Copyright © 2019, Digital Asset (Switzerland) GmbH and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPDX-License-Identifier: (Apache-2.0 OR BSD-3-Clause)
The GHC API allows you to use the GHC compiler as a library, so you can parse, analyze and compile Haskell code. The GHC API comes preinstalled with GHC, and is tied to that GHC version - if you are using GHC 8.6.3, you get version 8.6.3 of the API, and can't change it. The
ghc-lib project solves that problem, letting you mix and match versions of the GHC compiler and GHC API. Why might you want that?
- Imagine you are writing a tool to work with several versions of the GHC compiler. The GHC API changes significantly between each version, so doing this would require writing a lot of C preprocessor code to support it. An alternative is to use one version of
ghc-libwhich works across multiple versions of GHC.
- Imagine you are modifying the GHC API or want features from GHC HEAD. With
ghc-libyou can depend on the revised GHC API, without upgrading the compiler used to build everything, speeding up iteration.
ghc-lib project provides two packages :
ghc-lib-parser package is that subset of the GHC API that is just enough to parse Haskell code. The
ghc-lib package extends (and re-exports)
ghc-lib-parser with the rest. While
ghc-lib provides the full GHC API, it doesn't contain a runtime system, nor does it create a package database. That means you can't run code produced by
ghc-lib (no runtime), and compiling off-the-shelf code is very hard (no package database containing the
base library). What you can do:
- Parse Haskell code, making
ghc-lib-parsera potential replacement for
haskell-src-exts. See the demo
mini-hlintin this repo;
- Compile Haskell code as far as GHC's Core language, which includes renaming and type checking. See the demo
mini-compilein this repo, and the carefully tailored file it compiles.
There are some downsides to
- The lack of runtime means you can't run code, which includes running code at compile time, e.g.
ghc-libisn't tied to any specific GHC versions, it can only read package databases and
.hifiles for one particular version of GHC. That means your existing package database probably can't be consumed by
ghc-lib(unless you happen to perfectly match the GHC version, in which case you could just have used the GHC API), and it doesn't ship with a package database so you'd have to painfully build your own.
- Compilation times for the
ghc-libpackages are not small, taking approximately 5 minutes for each on our CI machines.
ghc-lib are available on Hackage, and can be used like any normal packages, e.g.
cabal install ghc-lib. Since
ghc-lib conflict perfectly with the GHC API and
template-haskell, ~the packages are not exposed by default so if you use GHC directly, you need to pass
-package ghc-lib, the GHC user guide has more information : use the language extension
PackageImports to do
import "ghc-lib" ... or
import "ghc-lib-parser" ... as approriate. There are two release streams within the
- Version 8.8.1 will be the version of
ghc-libproduced against the released GHC 8.8.1, once it comes out;
- Version 0.20190204 is the version of
ghc-libusing GHC HEAD on the date 2019-02-04.
The Hackage packages are licensed under the BSD-3-Clause license, just like GHC itself. This repo, including the examples and the script that generates
ghc-lib, are licensed under the BSD-3-Clause OR Apache-2.0 license.
We create the packages by taking a checkout of GHC, and combining the
ghc package with the various dependencies it is tightly tied to (e.g.
template-haskell) in two new cabal files
ghc-lib.cabal. These new packages depend on a few generated outputs (which we build using the GHC build system) and some Cmm files. The
ghc-lib-gen directory contains a script that puts all the pieces together. Because GHC itself is capable of being bootstrapped with older GHC versions (> 8.4.4) (its Stage0 build), the generated
ghc-lib also compiles with multiple GHC versions.
ghc-lib you need clones of this repository and the GHC repository.
ghc-lib are known to work on all of MacOS, Linux and Windows. Distributions produced with
cabal sdist on Linux/MacOS build on Windows, but a
cabal sdist produced on Windows does not build on MacOS/Linux.
By far the easist way to produce
ghc-lib packages is to execute the CI script which incidentally builds and executes the examples (this procedure makes versioned packages based on the current date and expresses the version constraint between
# Setup git clone email@example.com:digital-asset/ghc-lib.git cd ghc-lib stack runhaskell --package extra --package optparse-applicative CI.hs -- --ghc-flavor=ghc-8.8.1
ghc-lib (notes for maintainers)
X build with GHC compiler version
ghc-lib is subject to the same minimum version requirements that apply to bootstrapping GHC itself. Those requirements are given in the following table.
|Ghc flavor||>= version|
How do I use the
ghc-lib-parser version macros?
Read the Standard CPP macros section of the GHC users guide for the semantics of the
MIN_VERSION_pkgname(x, y, z) macros and keep in mind that builds of
ghc-lib from GHC head are ascribed version numbers of the form 0.α.
ghc-lib for DAML
CI.hs script has special support for building custom versions of
ghc-lib specifically tailored to the DAML compiler, which requires a handful of
patches to be applied on top of GHC. The syntax is slightly different from the
general case: the
--ghc-flavor flag is replaced with an "enabling" flag
--da and three more specific flags. A full call example would be:
stack runhaskell --package extra \ --package optparse-applicative \ CI.hs -- --da \ --merge-base-sha=ghc-8.8.1-release \ --patch=upstream/da-master-8.8.1 \ --patch=upstream/da-unit-ids-8.8.1 \ --gen-flavor=da-ghc-8.8.1 \ --upstream=https://github.com/digital-asset/ghc.git
The DAML-specific process only differs from the normal one in that it patches GHC with the given patches. More specifically, it will:
- Clone GHC. (This is also done by the normal workflow.)
- Add the DA fork of GHC as a remote
upstream; this can be overridden with the
--upstreamflag. For example, in local development,
--upstream=$PWD/../ghc-fork/. Note that if you want to specify a local path (as in this example), it should be an absolute one, as the command will be run from the folder into which GHC has been cloned.
- Checkout the commit provided as
- Create a new commit by merging in all of the commits specified through the
- Proceed as normal for the rest of the workflow.
At some later stage, the workflow calls out to the
ghc-lib-gen program, and
at that point it needs to pass in a "flavor" argument; it will use the value of
--gen-flavor option for that.
Note that deployment for the DAML version is handled from within the DAML CI.