSG Flow logs on the portal. Click on the NSG you worked on on the previous lab, enable Flow Logs

You will need to select an storage account within your Resource Group. The NSG flow logs will be stored within a blob container of the selected storage account. More details https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/network-watcher/network-watcher-nsg-flow-logging-portal

Alternatively, you may use the following command to enable NSG flow logs via AZ CLI or Visual Studio Code

az network watcher flow-log configure --resource-group <resource-group-name> --enabled true --nsg nsgName --storage-account <storage-account-name>

NSG flow logs

Also, you may want to enable Traffic Analytics for rich analytics and visualization. You will need to create an OMS workspace (select the Free Tier and put it on the same RG and location) and link it to Traffic Analytics Traffic Analytics provides rich analytics and visualization derived from NSG flow logs and other Azure resources' data. Drill through geo-map, easily figure out traffic hotspots and get insights into optimization possibilities. Learn about all features To use this feature, choose an OMS workspace. To minimize data egress costs, we recommend that you choose a workspace in the same region your flow logs storage account is located. Network Performance Monitor solution will be installed on the workspace. We also advise that you use the same workspace for all NSGs as much as possible. Additional meta-data is added to your flow logs data, to provide enhanced analytics.

flow log ta

Click Save

NSG and TA enabled

Finally, to go to Network Watcher. On the left-side of the portal select All services, then enter Monitor in the Filter box. When Monitor appears in the search results, select it. To start exploring traffic analytics and its capabilities, select Network watcher, then Traffic Analytics The dashboard may take up to 30 minutes to appear the first time because Traffic Analytics must first aggregate enough data for it to derive meaningful insights, before it can generate any reports. Also, you may get the following message: Displaying only resources data. No flow information is available for the selected workspace. Please refresh and load the workspace again after some time to see flow logs data.

TOPOLOGY

Also, you may want to visualize the Network Topology. In Network Watcher, click on Topology (Filter by Subscription, RG and VNET)

TOPOLOGY

6. Lab 3 – Control outbound security traffic with Azure Firewall

Azure Firewall is a stateful firewall as a service, with high availability and cloud scalability built-in. The primary use case for the Azure Firewall is to centrally create, enforce and log application and network policies. As the first version of the product, the firewall is focused on securing outbound flows by FQDN whitelisting/blacklisting. It provides source network address translation and it is integrated with Azure Monitor for logging and analytics.

6.1 - Create a subnet for the firewall

The cloud firewall needs to have a dedicated subnet within your VNet named AzureFirewallSubnet.

On the portal create a new subnet in the ra-ntier-vnet VNet named AzureFirewallSubnet with the IP address space of 10.0.6.0/24.

Alternatively, run the following CLI command to create the subnet:

az network vnet subnet create --address-prefix 10.0.6.0/24 --name AzureFirewallSubnet --resource-group <resource-group-name> --vnet-name ra-ntier-vnet

6.2 - Create the firewall

On the Azure Portal, click Create a resource, Networking, and look for Firewall. Configure the firewall as per the image below...

firewall

Once the firewall object is created, view the properties of the firewall and take a note of the private IP address.

6.3 Routing the web-tier traffic

We will work on the Web VM, and we will set the default route of the web-tier subnet to send all traffic through the firewall.

  1. Create a new Route Table

    Go to your Resource Group, click on Add, and search for Route Table

    route table

    The Azure CLI command to create the route table is:

    az network route-table create --name Firewall-Route --resource-group <resource-group-name> --location <location>
    
  2. Create a default route

    To create the default route in the Azure Portal follow these steps. (The Azure CLI command follows these steps if you prefer.)

    1. In the Azure portal, locate and click on the route table resource created in the step above.
    2. Click Routes in the options on the left.
    3. Click Add.
    4. Create the route with the following properties:
      • Route name: FW-DG
      • Address prefix: 0.0.0.0/0
      • Next Hop Type: Select Virtual Appliance. Azure Firewall is actually a managed service, but Virtual Appliance works in this situation.
      • Next Hop Address: type the private IP address for the firewall created above.
      • Click OK.

    The Azure CLI command to create the default route is:

    az network route-table route create --resource-group <resource-group-name> --route-table-name Firewall-Route --name FW-DG --address-prefix 0.0.0.0/0 --next-hop-type VirtualAppliance --next-hop-ip-address <firewall-ip-address>
    
  3. Attach the route table to the web subnet

    1. Click Subnets in the list options for the route table.
    2. Click Associate.
    3. Click Virtual network and select ra-ntier-vnet from the list of VNets.
    4. Choose the web subnet from the list given, and click OK.

    To achieve this using the Azure CLI:

    az network vnet subnet update --name web --resource-group <resource-group-name> --vnet-name ra-ntier-vnet --route-table Firewall-Route
    

    You may notice that the CLI method attaches the route table to the subnet inside the VNet using the 'network vnet' command subset, rather than setting this as a property on the route table object itself.

6.4 - Create application rules

We will write a simple rule to enable web traffic to github.com and block anything else. The rule uses the CIDR of the web subnet as the source address, allowing any resources within that tier access to github.com. Therefore existing and future VMs will be allowed to communicate via this rule.

