Hashformer - A declarative data transformation DSL for Ruby
Ruby
Switch branches/tags
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
lib
spec
.gitignore
.rspec
.travis.yml
Gemfile
LICENSE
README.md
Rakefile
hashformer.gemspec

README.md

Hashformer

Gem Version Code Climate Test Coverage Build Status

Transform any Ruby Hash with a declarative DSL

Hashformer is the ultimate Ruby Hash transformation tool, made from 100% pure Hashformium (may contain trace amounts of caffeine). It provides a simple, Ruby Hash-based DSL for transforming data from one format to another. It's vaguely like XSLT, but way less complicated and way more Ruby.

You specify Hash to Hash transformations using a Hash with a list of output keys, input keys, and transformations, and Hashformer will convert your data into the format you specify. It can also help verify your transformations by validating input and output data using ClassyHash (either 0.1.x or 0.2.x versions).

Note that Hashformer is not for everyone. If your data transformation needs don't involve massive changes to the data structure or values, and/or you don't need multiple people to be able to work on the transformations separately from other code, you might be better off doing your transformations in plain Ruby.

Examples

Examples of each feature are provided here, but complete documentation for each method lives in the code.

Basic renaming

If you just need to move/copy/rename keys, you specify the source key as the value for the destination key in your transformation:

data = {
  'first_name' => 'Hash',
  'last_name' => 'Former'
}
xform = {
  first: 'first_name',
  last: 'last_name'
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {first: 'Hash', last: 'Former'}

Just about any source key type will work:

data = {
  0 => 'Nothing',
  1 => 'Only One'
}
xform = {
  zero: 0,
  one: 1
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {zero: 'Nothing', one: 'Only One'}

Nested input values

If you need to grab values from a Hash or Array within a Hash, you can use Hashformer::Generate.path (or, the convenient shortcut, HF::G.path):

data = {
  name: 'Hashformer',
  addresses: [
    {
      line1: 'Hash',
      line2: 'Former'
    }
  ]
}
xform = {
  name: :name,
  line1: HF::G.path[:addresses][0][:line1],
  line2: HF::G.path[:addresses][0][:line2]
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {name: 'Hashformer', line1: 'Hash', line2: 'Former'}

If you try to access beyond a path that doesn't exist, nil will be returned instead:

data = {
  a: { b: 'c' }
}
xform = {
  a: HF::G.path[:a][0][:c]
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {a: nil}

If no path is specified, the entire Hash will be returned:

data = {
  a: 1,
  b: 2
}
xform = {
  h: HF::G.path
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {h: {a: 1, b: 2}}

Constant values

If you need to specify a constant value in your output Hash in version 0.2.2 or later, use HF::G.const():

data = {
  irrelevant: 'data',
}
xform = {
  data: HF::G.const(:irrelevant)
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {data: :irrelevant}

Most types will work with HF::G.const():

data = {
}
xform = {
  out: HF::G.const({a: 1, b: 2, c: [3, 4, 5]})
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {out: {a: 1, b: 2, c: [3, 4, 5]}}

Method chaining

This is the most useful and powerful aspect of Hashformer. You can use HF::G.chain, or the shortcut HF[], to chain method calls and Array or Hash lookups:

Note: Method chaining may not work as expected if entered in irb, because irb might try to call #to_s or #inspect on the method chain! See .__end and .enable_debugging for possible solutions

data = {
  s: 'Hashformer',
  v: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
}
xform = {
  s: HF[:s].reverse.capitalize,
  # It's important to call clone before calling methods that modify the array
  v: HF[:v].clone.concat([6]).map{|x| x * x}.reduce(0, &:+)
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {s: 'Remrofhsah', v: 91}

Unlike HF::g.path, HF[]/HF::G.chain will raise an exception if you try to access beyond a path that doesn't exist:

data = {
  a: [1, 2, 3]
}
xform = {
  a: HF[:b][0]
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# Raises "undefined method `[]' for nil:NilClass"

HF[] or HF::G.chain without any methods or references will return the input Hash:

data = {
  a: 1
}
xform = {
  a: HF[].count,
  b: HF::G.chain
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {a: 1, b: {a: 1}}

Although it's not recommended, you can also chain operators as long as HF[] is the first element evaluated by Ruby:

xform = {
  x: -(HF[:x] * 2) + 5
}

Hashformer.transform({x: 3}, xform)
# => {x: -1}

Hashformer.transform({x: -12}, xform)
# => {x: 29}
__as

The special __as method on a method chain, added in version 0.3.0, allows you to work with the chain's current value in a block like Object#tap, but the return value of the block is passed to the next step of the chain. This is useful if you need to pass the chain value to an outside function.

def func(x)
  "something to do with #{x}"
end

xform = {
  out: HF[:in].__as{|v| 'test ' + func(v) }
}

Hashformer.transform({ in: 'code' }, xform)
# => { out: 'something to do with test code' }
__end

The __end method on a method chain will disable further modification of the chain. This is not normally needed unless your transformation Hashes might be #inspected by other code (e.g. IRB or Pry). Using __end might prevent you from needing to enable chain debugging.

xform = {
  # Everything after __end will be ignored, including __as
  out: HF[:in].to_s.__end.to_i.no.more.methods
}

Hashformer.transform({ in: 100 })
# => { out: '100' }
Debugging chains

If __end isn't enough to make your method chains work with whatever debugging or instrumentation you have, you can enable chain debugging. When chain debugging is enabled, any standard Object methods cannot be added to chains (this includes commonly chained methods like #to_s). Each method added to a chain will also be printed to $stdout.

