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NAND flash translation layer for low-memory systems
If a power failure occured prior to resume, and the current epoch is 0xff, and the NAND driver uses a checksum which is valid for unprogrammed pages, then find_root() may erroneously pick a blank page instead of a valid checkpoint page, because it looks only for a matching epoch byte. We need to look for the magic word as well to avoid this. Issue pointed out by gtsee on github.com.
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Oct 17, 2018
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Dhara: NAND flash translation layer for small MCUs Daniel Beer <email@example.com> 1 Apr 2017 Dhara is a small flash translation layer designed to be used in resource-constrained systems for managing NAND flash. It provides a mutable block interface with standard read and write operations. It has the following additional features: * Perfect wear-levelling: the erase count of any two blocks will differ by at most 1. * Trim: logical sectors can be deleted to improve performance if their content is not required. * Data integrity: write() (and trim()) of logical sectors are atomic. If the power fails, the state rolls back to the last synchronization point. Synchronization points occur at regular intervals, but can also be reached on demand. * Real-time performance: all operations, including startup, are O(log n) worst case in the size of the chip, if bad blocks are uniformly distributed. The implementation makes minimal assumptions regarding the underlying NAND chip. It can be used with almost any chip available, and can take advantage of extra hardware features where available. In particular: * No OOB data is consumed. All available OOB bytes can be spent on ECC. * It can take advantage of internally buffered copy operations, if the NAND chip supports these. * It can make use of NAND chip's on-board ECC, if available. If software ECC is required, implementations of Hamming and BCH codes are provided in the source distribution (see the ecc/ directory). * It does not require partial page programmability. However, if the functionality is present, then it can be taken advantage of by presenting a smaller pseudo-page size by dividing the real page size by the number of allowed reprogram operations. The only restriction is that partial writes must contain complete ECC information. * It will take advantage of the ability to do partial reads if this is possible. Reads must be error checked and corrected (this can usually be done in units smaller than the page size). The implementation consists of the files in the dhara/ subdirectory, plus the NAND layer implementation, which you must provide. The top-level interface is the set of functions described in map.h (see the comments in the header file for more details): init: initialize a map layer instance resume: scan the map and recover the saved state clear: delete all data capacity, size: obtain usage statistics find: obtain the physical location of a logical sector read: read a logical sector write: write a logical sector copy_page: copy a raw flash page to a logical sector copy_sector: copy one logical sector to another trim: remove a logical sector from the map sync: ensure that changes to the map are committed gc: manually trigger garbage collection To provide the NAND layer, implement the set of functions described in nand.h (see comments for details). In summary, you must provide the following operations: is_bad: determine whether a block is bad mark_bad: mark a NAND block as bad erase: erase a NAND block prog: program a NAND page, including ECC and checksums is_free: determine whether a page is erased (unprogrammed) read: read a (possibly partial) NAND page, and attempt ECC if necessary copy: copy one page to another, using internal buffers if possible Check the datasheet for your chip for information on these operations. In most cases, the manufacturer will specify a preferred layout scheme for the ECC and bad block markers in the OOB region. Pay particular attention to the marker used for factory-marked bad blocks! If your ECC scheme is such that programming an all-0xff page is equivalent to a no-op, then it's ok for your implementation of is_free() to simply check for all-0xff page content. Note that bad blocks need only be queried one at a time. It's not necessary to maintain a bad-block table -- just the standard OOB marking scheme is fine, and preserves the performance guarantees of the map layer. Also note that when implementing partial read, you must read enough of the page that you're able to apply ECC and check for uncorrectable errors. Uncorrectable errors *must* be detected in order for the data integrity guarantees to be valid. This may require the use of a checksum in addition to ECC. If this is done, ensure that the checksum bytes are also protected by ECC! Implementations of two popular ECC mechanisms (Hamming and BCH) can be found in the ecc/ subdirectory. Each implements ECC over variable-sized chunks (256 or 512 bytes are typical sizes). Multiple ECC chunks may be required per page.