  1. Click on the firewall resource.
  2. Under settings, click Rules.
  3. Click Application rule collection and the click + Add application rule collection.
  4. Use the following settings for the new collection...
    • Name: App-Coll01
    • Priority: 200
    • Action: Allow
    • Add the first rule...
      • Name: AllowGH
      • Source Addresses: 10.0.1.0/24
      • Protocol:Port: http,https
      • Target FQDNs: github.com
    • Click Add

After a short time the new application rule will appear in the firewall.

Note:Azure Firewall includes a built-in rule collection for infrastructure FQDNs that are allowed by default. These FQDNs are specific for the platform and cannot be used for other purposes. The allowed infrastructure FQDNs include:

  • Compute access to storage Platform Image Repository (PIR).
  • Managed disks status storage access.
  • Windows Diagnostics.

You can override this build-in infrastructure rule collection by creating a 'deny all' application rule collection which is processed last. It will always be processed before the infrastructure rule collection. Anything not in the infrastructure rule collection is denied by default.

6.5 - Configure network rules

The idea is to permit DNS traffic to our DNS server to go through the Firewall (from a Level3/Level4 perspective).

  1. On the firewall resource, under Rules, click Network rule collection.
  2. Click + Add network rule collection.
  3. Use these setting for the new collection...
    • Name: Net-Coll01
    • Priority 200
    • Action: Allow
    • Add the first rule...
      • Name: AllowDNS
      • Protocol: select UDP
      • Source Addresses: type 10.0.1.0/24
      • Destination address: type 168.63.129.16, the IP address for internal DNS resolution
      • Destination Ports: 53.
    • Click Add.

6.6 - Test your firewall rules

RDP to the JumpBox and from there to the Web VM. Open a browser and try go to github.com.

firewall allowed

Try going to another site, this action should be blocked:

firewall blocked

bbc blocked

7. Lab 4 – Protecting the Web Application - Application Gateway and Web Application Firewall (WAF)

In this architecture, access to the web services running on the web VMs will be via an Application Gateway, which acts as a Layer7 HTTP reverse proxy and can load balance web traffic. The Application Gateway can be enabled with a WAF to protect our application against known vulnerabilities, such as those listed on the the 2017 OWASP Top 10 list.

Internet traffic destined for the web servers should always go through a load balancer or Application Gateway where possible, with the advertised endpoint for the traffic set as a public IP address attached to the gateway.

7.1 - Creating the Application Gateway

We give you the option to create the AppGW using a pre-configured template or CLI commands

Using ARM Templates

We have included a json file to deploy the application gateway as an ARM template. The template, app_gw-security-labs.json is listed above in this repository. Click on Raw , copy the content of the file and paste it to a new file in Visual Studio Code. Save it as a json file with the same name

To deploy the template, on the Azure Portal go to Create a resource at the left panel, search for Template Deployment, click Create, and then click Build your own template in the editor

image of template

Click on Load File and use the json file you have just saved to your PC. Click on Save

Fill in the BASICS part with the Resource Group name and location, also the SETTINGS area with the VNET name ra-ntier-vnet and appgateway subnet (The Application Gateway sits on its own subnet).

You will notice the template has already the IP address value of the Backend server (the Web VM with IIS)

The template will deploy the AppGW with WAF enabled on Detection mode

Click on Purchase

image of purchase template

The creation of the Application Gateway will take a few minutes

Also, you may see that the AppGateway doesn't have a public IP address after it says 'finished'. We use dynamic IP address for the AppGW and the assignment of the address will take a few minutes so bear in mind that!

Azure CLI

NOTE: Do not run the following CLI commands if you just created the AppGW using the template.

This command creates the Application Gateway (for the purposes of this lab) into the appgateway subnet of our VNet. Please review the Azure CLI documentation for creating an application gateway to see the full list of possible parameters.

az network application-gateway create --name myAppGateway --location <location> --resource-group <resource-group-name> --capacity 2 --sku Standard_Medium --http-settings-cookie-based-affinity Disabled --vnet-name ra-ntier-vnet --subnet appgateway --servers <web-server-ip-address>

Please note: the IP address of the web server required is the internal IP address of web server web-vm1. You can get the address under the Networking settings for the resource or by running the following CLI command:

az network nic show --name web-vm1-nic1 --resource-group <resource-group-name> --query "ipConfigurations[].privateIpAddress"

Please also note that we did not specify a Public IP Address resources for this application gateway. Not specifying an IP address will create a new Public IP address, however you can be more descriptive and create these first before creating the gateway.

7.2 - Test the Application Gateway

Go to the AppGW resource you just created, and look for the Public IP address assigned under Frontend public IP address. Open a new browser tab and introduce the Public IP address, and confirm that you can reach to the Web VM IIS page through the AppGW

7.3 - (Optional) - Test the Azure WAF with a DVWA

We will create a DVWA (Damn Vulnerable Web Application) VM from the marketplace, add the VM to the Application Gateway Pool and run a sequence of SQL injection and XSS attacks to test that the WAF in detection and blocking mode

IMPORTANT: This DVWA is managed by a 3rd party company, so Azure Pass credits cannot be used. You will need to use either an Enterprise or Pay-as-You-Go subscription.