HF::G::Chain.enable_debugging
HF::G::Chain.disable_debugging

Mapping one or more values

If you want Hashformer to gather one or more values for you and either place them in an Array or pass them to a lambda, you can use HF::G.map. Pass the names of the keys to map as parameters, followed by the optional Proc or lambda:

data = {
  a: 'Hashformer'
}
xform = {
  a: HF::G.map(:a, &:upcase),
  b: HF::G.map(:a)
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {a: 'HASHFORMER', b: ['Hashformer']}

You can also mix and match paths and method chains in the HF::G.map parameters. The result of the method chain transformation or path retrieval will be used in the map, instead of looking up a key in the original hash:

data = {
  items: [
    {name: 'Item 1', price: 1.50},
    {name: 'Item 2', price: 2.50},
    {name: 'Item 3', price: 3.50},
    {name: 'Item 4', price: 4.50},
  ],
  shipping: 5.50
}
xform = {
  item_total: HF[:items].map{|i| i[:price]}.reduce(0.0, &:+),
  total: HF::G.map(HF[:items].map{|i| i[:price]}.reduce(0.0, &:+), HF::G.path[:shipping], &:+)
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {item_total: 12.0, total: 17.5}

Finally, you can pass a transformation specification Hash as one or more of the parameters to HF::G.map. See the RSpec tests for an example.

Lambda processing

If you need to apply a completely custom transformation to your data, you can use a raw lambda. The lambda will be called with the entire input Hash.

data = {
  x: 3.0,
  y: 4.0
}
xform = {
  radius: ->(h){ Math.sqrt(h[:x] * h[:x] + h[:y] * h[:y]) }
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {radius: 5.0}

Dynamic key names

There might not be much use for it, but you can use a lambda as a key as well. It will be called with its associated unprocessed value and the input Hash:

data = {
  key: :x,
  value: 0
}
xform = {
  ->(value, h){h[:key]} => :value
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {x: 0}

Nested output values

As of Hashformer 0.2.2, you can also nest transformations within transformations to generate a Hash for an output value:

data = {
  a: 1,
  b: 2,
  c: 3
}
xform = {
  a: {
    all: ->(orig){ orig },
  },
  b: {
    x: :a,
    y: :b,
    z: :c,
  }
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {a: { all: { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 } }, b: { x: 1, y: 2, z: 3 }}

Nested transformations will still refer to the original input Hash, rather than any input key of the same name. That way any value from the input can be used at any point in the output:

data = {
  a: 1,
  b: {
    a: 2,
    b: 3,
    c: 4
  },
  c: 5
}
xform = {
  b: {
    n: :a,             # Refers to the top-level :a
    o: HF[:b][:a],     # Refers to the :a within :b
    p: ->(h){ h[:c] }, # Refers to the top-level :c
  }
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {b: { n: 1, o: 2, p: 5 }}

Dates and times

We found ourselves writing a lot of identical date transformation Procs in our transformations, so version 0.3.0 adds some helpers for transforming dates to and from numeric values. If you use Hashformer in a project that also uses ActiveSupport, you can transform time zones as well.

xform = {
  int: HF::Date.to_i(:time),
  float: HF::Date.to_f(:time),
  date: HF::Date.to_date(:numeric),
}

data = {
  time: Time.at(10.75),
  numeric: 10.75
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => { int: 10, float: 10.75, date: #<DateTime 1970-01-01...}

Practical example with validation

Suppose your application receives addresses in one format, but you need to pass them along in another format. You might need to rename some keys, convert some keys to different types, merge keys, etc. We'll define the input and output data formats using Classy Hash schemas.

# Classy Hash schema - https://github.com/deseretbook/classy_hash
in_schema = {
  # Totally violates http://www.kalzumeus.com/2010/06/17/falsehoods-programmers-believe-about-names/
  first: String,
  last: String,
  city: String,
  phone: String,
}

out_schema = {
  name: String,
  location: String,
  phone: Integer, # Just for example; probably shouldn't make phone numbers integers
}

You can write a Hashformer transformation to turn any Hash with the in_schema format into a Hash with the out_schema format, and verify the results:

# Hashformer transformation - https://github.com/deseretbook/hashformer
xform = {
  # Validate input and output data according to the Classy Hash schemas
  __in_schema: in_schema,
  __out_schema: out_schema,

  # Combine first and last name into a single String
  name: HF::G.map(:first, :last) {|f, l| "#{f} #{l}".strip},

  # Copy the :city field directly into :location
  location: :city,

  # Remove non-digits from :phone
  phone: HF[:phone].gsub(/[^\d]/, '').to_i
}

data = {
  first: 'Hash',
  last: 'Transformed',
  city: 'Here',
  phone: '555-555-5555',
}

Hashformer.transform(data, xform)
# => {name: 'Hash Transformed', location: 'Here', phone: 5555555555}

Testing

Hashformer includes a thorough RSpec test suite:

# Execute within a clone of the Git repository:
bundle install --without=development
rspec

Alternatives

Hashformer just might be the coolest Ruby Hash data transformer out there. But if you disagree, here are some other options:

License

Hashformer is released under the MIT license (see the LICENSE file for the license text and copyright notice).