If you are interested to test the Azure WAF or any other 3rd party WAFs using the DVWA, please report to your proctors for addional guidance and further steps to simulate some attacks like SQL injection, XSS, etc

DVWA

8. Lab 5 – Understand your application security posture in Azure - Azure Security Center for security recommendations

Understand your application security posture in Azure

To take full advantage of Security Center, you need to complete the steps below to upgrade to the Standard tier and install the Microsoft Monitoring Agent

Security Center collects data from your Azure VMs and non-Azure computers to monitor for security vulnerabilities and threats. Data is collected using the Microsoft Monitoring Agent, which reads various security-related configurations and event logs from the machine and copies the data to your workspace for analysis. By default, Security Center will create a new workspace for you. When automatic provisioning is enabled, Security Center installs the Microsoft Monitoring Agent on all supported Azure VMs and any new ones that are created. Automatic provisioning is strongly recommended.

5.1 - Enable your Azure subscription

  1. Sign into the Azure portal.
  2. Navigate to the Security Center blade
  3. Click on Start Trial (if you have clicked on Skip, you can click on Getting Started)

ASC-trial

  1. Click on Install agents, if the button has been grayed out, then it's already set to On

ASC-agents

  1. Click on Security policy
  2. Your subscription (Azure pass) should be listed (if it does not, close your browser session and open a new one)
  3. On the line where it lists your Azure subscription (Azure pass), click on Edit settings
  4. Set Auto Provisioning to On (if it's not already set to On)
  5. Under workspace configuration, click User another workspace and select your Log Analytics workspace created in previous labs
  6. Click on Save
  7. Click on Yes on Would you like to reconfigure monitored VMs?
  8. Switch back to Security Policy and ignore the message "Your unsaved edits will be discarded"
  9. On the line where it lists your workspace, click on Edit settings
  10. Click on Pricing tier, select Standard and click on Save
  11. Click on Data collection and select All Events and click on Save

Go to the Security Center – Overview which provides a unified view into the security posture of your hybrid cloud workloads, enabling you to discover and assess the security of your workloads and to identify and mitigate risk. Security Center automatically enables any of your Azure subscriptions not previously onboarded by you or another subscription user to the Free tier.

You can view and filter the list of subscriptions by clicking the Subscriptions menu item. Security Center will now begin assessing the security of these subscriptions to identify security vulnerabilities. To customize the types of assessments, you can modify the security policy. A security policy defines the desired configuration of your workloads and helps ensure compliance with company or regulatory security requirements.

Within minutes of launching Security Center the first time, you may see:

  • Recommendations for ways to improve the security of your Azure subscriptions. Clicking the Recommendations tile will launch a prioritized list.
  • An inventory of Compute & apps, Networking, Data security, and Identity & Access resources that are now being assessed by Security Center along with the security posture of each.

Now that you’ve upgraded to the Standard tier, you have access to additional Security Center features, including adaptive application controls, just in time VM access, security alerts, threat intelligence, automation playbooks, and more. Note that security alerts will only appear when Security Center detects malicious activity.

oms global

With this new insight into your Azure VMs, Security Center can provide additional recommendations related to system update status, Operating System security configurations, endpoint protection, as well as generate additional security alerts.

oms recomm

9. Lab 6 - Storage Security – Encryption at Rest - Apply disk encryption to a running VM

Having looked at Azure Security Center we can see recommendations to apply disk encryption to our VMs. This can be done with the help of Azure Key Vault.

Full details about Azure Key Vault can be found here: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/services/key-vault/

For Azure Disk encryption to work, the Key Vault and the VMs must be co-located in the same Azure region and subscription.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The new release of Azure Disk Encryption eliminates the requirement for providing an Azure AD application parameter to enable VM disk encryption. With the new release, you are no longer required to provide Azure AD credentials during the enable encryption step. All new VMs must be encrypted without the Azure AD application parameters using the new release. To view instructions to enable VM disk encryption using the new release, see Azure Disk Encryption for Windows VMS. VMs that were already encrypted with Azure AD application parameters are still supported and should continue to be maintained with the AAD syntax.

More details here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/security/azure-security-disk-encryption-windows-aad

9.1 - Create the Azure Key Vault

Create a new Key Vault from the portal following the steps in the image below, or create a Key Vault using this CLI command:

az keyvault create --name <your-keyvault-name> --resource-group <resource-group-name> --sku standard

create keyv

9.2 - Prerequisites to go before running encryption

You can enable encryption by using a template, PowerShell cmdlets, or CLI commands. The following sections explain in detail how to enable Azure Disk Encryption.

Important: It is mandatory to snapshot and/or backup a managed disk based VM instance outside of, and prior to enabling Azure Disk Encryption. A snapshot of the managed disk can be taken from the portal, or Azure Backup can be used. Backups ensure that a recovery option is possible in the case of any unexpected failure during encryption.

There are some prerequistes to check before enabling disk encryption. They can be found here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/security/azure-security-disk-encryption-prerequisites

We have summarized them for you here.

On Powershell

  1. Make sure you have AzureRM module version 6 installed on your local machine.

  2. Verify the installed versions of the AzureRM module. The AzureRM module version needs to be 6.0.0 or higher.

    Get-Module AzureRM -ListAvailable | Select-Object -Property Name,Version,Path
    
  3. If needed, update the Azure PowerShell module. Using the latest AzureRM module version is recommended (This will require administrative rights to the PowerShell session).

    Update-Module -Name AzureRM
    
  4. Install the Azure Active Directory PowerShell module

    Install-Module AzureAD
    
  5. Verify the installed versions of the module

    Get-Module AzureAD -ListAvailable | Select-Object -Property Name,Version,Path
    
  6. Set up an Azure AD app and service principal

    We need an Azure Active Directory (AAD) application that will be used to write secrets to KeyVault as an authentiation step. Also, we need a secret of the AAD application that was created on the earlier step. Recommendation is to run through the powershell script that handles this

As a reference, I will use the following names for the AAD App name and client secret. Running through the script, this App will be registered with AAD and will be authorized to use KeyVault. This client secret will be written in KeyVault

aadAppName: keyvault-dasanc-app
aadClientSecret: dasancsec

On Az CLI:

az ad sp create-for-rbac --name "ServicePrincipalName" --password "My-AAD-client-secret" --skip-assignment

Note:The appId returned is the Azure AD ClientID used in other commands. It's also the SPN you'll use for az keyvault set-policy. The password is the client secret that you should use later to enable Azure Disk Encryption. Safeguard the Azure AD client secret appropriately.

  1. Set the key vault access policy for the Azure AD app with Azure CLI

    az keyvault set-policy --name "MySecureVault" --spn "<spn created with CLI/the Azure AD ClientID>" --key-permissions wrapKey --secret-permissions set
    
  2. Set key vault advanced access policies

The Azure platform needs access to the encryption keys or secrets in your key vault to make them available to the VM for booting and decrypting the volumes. Enable disk encryption on the key vault or deployments will fail.

You can also set key vault advanced access policies through the Azure portal Select your keyvault, go to Access Policies, and Click to show advanced access policies. Select the box labeled Enable access to Azure Disk Encryption for volume encryption. Select Enable access to Azure Virtual Machines for deployment and/or Enable Access to Azure Resource Manager for template deployment, if needed. Click Save.

image of key vault advanced

9.3 Enable encryption on existing or running VMs with Azure CLI

You have 3 options to enable VM encryption: Azure CLI, PowerShell commands or a script

9.3.1 Azure CLI

Encrypt a running VM using a client secret:

az vm encryption enable --resource-group "MySecureRg" --name "MySecureVM" --aad-client-id "<my spn created with CLI/my Azure AD ClientID>"  --aad-client-secret "My-AAD-client-secret" --disk-encryption-keyvault "MySecureVault" --volume-type [All|OS|Data]

Powershell pre-req script: you can download the 'DiskEncryption.ps' file available here

9.3.2 Powershell

$rgName = 'MySecureRg';
$vmName = ‘MyExtraSecureVM’;
$aadClientID = 'My-AAD-client-ID';
$aadClientSecret = 'My-AAD-client-secret';
$KeyVaultName = 'MySecureVault';
$keyEncryptionKeyName = 'MyKeyEncryptionKey';
$KeyVault = Get-AzureRmKeyVault -VaultName $KeyVaultName -ResourceGroupName $rgname;
$diskEncryptionKeyVaultUrl = $KeyVault.VaultUri;
$KeyVaultResourceId = $KeyVault.ResourceId;
$keyEncryptionKeyUrl = (Get-AzureKeyVaultKey -VaultName $KeyVaultName -Name $keyEncryptionKeyName).Key.kid;

Set-AzureRmVMDiskEncryptionExtension -ResourceGroupName $rgname -VMName $vmName -AadClientID $aadClientID -AadClientSecret $aadClientSecret -DiskEncryptionKeyVaultUrl $diskEncryptionKeyVaultUrl -DiskEncryptionKeyVaultId $KeyVaultResourceId -KeyEncryptionKeyUrl $keyEncryptionKeyUrl -KeyEncryptionKeyVaultId $KeyVaultResourceId;

Note: you can also run disk encryption with key encryption key (out of scope of this lab)

Finally, verify the disks are encrypted

az vm encryption show --name "MySecureVM" --resource-group "MySecureRg"

image od disk-enc

9.3.3 Use the script

You can also use the script, that runs all the previous commands for you Use the AzureDiskEncryptionPreRequisiteSetup.ps1 on this repository, and run it on Powershell

The script will require the Resource Group name, KeyVault name, Location, Subscription ID, and AAD App name and client secret We recommend using PowerShell ISE

Full instructions are here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/security/quick-encrypt-vm-powershell

This shoudd be the final result of the script

sql vm encrypted

Verify the disks are encrypted: To check on the encryption status of a IaaS VM, use the Get-AzureRmVmDiskEncryptionStatus cmdlet

Get-AzureRmVmDiskEncryptionStatus -ResourceGroupName <resource-group-name> -VMName <vm-name>

Go back to Azure Security Center

Finally, if we get back to Azure Security Center, on the recommendations panel we will no longer see the recommendation on the SQL VM to apply disk encryption (it will need some time to refresh the new status)

10. Lab 7 - Extending your Data Centre to Azure in a secure way – Site to Site VPN Access

Note: Only run this lab if you are using an Enterprise subscription or Pay-As-You-Go, BUT NOT the Azure Pass. As the pfSense image is managed by a 3rd company, there is a charge for this which cannot be covered by the Azure Pass credits.

Create a Firewall for the on-premise VPN side

We will use a Virtual Machine running pfSense Firewall (open Source) to simulate an onpremise data center. In the Azure Portal, create a new resource within the same Resource Group but in another location (i.e West Europe). Search the Marketplace for the Netgate pfSense Firewall as shown below...

pfsense

Select a small VM size (i.e B1ms or B2s) using standard HDD and managed disks, create a new VNet and use non-overlapping IP addresses (i.e 192.168.0.0/16 for the address space and 192.168.1.0/24 for the ‘default’ subnet). Assign a new public IP address to the VM, leave the pre-configured NSG (HTTP and HTTPs should be open) and enable ‘auto-shutdown’.

pfsenseB1

Once created, locate and make a note of the created Public IP address. Open a browser tab and enter the public IP address assigned. Login with the username and password you specified during the creation of the VM.

Give a hostname and a Domain name to your pfSense Virtual Machine.

pfsense general

Leave the default NTP settings.

By default this pfSense firewall comes with a single NIC. During the installation of the settings it will ask for the WAN ip address, choose DHCP. The IP address assigned to the Firewall is the same as the one you can see on the portal (192.168.1.4).

Create a VPN Gateway for the Azure VPN side

In the Azure Portal, bring up the properties of the existing Security Workshop VNet, ra-ntier-vnet. Click Subnets in the left-hand settings panel, and then click + Gateway subnet to create a Gateway Subnet...

vpn gw subnet

The Azure CLI command to create this subnet is as follows:

az network vnet subnet create --resource-group <resource-group-name> --vnet-name ra-ntier-vnet --name GatewaySubnet --address-prefix 10.0.7.0/24

Note that when you create the Gateway subnet, even if you use the CLI command, the Azure Portal will disable the Gateway subnet option.

Next, we will create the Virtual Network Gateway in the ra-ntier-vnet VNet. In the Azure Portal, create a new resource and search for Virtual Network Gateway from the Marketplace. Run through the creation steps taking note of the following settings:

  • Set the Gateway type as VPN
  • The VPN type will be Route-based
  • Choose to create a new Public IP address
  • Also, we will use BGP to exchange routes between Azure and the pfSense firewall, so we need to enable the BGP option when creating the gateway. Use a private BGP ASN of 65515.
  • Use UK South as the location for the gateway.

Note: it will take a few minutes to create the VPN Gateway

create vpn gateway

Creating the Virtual Network Gateway is also possible using the CLI. The CLI command requires a Public IP Address as a parameter (whereas the Portal will create on on the fly) so this is a two step process.

First, create the Public IP Address resource. We will use the Basic SKU which will allocate a Dynamic IP address:

az network public-ip create --resource-group <resource-group-name> --name <ip-address-name> --sku Basic --location <location>

Next, we can create the Virtual Network Gateway using this IP address as a parameter:

az network vnet-gateway create --resource-group <resource-group-name> --name vpnGW-pfSense --vnet ra-ntier-vnet --gateway-type Vpn --vpn-type RouteBased --public-ip-address <vpn-ip-address-name> --sku VpnGw1 --asn 65501 --location <location>

Once created, you will find the BGP peer address on your VPN Gateway. This is the local address that BGP will use in your Azure VPN Gateway to initiate a BGP connection to your home gateway.

VPN-GW-LOCAL

Now we are going to create the Local Network Gateway. Azure refers to the VPN device that sits in your onpremise network. You will need to indicate the BGP peer address, your local network behind the Firewall (or local VPN gateway) and a Private BGP ASN (I am using 65501 on the pfSense side).

Go to your RG, click ‘Add resource’ and look for ‘ Local Network Gateway’. Use the ‘onpremise’ public ip address (example below uses 1.2.3.4)

local nt gateway

Once the local gateway is created we will define a connection to our onpremise VPN Gateway. We will use a private shared key to enable the IPSEC VPN to come up. Remember to mark BGP to ‘enabled’ on your Connection.

Configure the pfSense VPN Firewall

Now, moving to the other end we will use the Web UI on the pfSense firewall to work on the Rules and VPN settings

To configure a new tunnel, a new Phase 1 IPSEC VPN must be created. Remote Gateway will be the public IP address assigned to your Virtual Network Gateway in Azure. Leave ‘auto’ as IKE key exchange version, selecting WAN as the interface to run the VPN. For the authentication part, use the Pre-Shared Key you have defined. Use the encryption algorithm you need, in my case AES (256 bits), DH group and Hashing algorithm

ipsec tunnels

We will then move to Phase 2. This phase is what builds the actual tunnel, sets the protocol to use, and sets the length of time to keep the tunnel up when there is no traffic. For remote network, use the VNET address space. Local subnet will be the address space on the LAN side of the pFsense

Apply changes to take them effect

pfsense VPN2

On pfSense, go to Status, IPSEC, Overview and click ‘Connect VPN’

NOTE: When using BGP over a Routed IPSEC tunnel, it wouldn’t be needed the configuration and management of P2 entries. You will me managing routes in the BGP config instead of P2 entries. Routed IPSEC is a pfSense feature available in 2.4.4, my setup runs on 2.4.3 so I will create the P2 entries manually

VERY IMPORTANT: On the local gateway connections, as we are using BGP, don’t forget to enable BGP or the IPSEC tunnel won’t come up

image of forget bgp

Enable IPSEC traffic on the Virtual Machine pfSense NSG

Configure a Rule to allow UDP 4500 ((IPsec NAT-T) & 500 (ISAKMP) ports

Enable IPSEC traffic through WAN interface of pfSense

Configure a Rule to allow UDP 4500 ((IPsec NAT-T) & 500 (ISAKMP) ports

udp ports IPSEC

After we added the relevant rules on the NSG and pfSense WAN interface, the connection is up and running

pfsense connections

On the pfSense side:

image of vpn connected

Enable BGP traffic through IPSEC interface

Go to Status, System Logs, Firewall --> you can enable BGP to pass through the IPSEC interface using the logs

pfsense BGP rule added

Finally, simply check that you have connectivity from the pfSense Gateway to the Web VM

telnet port 80

11. Lab 8 - Azure Active Directory Labs

On the next tasks we will test Azure Identity Protection, Risk Policies, MFA and Role Base Access Control

Also, we will use the Microsoft Graph API to look for potential risky users who have signed-in into Azure

But first, we need to create a few new users in our Azure AD to have multiple identities

Create new users in Azure AD

Create another global admin user under Azure Active Directory

Sign out from the Azure Portal, and sign in using the global admin user credentials

We will simulate how you can syncronize your on-premises Active Directory users to Azure AD. On an enterprise production environment we would use AADConnect which synchronizes the credentials to Azure AD. However, for the purpose of this lab, as we don’t have an on-premises Domain Controller, we will simply use a csv file which contains a list of credentials. We will run a set of Powershell commands to simply create users in Azure AD with the same credentials.

Go ahead and run Powershell as administrator. You will use a users.csv file provided in the lab. This file will be sent to your lab office email account (azsecjanX@outlook.com). Sign in to office.com with your lab credentials to get the users.csv file

get-credential

Use the Global Admin username credentials created previously

store-tenant

build-licenses

connect-msolservice

remove-licenses

connect-azuread

import-csv

foreach

new-azureadgroup

Now, we will create a new AD group called ‘Identity Protection’ that will be used to test MFA and risky sign-in attempts

new-azureadgroup2

As these users have weak passwords, we will configure SSPR (Self Service Password Reset) first. Make sure you have ‘authentication contact info’ for your users. As we will test SSPR with the user Adam Smith, make sure you add his contact info under the following blade (you will use a mobile number that you have access to so you can receive your verification codes):

auth-info

You may prefer to use Powershell to add authentication info for your users. The following example would be for the user Alice Anderson. After you enter ‘Connect-MsolService’, use the global admin credentials to connect to your tenant:

auth-infops

Now, we switch to the Azure Portal to configure SSPR Go to ‘Azure Active Directory’, under ‘Password Reset’, click on ‘Self service password reset enabled’ and select the ‘Identity Protection’ group that you just created. Click on ‘Save’

passreset

Go to ‘Authentication Methods’ and select the following, then click on ‘Save’

passreset-auth

Under ‘Registration’ select ‘No’. Click on ‘Save’ Under ‘Notifications’, select the default ‘Yes’ for ‘Notify users on passwords resets’ Now that we have enabled SSPR, lets go ahead and open a Private Browser tab and go to portal.azure.com, and click on ‘can’t access my account’

cannotaccess

Enter your Work or School account credential and you will see the next window to receive a verification code from Self service password reset:

getback

You may select send a text to your mobile phone. After you introduce the verification code you will be able to change the user password

getback2

Configure MFA registration policy

Navigate to Azure Active Directory > Security > MFA registration policy. Click on ‘Get a free Premium trial to use this feature’

mfaenable

Select ‘Enterprise Mobility and Security E5 trial’ , and click on ‘Activate’ on the following window

e5trial

In the next task, we will assign licenses to users that have been synced to the Office 365 portal.

  1. In a InPrivate window, navigate to https://admin.microsoft.com/AdminPortal/Home#/homepage.

INFO: If needed, log in using the credentials below: Global Admin Username Global Admin Password

  1. In the middle of the homepage, click on Active users >.
  2. Check the box to select all users and click Edit product licenses.

prodlicenses

  1. On the Assign products page, click Next

replacelic

  1. On the Replace existing products page, turn on licenses for Enterprise Mobility + Security E5 and Office 365 Enterprise E5 and click Replace

licenseson

Under Azure Active Directory, Click on ‘Multi-Factor Authentication’. Select the ‘admin’ and ‘Evan Green’ user and click on ‘Enable’

mfaenable

In a new InPrivate window, log in to https://portal.azure.com using the credentials of Evan Green evang@azsecjan0outlook.onmicrosoft.com password:

addsecurity

Configure Risk Policies

We are going to use Azure AD Identity Protection for the next task Click on ‘Create a Resource’, Under Identity click on ‘Azure AD Identity Protection’, and click on ‘Create’

AADIP

Next, on the search bar introduce identity protection to go to Azure AD Identity Protection menu

AADIP2

Let’s configure the sign-in risk policy

  1. Click on the Security blade and then select Sign-in risk policy
  2. Under Assignments users, click on Select individuals and groups and then select the all users. Click Done
  3. Under Conditions, ensure that sign-in risk is set to Medium and above
  4. Under Controls, ensure that access is set to require multi-factor authentication
  5. Set Enforce Policy to On

signinriskpolicy

Now, let’s configure the user-risk policy

  1. Click on the Security blade and then select User risk policy
  2. Under Assignments users, click on Select individuals and groups and then select the all users group. Click Done
  3. Under Conditions, set user risk is set to High
  4. Under Controls, ensure that access is set to require password change
  5. Set Enforce Policy to On

userriskpolicy

Now, lets simulate a risky sign-in experience Create a Windows 10 VM in your subscription, and download ToR browser Using ToR browser, login to the Azure portal (portal.azure.com) and sign in with AdamS credentials. Notice how you are blocked because the user has not registered for MFA yet and is thus unable to beat the MFA challenge prompted by the risky sign-ins policy

blocked

Now, lets sign in to the azure portal with Evan Green who has enabled MFA. Notice how you are prompted for MFA due to the risky sign-ins policy

suspicious

Pull data from Microsoft Graph API

Get started with the API

There are four steps to accessing Identity Protection data through Microsoft Graph:

  1. Create a new app registration.
  2. Use this secret and a few other pieces of information to authenticate to Microsoft Graph, where you receive an authentication token.
  3. Use this token to make requests to the API endpoint and get Identity Protection data back.

Create a new app registration

  1. On the Active Directory page, in the Manage section, click App registrations.

appreg

  1. In the menu on the top, click New application registration

  2. On the Create page, perform the following steps:

create

i. In the Name textbox, type a name for your application (e.g.: AADIP Risk Event API Application). ii. As Type, select Web Application And / Or Web API. iii. In the Sign-on URL textbox, type http://localhost. iv. Click Create.

  1. To open the Settings page, in the applications list, click your newly created app registration.
  2. Copy the Application ID and paste it into a new text document. This will be needed later in the lab.

Grant your application permission to use the API

  1. On the Settings page, click Required permissions.

required

  1. On the Required permissions page, in the toolbar on the top, click Add.

  2. On the Add API access page, click Select an API.

selectAPI

  1. On the Select an API page, select Microsoft Graph, and then click Select.

  2. On the Add API access page, click Select permissions.

  3. On the Enable Access page, click Read all identity risk information, and then click Select.

enableaccess

  1. On the Add API access page, click Done.
  2. On the Required Permissions page, click Grant Permissions, and then click Yes.

grantpermissions

Get an access key

  1. On the Settings page, click Keys.

keys

  1. On the Keys page, perform the following steps:

keyvalue

i. In the Key description textbox, type a description (for example, AADIP Risk Event). ii. As Duration, select in 1 year. iii. Click Save. iv. Copy the key value, and then paste it into a safe location.

Since we will use this value later on, copy the Client Secret into the text file where you stored the client id. NOTE: If you lose this key, you will have to return to this section and create a new key. Keep this key a secret: anyone who has it can access your data.

Authenticate to Microsoft Graph and query the Identity Risk Events API

At this point, you should have specified the following values in your text file: • The client ID • The key

Querying the API using PowerShell

Now that we have configured the app registration and retrieved the values needed to authenticate, we can query the IdentityRiskEvents API using PowerShell

See medium-risk and high-risk events

First, let’s assess how many risk events we have that are medium or high risk. These are the events that have the capability to trigger the sign-in or user-risk policies. Since they have a medium or high likelihood of user compromise, remediating these events should be a priority.

  1. Open a PowerShell ISE window and, in the script pane, type the PowerShell code below.
  2. Insert the saved Client ID and key for the values of ClientID and ClientSecret variable and click Run.
##Get all your medium or high-risk risk events

$ClientID       = "ClientID"        # Should be a ~36 hex character string; insert your info here
$ClientSecret   = "ClientSecret"    # Should be a ~44 character string; insert your info here
$tenantdomain   = "yourtenant.com"    # For example, contoso.onmicrosoft.com

$loginURL       = "https://login.microsoft.com"
$resource       = "https://graph.microsoft.com"
$body      = @{grant_type="client_credentials";resource=$resource;client_id=$ClientID;client_secret=$ClientSecret}
$oauth     = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -Uri $loginURL/$tenantdomain/oauth2/token?api-version=beta -Body $body
Write-Output $oauth
if ($oauth.access_token -ne $null) {
$headerParams = @{'Authorization'="$($oauth.token_type) $($oauth.access_token)"}
$url = "https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/identityRiskEvents?$filter=riskLevel eq 'high' or riskLevel eq 'medium'" 
Write-Output $url
$myReport = (Invoke-WebRequest -UseBasicParsing -Headers $headerParams -Uri $url)
foreach ($event in ($myReport.Content | ConvertFrom-Json).value) {
	Write-Output $event
}
} else {
Write-Host "ERROR: No Access Token"
}

Investigate a specific user

When you believe a user may have been compromised, you can better understand the state of their risk by getting all of their risk events. Similarly, if you have users that you believe may be more likely targets of compromise, you can proactively retrieve their risky events. Since we know that Alan had some risky-sign ins, let’s query their risk events. In the PowerShell ISE, open a new file and, in the script pane, type the PowerShell code below. Insert the saved Client ID and key for the values of ClientID and ClientSecret variable and click Run.

##Get a specific user's risk events

$ClientID       = "ClientID"        # Should be a ~36 hex character string; insert your info here
$ClientSecret   = "ClientSecret"    # Should be a ~44 character string; insert your info here
$tenantdomain   = "yourtenant.com"    # For example, contoso.onmicrosoft.com

$loginURL       = "https://login.microsoft.com"
$resource       = "https://graph.microsoft.com"
$body      = @{grant_type="client_credentials";resource=$resource;client_id=$ClientID;client_secret=$ClientSecret}
$oauth     = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -Uri $loginURL/$tenantdomain/oauth2/token?api-version=beta -Body $body
Write-Output $oauth
if ($oauth.access_token -ne $null) {
$headerParams = @{'Authorization'="$($oauth.token_type) $($oauth.access_token)"}
$url = "https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/identityRiskEvents?`$filter=userID eq '<Alan’s user ID>'"
Write-Output $url
$myReport = (Invoke-WebRequest -UseBasicParsing -Headers $headerParams -Uri $url)
foreach ($event in ($myReport.Content | ConvertFrom-Json).value) {
	Write-Output $event
}
} else {
Write-Host "ERROR: No Access Token"
}

Role-Based Access Control

Role-based access control (RBAC) is the way that you manage access to resources in Azure. In this lab, you will grant a user access to create and manage virtual machines in a resource group

Grant access

In RBAC, to grant access, you create a role assignment.

  1. In the list of Resource groups, choose the RG you have worked on
  2. Choose Access control (IAM) to see the current list of role assignments.

rbac access

  1. Choose Add to open the Add permissions pane.

If you don't have permissions to assign roles, you won't see the Add option.

rbac add permissions

  1. In the Role drop-down list, select Virtual Machine Contributor.
  2. In the Select list, select yourself or another user.
  3. Choose Save to create the role assignment.

After a few moments, the user is assigned the Virtual Machine Contributor role at the resource group scope.

rbac final

12. Lab 9 - Enable DDoS protection for your resources

NOTE: The DDoS protection plan on the Standard Tier (Basic is Free) has a cost of ~ $3,000 a month. This means that for the use of this lab it will incur in aprox $100 which will exhaust your Azure pass credit. We recommend to use your enterprise subscription for this lab, and once you have finished revert back to DDoS protection Basic if you don’t plan to use the service anymore

Azure automatically provides a Basic DDoS protection as part of the platform, at no additional charge. Always-on traffic monitoring, and real-time mitigation of common network-level attacks, provide the same defenses utilized by Microsoft’s online services. The entire scale of Azure’s global network can be used to distribute and mitigate attack traffic across regions. Protection is provided for IPv4 and IPv6 Azure public IP addresses

In this lab we will enable an Standard DDoS protection plan, which provides additional capabilities over the Basic service tier and are tuned specifically to Azure Virtual Network resources. DDoS Protection Standard is simple to enable, and requires no application changes. Protection policies are tuned through dedicated traffic monitoring and machine learning algorithms. Policies are applied to public IP addresses associated to resources deployed in virtual networks, such as Azure Load Balancer, Azure Application Gateway, and Azure Service Fabric instances. Real-time telemetry is available through Azure Monitor views during an attack, and for history

As a new feature, Azure Security Center now recommends its Standard pricing tier customers to enable the Azure DDoS Protection Standard service to protect their Virtual Networks against DDoS attacks

sec center ddos rec

sec center ddos rec2

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Create a DDoS protection plan

A DDoS protection plan defines a set of virtual networks that have DDoS protection standard enabled, across subscriptions

  1. Select Create a resource in the upper left corner of the Azure portal.
  2. Search for DDoS. When DDos protection plan appears in the search results, select it.
  3. Select Create.
  4. Enter or select your own values, or enter, and then select Create:

Enable DDoS for a existing virtual network

  1. Create a DDoS protection plan by completing the steps in Create a DDoS protection plan, if you don't have an existing DDoS protection plan.
  2. Select Create a resource in the upper left corner of the Azure portal.
  3. Enter the name of the virtual network that you want to enable DDoS Protection Standard for in the Search resources, services, and docs box at the top of the portal. When the name of the virtual network appears in the search results, select it.
  4. Select DDoS protection, under SETTINGS.
  5. Select Standard. Under DDoS protection plan, select an existing DDoS protection plan, or the plan you created in step 1, and then select Save. The plan you select can be in the same, or different subscription than the virtual network, but both subscriptions must be associated to the same Azure Active Directory tenant.

Run a simple TCP SYN Flood attack

In partnership with Breaking Point Cloud, we will run an ‘authorized’ DDoS attack from Breaking Point Cloud to our Public endpoint of your VNET resources. Given the fact there is no considerable traffic going through your environment, the smallest TCP SYN flood should trigger the attack and mitigation should start within minutes

Go to https://breakingpoint.cloud/

An authorize your Subscription ID as target to launch DDoS attacks

breaking point

Before launching the attack we confirm we have access to the public endpoint sitting on the Application Gateway we have used in the labs

tcp site recovered

A few minutes after launching the attack, we confirm we have lost access to the endpoint

tcp site lost

Azure Monitor is integrated with DDoS metrics and will see the TCP packets that have triggered an attack

tcp syn azure monitor

The metric Under DDoS attack or not is very useful

tcp under attack or not

In a few minutes mitigation should kick in place and we should be able to get access to the endpoint back again

We can see that most of the DDoS packets have been dropped by the mitigation plan

tcp packets

tcp attack summary

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